Tupian languages

Last updated
Tupian
Geographic
distribution
Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, and North-East Argentina
Linguistic classification Je-Tupi-Carib?
  • Tupian
Proto-language Proto-Tupian
Subdivisions
ISO 639-2 / 5 tup
Glottolog tupi1275 [1]
Tupi languages.png
Tupi–Guarani (medium pink), other Tupian (violet), and probable range ca. 1500 (pink-grey)

The Tupi or Tupian language family comprises some 70 languages spoken in South America, of which the best known are Tupi proper and Guarani.

Contents

Homeland and urheimat

Rodrigues (2007) considers the Proto-Tupian urheimat to be somewhere between the Guaporé and Aripuanã rivers, in the Madeira River basin. [2] Much of this area corresponds to the modern-day state of Rondônia, Brazil. 5 of the 10 Tupian branches are found in this area, as well as some Tupi–Guarani languages (especially Kawahíb), making it the probable urheimat of these languages and maybe of its speaking peoples. Rodrigues believes the Proto-Tupian language dates back to around 3,000 BC.

Language contact

Tupian languages have extensively influenced many language families in South America. Jolkesky (2016) notes that there are lexical similarities with the Arawa, Bora-Muinane, Guato, Irantxe, Jivaro, Karib, Kayuvava, Mura-Matanawi, Taruma, Trumai, Yanomami, Harakmbet, Katukina-Katawixi, Arawak, Bororo, Karaja, Macro-Mataguayo-Guaykuru, Takana, Nadahup, and Puinave-Kak language families due to contact. [3]

History, members and classification

When the Portuguese arrived in Brazil, they found that wherever they went along the vast coast of this newly discovered land, most natives spoke similar languages. Jesuit missionaries took advantage of these similarities, systematizing common standards then named línguas gerais ("general languages"), which were spoken in that region until the 19th century. The best known and most widely spoken of these languages was Old Tupi, a modern descendant of which is still used today by indigenous peoples around the Rio Negro region, where it is known as Nheengatu ([ɲɛʔẽŋaˈtu]), or the "good language". However, the Tupi family also comprises other languages.

In the neighbouring Spanish colonies, Guarani, another Tupian language closely related to Old Tupi, had a similar history, but managed to resist the spread of Spanish more successfully than Tupi resisted Portuguese. Today, Guarani has 7 million speakers, and is one of the official languages of Paraguay. The Tupian family also includes several other languages with fewer speakers. These share irregular morphology with the Je and Carib families, and Rodrigues connects them all as a Je–Tupi–Carib family. [4]

Rodrigues & Cabral (2012)

Rodrigues & Cabral (2012) list 10 branches of Tupian, which cluster into Western Tupian and Eastern Tupian. [2] Within Western and Eastern Tupian, the most divergent branches are listed first, followed by the core branches.

Meira and Drude (2015) posit a branch uniting Mawé and Aweti with Tupi-Guarani, also known as Maweti-Guarani. [5] Purubora may form a branch together with Ramarama.

Jolkesky (2016)

Internal classification by Jolkesky (2016): [3]

(† = extinct)

Tupi family

Vocabulary

Loukotka (1968) lists the following basic vocabulary items. [6]

LanguageBranchheadeartoothhandonetwothree
TupiTupia-kangnambitáñapeteĩmokoĩmbohapüi
TupinambaTupia-kánnambüráñaangepémokoinmusaput
PotiguáraTupia-kanganambitañhain-bóoyepemokoymosapür
ÑeéngatuTupia-kanganamütañayepémokoinmusapeire
GuaraníGuaraníãkannambiapen-kunpeteímokóimbhápira
ApapokúvaGuaraníaépimokõimoapi
ChiripáGuaranírakãnambiaépi
CainguáGuaraníakánambipeteinmókoinmbohapi
MbyháGuaraníche-ahkáchen-nambühche-raincheh-pópeteímokoimboapü
CanoeirosGuaraníeaushmãde-pó
ShetáGuaranizedsh-akache-nambitienaiche-pómatinkammokoiñiiru
S. DouradosGuaranizedñ-ãkaelaːmenénaieː-pouaːimoːgaimágatei
GuayaquíGuaranizedni-akanambiãi-páeteyãmenotanã
TapirapéTapirapédzyane-akángadzyane-inamídzyane-roidzyane-póanchepémukúimãpít
KamayuráKamayuráye-akangye-namiye-naiye-poyepetemokoimoapit
AwitíKamayuráapotinte-yambeinte-ngui-pomayepetemonkóimunitaruka
ArawinéKamayuráne-namiye-po
AnambéParáa-kángahä-nambise-rañayanäpomukuẽmuhapi
TakuñapéPará
GuajajáraNorthernakãsane-inamúe-raisane-pómetéimukúinairúi
TembéNorthernhe-akãhe-namihe-ráihe-pópeteimokuimoãpi
ManajéNorthernhe-akühe-namíhe-rĩhe-póchipeimokúmoapi
TuriwáraNorthernne-akángane-namine-ráĩne-pópeteimokoimoapiri
KaaporNorthernne-kangnambine-roin-pópeteimukoinoapíre
MakiríCentral Iai-akángái-namíái-ráingái-póaipitémokoíngmoapét
KayabíCentral Iparmióoyepamokoi
KawahybCentral Iae-akángae-namíae-ráiae-pooyepémokõiirumaé
ParintintinCentral IIae-akángae-nambíae-raiae-poeyepémokoĩ
WirafédCentral IIai-akánai-namíai-raiaí-poayipemokoi
TakwatípCentral IIai-kángaai-namiai-rainai-póayepeːimokoːin
DawahibCentral IIay-akanay-nambíay-rãiay-põãpká
CatuquinarúCentral IItaka-súsañapunü
OyampiGuianaea-kangi-namie-ráñné-popesimukuguemapur
EmerillonGuianaé-ankangé-námié-raié-pomozepémokoñemaʔapuit
ApiakáGuianaai-kanaai-nembíaai-rañaai-poamayupémokõñboapui
OmaguaAmazonasyakónámisáypóawépimokwéshemosapröke
CocamaAmazonasyakönámidzáipúwawípimokoíkamotsapwöka
CocamillaAmazonasyákönámitsáipúauípimokuíkamotsapölika
ChiriguanoChiriguanoankãnámbihaide-pópentimbokuimbapui
GuarayoChiriguanoche-ãkache-nambíche-raíche-pónyepeĩnyueniómosapĩ
PausernaChiriguanoakánambirahüpóomonopedomokóehebü
TapietéChiriguanoy-ankaya-nimbiya-ninayya-ndepopentémonkémaʔap
ChanéChiriguanose-ãkáse-ndambíse-rãise-pómompetímokoimboapi
SirionoChiriguanoe-ãnkĩe-isae-rẽye-oekomiĩnedemudedemu
JokaChiriguanoãchadéchatu
YurunaYurunase-tabáyashiugáse-yanuváduáyonauánauámbo
ShipayaYurunatabáenshugáoayáuvuámemébidámévau
ManitsauáYurunanaibuáhuangá
MundurucúMundurucúwaáwa-naibéwoi-noiwo-ipopantáshepsheptáchebapitá
CuruayaMundurucúuásauampíñaibiporákãteboazem
MawéMawéu-yakídau-yahapéu-háĩu-ipóenduptépuimuén
ItogapúcItogapúcn-akán-akiribeyãiparobémutíremyagarekómpairóbtem
RamaramaItogapúcn-akiribéniãngi-pabé
UrumíItogapúcin-akáin-akurapei-pabeuenakaveuishirangeitamaiun
UrukúItogapúcóña-ákáon-aküravéi-pábemotíremyegárokumpagodnóbtem
AraraItogapúcmotüremyegárkomkoirẽm
ArikémArikémarisábañãyapumundápapatámmoyúm
CaritianaArikémrisoponoñno
MacurápMacurápwakaräteua-pishevétau-ñamñemowõteuéreːketnemtuté
KanuaMacurápki-aneːmuwa-pitátki-nyaio-pokitsätürükwaikärum
GuratégajaMacurápki-anämkí-apitátki-nyaiki-puanákitsäteːrekwaikiä
KabishianaMacurápniaíno-popí
WayoroMacurápne-vapápo-nyaino-pitabkiétderätwärehät
ApichumMacurápo-pitabo-nyono-nebo
TupariMacurápápabaábtsiñainpoːkíämhürühürünoːm
KepkeriwátKepkeriwátu-akãinu-apiái-ñãinbapanguexatétesete-pangue
MondéMondéa-ndaráu-nanimbéu-imamba-béamakimparasherámpaiwutwuy
SanamaicaMondéhũ-ndáanambiaph'-ĩnhũ-mábémúnpalisharúwaikun
AruáMondépan-atpan-itiwäpan-yĩnpan-awämiːnbusáwauːm
DigütMondépan-dátním-piabbabé
AruáshiMondésham-yakübshon-yainbu


LanguageBranchwomanwaterfirestonemaizetapir
TupiTupikuñáütatáitáabaitapüíra
TupinambaTupikuñáütatáitáauvatitapirusu
PotiguáraTupikuñaüütataːitaː
ÑeéngatuTupikuñanüügtatáitáauatitapira
GuaraníGuaraníkuñáütatáitáavatítapií
ApapokúvaGuaraníkuñaütatá
ChiripáGuaraníütataavatimborevi
CainguáGuaraníkoñáütatáitáavachimborevi
MbyháGuaraníkuñaütatáitáavachitapií
CanoeirosGuaraníuainviügitáavashi
ShetáGuaranizedkuñáütatăitáavachitapi
S. DouradosGuaranizedkoːñahoːñeagel'áiːtánutyatelaːgoi
GuayaquíGuaranizedkuñaüdadáitáwatémberevi
TapirapéTapirapékudzáütatáitáawachítapiíra
KamayuráKamayurákuñaütataitaavatsitapiít
AwitíKamayurákuñáütaraitaavachitapií
ArawinéKamayurá
AnambéParákuñaütataitaawattapiri
TakuñapéParákuñátatáikatapií
GuajajáraNorthernkuñãütatáitáawachítapiíra
TembéNorthernkuzáütatáitáawachitapihir
ManajéNorthernkuyiütatáitáawachítapihi
TuriwáraNorthernkuñáüatatáitáawachitapiíra
KaaporNorthernkuzaügtataitátapira
MakiríCentral Ikuñáihtatáavatítapiít
KayabíCentral Ikuñáauütatáuachi
KawahybCentral Ikuñáütatáabachitapiít
ParintintinCentral IIkuñátatáitakíavatétapiíd
WirafédCentral IIkuñáüütatáitáabasítapiít
TakwatípCentral IIkuñáüatatáabatítapi
DawahibCentral IIkunyaüütatáitátapiíra
CatuquinarúCentral IIuhehü
OyampiGuiananimeneheːtataitaabatitapiira
EmerillonGuianawaimidihtataauasi
ApiakáGuianakoñáihtataritaauasitapüra
OmaguaAmazonasuainúúnitátaitákeawátitapíra
CocamaAmazonaswáinaúnitátaitákiabatitapíra
CocamillaAmazonaswáinaúnidzataidzákiawáchitapíra
ChiriguanoChiriguanokúñaütatáitáavatímboreví
GuarayoChiriguanokuñáütatáitáavatímborevi
PausernaChiriguanoekúreütatáitáahuati
TapietéChiriguanotapipéötataitakíoatiorebi
ChanéChiriguanoarekóvaütatáítaavatíboreví
SirionoChiriguanokuñainetaténitaibashieãnkwãntoy
JokaChiriguanoetúintatáyiwityuáshingitíd
YurunaYurunakuñáiyáashíkoapámakatítõá
ShipayaYurunauamiáiyáashíkuapasámakatimasaká
ManitsauáYurunakuñáhidarúhadzúitamaidzú
MundurucúMundurucúawiyátashawitáamuirarápiho
CuruayaMundurucúáuütitiwítaʔamárabíu
MawéMawéoñañáüüärianoawatíwewató
ItogapúcItogapúcmapáiichichanáiyánayáiti
RamaramaItogapúcmapoiautiitianánaniannató
UrumíItogapúcshamonnoiábá
UrukúItogapúcvocháiichíchanáyáanáyanatoː
AraraItogapúc
ArikémArikémuspáraesésomiisoángiyóiruba
CaritianaArikémbisamseːisoːpomoirípo
MacurápMacuráparapíñamihiuchaékiatitiyahi
KanuaMacurápanamínaäküitaːtʔheːkatsitsikwayatsu
GuratégajaMacurápanaminaikiutaːtäk
KabishianaMacurápikí
WayoroMacuráparamiráögöagukápäkatitíikuáit
ApichumMacurápanaminaügükapäkügükabäk
TupariMacurápãramĩrãkoːbkaːbäkopabtakara
KepkeriwátKepkeriwátbuhiamãnigarämbiokzyaoːpáuíto
MondéMondémanzetükaingekmaikeːuasá
SanamaicaMondéchipakchíükaːiämaʔäwaːsaː
AruáMondéükaʔinäk
DigütMondémanzéyãipávapokáingdzábmáinkinwachá
AruáshiMondémansätükainäk

See also

Related Research Articles

Tupi–Guarani languages language family of South America

Tupi–Guarani is the name of the most widely distributed subfamily of the Tupian languages of South America. It includes fifty languages, including the best-known languages of the family, Guarani and Old Tupi.

Tupi language extinct Tupian language of Brazil

Old Tupi or classical Tupi is an extinct Tupian language which was spoken by the native Tupi people of Brazil, mostly those who inhabited coastal regions in South and Southeast Brazil. It belongs to the Tupi–Guarani language family, and has a written history spanning the 16th, 17th, and early 18th centuries. In the early colonial period, Tupi was used as a lingua franca throughout Brazil by Europeans and Amerindians, and had literary usage, but it was later suppressed almost to extinction, leaving only one modern descendant with an appreciable number of speakers, Nheengatu.

Omagua is a Tupí-Guarani language closely related to Cocama, belonging to the Group III subgroup of the Tupí-Guaraní family, according to Rodrigues' classification of the family. Alternate names for Omagua include: Agua, Anapia, Ariana, Cambeba, Cambeeba, Cambela, Campeba, Canga-Peba, Compeva, Janbeba, Kambeba, Macanipa, Omagua-Yete, Pariana, Umaua, Yhuata.

Je–Tupi–Carib languages

Je–Tupi–Carib is a proposed language family composed of the Macro-Je, Tupian and Cariban languages of South America. Aryon Rodrigues based this proposal on shared morphological patterns.

Arawan languages language family

Arawan is a family of languages spoken in western Brazil and Peru (Ucayali).

Macro-Jê languages language family in Brazil

Macro-Jê is a medium-sized language stock in South America, mostly in Brazil but also in the Chiquitanía region in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, as well as (formerly) in small parts of Argentina and Paraguay. It is centered on the Jê language family, with most other branches currently being single languages due to recent extinctions.

Bororoan languages language family indigenous to Brazil

The Borôroan languages of Brazil are Borôro and the extinct Umotína and Otuke. They are sometimes considered to form part of the proposed Macro-Jê language family, though this has been disputed.

The Nadahup languages, also known as Makú (Macú) or Vaupés–Japurá, form a small language family in Brazil, Colombia, and Venezuela. The name Maku is pejorative, being derived from an Arawakan word meaning "without speech". Nadahup is an acronym of the constituent languages.

Languages of Brazil languages of a geographic region

Portuguese is the official and national language of Brazil and is widely spoken by most of the population. The Portuguese dialects spoken in Brazil are collectively known as Brazilian Portuguese. The Brazilian Sign Language also has official status at the federal level.

Karitiana, otherwise known as Caritiana or Yjxa, is a Tupian language spoken in the State of Rondônia, Brazil, by 210 out of 320 Karitiana people, or 400 according to Cláudio Karitiana, in the Karitiana reserve 95 kilometres south of Porto Velho. The language belongs to the Arikém language family from the Tupi stock. It is the only surviving language in the family after the other two members, Kabixiâna and Arikém, became extinct.

Irantxe, also known as Münkü (Mỹky), is an indigenous American language that is spoken in Mato Grosso, Brazil, by about 200 people. It is generally left unclassified due to lack of data. The most recent descriptions treat it as a language isolate, saying that it "bears no similarity with other language families", though this may not be based on new data.

Harákmbut languages language family

Harákmbut or Harákmbet is a small language family in Peru spoken by the Harakmbut people.

Guató language language

Guató is a possible language isolate spoken by 1% of the Guató people of Brazil.

Aryon Dall'Igna Rodrigues was a Brazilian linguist, considered one of the most renowned researchers of the indigenous languages of Brazil.

Mato Grosso Arára is an extinct unclassified language of Brazil. The ethnic population that spoke the language numbers about 150.

Ramarama, also known as Karo, is a Tupian language of Brazil.

Tuparí is an indigenous language of Brazil. It is one of the six languages categorized within the Tuparí language family bearing the same name. This family is one of the 10 families encompassed in the Tupi language stock. The Tuparí language, and its people, is located predominantly within the state of Rondônia, though speakers are also present in the state of Acre on the Terra Indıgena Rio Branco. There are roughly 350 speakers of this language, with the total number of members of this ethnic group being around 600.

Proto-Tupian (PT) is the reconstructed common ancestor of all the Tupian languages. It consists, therefore, of a hypothetic language, reconstructed by the comparative method from data of the descendant languages.

The Maweti–Guarani languages of Brazil form a branch of the Tupian language family according to Meira and Drude (2015). The branch was originally proposed by Rodrigues (1984), and is also accepted by Jolkesky (2016).

References

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Tupian". Glottolog 3.0 . Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. 1 2 Rodrigues, Aryon Dall'Igna, and Ana Suelly Arruda Câmara Cabral (2012). "Tupían". In Campbell, Lyle, and Verónica Grondona (eds). The indigenous languages of South America: a comprehensive guide. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
  3. 1 2 Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho De Valhery. 2016. Estudo arqueo-ecolinguístico das terras tropicais sul-americanas . Ph.D. dissertation, University of Brasília.
  4. Rodrigues A. D., 2000, "‘Ge–Pano–Carib’ X ‘Jê–Tupí–Karib’: sobre relaciones lingüísticas prehistóricas en Sudamérica", in L. Miranda (ed.), Actas del I Congreso de Lenguas Indígenas de Sudamérica, Tome I, Lima, Universidad Ricardo Palma, Facultad de lenguas modernas, p. 95-104.
  5. Meira, Sérgio and Sebastian Drude (2015). "A preliminary reconstruction of proto-Maweti-Guarani segmental phonology". Boletim do Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, série Ciências Humanas, 10(2):275-296. doi : 10.1590/1981-81222015000200005
  6. Loukotka, Čestmír (1968). Classification of South American Indian languages . Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center.

Further reading

Lexicons