Border Security Zone of Russia

Last updated

A Border Security Zone in Russia is the designation of a strip of land (usually, though not always, along a Russian external border) where economic activity and access are restricted in line with the Frontier Regime Regulations set by the Federal Security Service (FSB). [1] For foreign tourists to visit the zone a permit issued by the local FSB department is required. [2]

Contents

The restricted access zone (of 7.5 kilometres (4.7 mi) width generally, but e.g., running as much as 90 kilometres (56 mi) deep along the Estonian border) was established in the Soviet Union in 1934, and later expanded, at times including vast territories.[ citation needed ] In 1935–1936, in order to secure the western border of the Soviet Union, many nationalities considered unreliable (Poles, Germans, Ingrian Finns, Estonians, Latvians) were forcibly transferred from the zone by forces of NKVD. [3]

After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the borders of the new Russian Federation were dramatically different, but the zone was not corrected accordingly and hence effectively ceased to exist. In 1993, the Law on the State Border was adopted and reestablished a border strip with restricted access, which should not exceed 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) (although in fact it became much wider in some places). [4] In 2004 the law was amended, the 5 km restriction was removed, and the FSB was legally authorized to draw the zone's limits on its own without coordination with local authorities. [4] [5] In 2006 FSB Director Nikolay Patrushev and his deputy Sergei Smirnov issued decrees delimiting the zone, which expanded greatly and included many large settlements, important transport routes and resort areas, especially in the Republic of Karelia, Leningrad Oblast, and Primorsky Krai. [4] [6] [7] In 2007, pressured by the public, FSB curtailed the zone in some places. [6] [7]

See also

Related Research Articles

Leningrad Oblast First-level administrative division of Russia

Leningrad Oblast is a federal subject of Russia. It was established on August 1, 1927, although it was not until 1946 that the oblast's borders had been mostly settled in their present position. The oblast was named after the city of Leningrad. Unlike the city, the oblast retains the name of Leningrad.

Ivangorod Town in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Ivangorod is a town in Kingiseppsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Narva River by the Estonia–Russia border, 159 kilometers (99 mi) west of St. Petersburg. Population: 9,854 (2010 Census); 11,206 (2002 Census); 11,833 (1989 Census).

Volosovo, Volosovsky District, Leningrad Oblast Town in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Volosovo is a town and the administrative center of Volosovsky District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the railway between St. Petersburg and Tallinn, Estonia, 85 kilometers (53 mi) southwest from St. Petersburg. Population: 12,161 (2010 Census); 11,660 (2002 Census); 10,250 (1989 Census).

Sinyavino, Leningrad Oblast Urban-type settlement in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Sinyavino is an urban locality in Kirovsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located several kilometers inland from the southern shore of Lake Ladoga, 58 kilometers (36 mi) east of St. Petersburg and 8 kilometers (5.0 mi) east from Kirovsk. Municipally it is incorporated as Sinyavinskoye Urban Settlement, one of the eight urban settlements in the district. Population: 3,784 (2010 Census); 3,611 (2002 Census); 1,949 (1989 Census).

Mga Urban-type settlement in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Mga is an urban locality in Kirovsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia. Population: 10,212 (2010 Census); 9,613 (2002 Census); 9,852 (1989 Census).

Vyborgsky District, Leningrad Oblast District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Vyborgsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the seventeen in Leningrad Oblast, Russia. It is located in the northwest of the oblast on the Karelian Isthmus and borders with Priozersky District in the northeast, Vsevolozhsky District in the east, Kurortny District of the federal city of St. Petersburg in the south, Kymenlaakso and South Karelia regions of Finland in the northwest, and Lakhdenpokhsky District of the Republic of Karelia in the north. From the southwest, the district is limited by the Gulf of Finland. The area of the district is 7,475.472 square kilometers (2,886.296 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Vyborg. Population : 120,446 (2010 Census); 113,748 ; 108,571 (1989 Census).

Kuznechnoye Urban-type settlement in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Kuznechnoye is an urban locality in the northern part of Priozersky District of Leningrad Oblast, located on the Karelian Isthmus. Population: 4,458 (2010 Census); 4,738 (2002 Census); 5,017 (1989 Census).

Lesogorsky Urban-type settlement in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Lesogorsky is an urban locality in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast, located on the left bank of the Vuoksi River, on the Karelian Isthmus, near the Russia–Finland border, and a station of the Kamennogorsk–Svetogorsk–Imatra railway. Population: 3,273 (2010 Census); 3,004 (2002 Census); 3,744 (1989 Census).

Sovetsky, Leningrad Oblast Urban-type settlement in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Sovetsky is an urban locality in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia. It is situated on the eastern shore of the Gulf of Vyborg on the Karelian Isthmus. Population: 7,131 (2010 Census); 6,607 (2002 Census); 6,471 (1989 Census).

Lebyazhye, Lomonosovsky District, Leningrad Oblast Urban-type settlement in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Lebyazhye is an urban locality in Lomonosovsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the coast of the Gulf of Finland 25 kilometers (16 mi) west of Lomonosov and 30 kilometers (19 mi) east of Sosnovy Bor. Population: 4,729 (2010 Census); 5,600 (2002 Census); 5,340 (1989 Census).

Ulyanovka, Leningrad Oblast Urban-type settlement in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Ulyanovka is an urban locality in Tosnensky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located approximately 40 kilometres (25 mi) southeast of the center of Saint Petersburg. Municipally it is incorporated as Ulyanovskoye Urban Settlement, one of the seven urban settlements in the district. Population: 11,601 (2010 Census); 9,244 (2002 Census); 9,595 (1989 Census).

Kingiseppsky District District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Kingiseppsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the seventeen in Leningrad Oblast, Russia. It is located in the southwest of the oblast and borders with Ida-Viru County of Estonia in the west, Lomonosovsky District in the northeast, Volosovsky District in the east, and with Slantsevsky District in the south. In the north and northwest it is washed by the waters of the Gulf of Finland. The area of the district is 2,908 square kilometers (1,123 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Kingisepp. Population : 19,830 (2010 Census); 20,408 ; 34,081 (1989 Census).

Slantsevsky District District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Slantsevsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the seventeen in Leningrad Oblast, Russia. It is located in the southwest of the oblast and borders with Ida-Viru County of Estonia in the west, Kingiseppsky District in the north, Volosovsky District in the northeast, Luzhsky District in the east, Plyussky District of Pskov Oblast in the south, and Gdovsky District, also of Pskov Oblast, in the southwest. The area of the district is 2,191.1 square kilometers (846.0 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Slantsy. Population : 10,038 (2010 Census); 10,480 ; 10,974 (1989 Census).

Pechorsky District District in Pskov Oblast, Russia

Pechorsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the twenty-four in Pskov Oblast, Russia. It is located in the northwest of the oblast and borders with Pskovsky District in the northwest, Palkinsky District in the southeast, Alūksne municipality of Latvia in the southwest, and with Võru and Põlva Counties of Estonia in the northwest. Lake Peipus limits the district from the north. The area of the district is 1,251 square kilometers (483 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Pechory. Population: 22,123 (2010 Census); 25,300 ; 27,199 (1989 Census). The population of Pechory accounts for 50.6% of the district's total population.

Nikolsky, Leningrad Oblast Urban-type settlement in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Nikolsky is an urban locality in Podporozhsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Svir River, several kilometers west of the town of Podporozhye. Municipally, it is incorporated as Nikolskoye Urban Settlement, one of the four urban settlements in the district. Population: 2,989 (2010 Census); 2,931 (2002 Census); 2,953 (1989 Census).

Priladozhsky Urban-type settlement in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Priladozhsky is an urban locality in Kirovsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) from the southern shore of Lake Ladoga, on the left bank of the Naziya River, 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) east of the town of Kirovsk. Municipally, together with the village of Naziya, it is incorporated as Priladozhskoye Urban Settlement, one of the eight urban settlements in the district. Population: 5,757 (2010 Census); 5,185 (2002 Census); 5,280 (1989 Census).

Naziya Urban-type settlement in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Naziya is an urban locality in Kirovsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the left bank of the Lava River and on the right bank of the Kovra River, east of the town of Kirovsk. Municipally it is incorporated as Naziyevskoye Urban Settlement, one of the eight urban settlements in the district. Population: 4,858 (2010 Census); 5,755 (2002 Census); 7,712 (1989 Census).

Ryabovo, Tosnensky District, Leningrad Oblast Urban-type settlement in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Ryabovo is an urban locality in Tosnensky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located southeast of Saint Petersburg, between the towns of Tosno and Lyuban. Municipally it is incorporated as Ryabovskoye Urban Settlement, one of the seven urban settlements in the district. Population: 3,251 (2010 Census); 3,309 (2002 Census); 3,935 (1989 Census).

Dubrovka, Vsevolozhsky District, Leningrad Oblast Urban-type settlement in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Dubrovka is an urban locality in Vsevolozhsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Neva River northeast of Saint Petersburg. Municipally it is incorporated as Dubrovskoye Urban Settlement, one of the eight urban settlements in the district. Population: 6,693 (2010 Census); 5,432 (2002 Census); 6,093 (1989 Census).

Otradnoye, Kirovsky District, Leningrad Oblast Town in Leningrad Oblast, Russia

Otradnoye is a town in Kirovsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located 40 kilometers (25 mi) east of St. Petersburg on the left bank of the Neva River, at its confluence with the Tosna River. Population: 23,866 (2010 Census); 21,570 (2002 Census); 22,386 (1989 Census).

References

  1. "Приказ Федеральной службы безопасности Российской Федерации от 07.08.2017 № 454 "Об утверждении Правил пограничного режима"". pravo.gov.ru. Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации. Retrieved 2018-03-14.
  2. В погранзоне - новые правила - Общая газета Ленинградской области (in Russian). Retrieved 2018-03-19.
  3. (in English)Martin, Terry (December 1998). "The Origins of Soviet Ethnic Cleansing" (PDF). The Journal of Modern History . 70 (4): 813–861. doi:10.1086/235168. JSTOR   10.1086/235168.
  4. 1 2 3 (in Russian) Пограничная зона и пограничный режим на территории Ленинградской области и Республики Карелия . 2006.
  5. (in Russian)Федеральный закон от 01 апреля 1993 г. N 4730-1 в редакции от 7.03.2005 "О Государственной границе Российской Федерации", Статья 16.
  6. 1 2 (in Russian) Погранзона в Карелии сокращена почти втрое , 4 June 2007.
  7. 1 2 (in Russian) В Приморье окончательно определены пограничные зоны Archived September 30, 2007, at the Wayback Machine , 30 May 2007.