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The Captain General of the Church (Italian : Capitano generale della Chiesa) was the de facto commander-in-chief of the papal armed forces during the Middle Ages. The post was usually conferred on an Italian or other noble with a professional military reputation or (later) a relative of the pope. The parallel office of Gonfalonier of the Church was more a formal and ceremonial honor than the responsibility of a tactical military leader. The office was at times made subordinate to temporary offices, Pope Callixtus III appointed Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia (Later Pope Alexander VI) to the office "Chief and General Commissary of the Papal Army." A number of such offices under many titles were used as ministers of war by popes, the captain general operated as a field commander under these offices. Pope Innocent XII removed both ranks and replaced them with the position of Flag-bearer of the Holy Roman Church (Italian: Vessilifero di Santo Romana Chiesa), which later became hereditary in the Naro Patrizi.
It was traditional for the Captain General to carry a baton of command, blessed by the pope.
|Captain General||Portrait||Appointing Pope||Notes|
|Charlemagne*|| Leo III |
|"It is safest to conclude that the pope desired that the royal patrician should regard himself as captain-general of the church, and that he should in that capacity be entitled to the military services of its subjects, when called on by the church to interfere for the protection of her temporary rights."|
|Guillaume Durand||Martin IV (1281–1285)|
|James II of Aragon|| Boniface VIII |
|Gonfalonier, Admiral, and Captain General of the Church; compelled to wage war against his own brother (c.f. Sicilian Vespers)|
|Philip VI of France||Benedict XII (1334–1342)||Circa August 1336|
|Juan Fernández de Heredia||Innocent VI (1352–1362)|
|Daniele del Carretto||Gregory XI (1370–1378)|
|Carlo I Malatesta|| Boniface IX |
|"temporary vicar and captain-general of the church"|
|Braccio da Montone||Gregory XII (1406–1415)||Appointed in 1414; "Used the army nominally belonging to the Pope to conquer Perugia for himself"|
|Ranuccio Farnese il Vecchio|| Eugene IV |
|Appointed 1435; grandfather of Pope Paul III|
|Niccolò Piccinino||Appointed June 6, 1442; Condottiero ; also the commander of the Duke of Milan's forces and thus "one of the first concrete indications" of the alliance between the pope and Milan|
|Jacques Cœur||Nicholas V (1447–1455)||Died as Captain General|
|Ludovico Trevisan||Callixtus III (1455–1458)||Trevisan played an important role in organizing the naval campaign against the Ottomans in December 1455, both responsible for the construction of the papal navy and appointed "apostolic legate, governor general, captain and general condottiere" in charge of it.|
|Giovanni I Ventimiglia, Marquess of Geraci (1445 and 1455)|
|Pedro Luis de Borja||Also Prefect of Rome Not to be confused with Pedro Luis de Borja Lanzol de Romaní|
|Antonio Piccolomini|| Pius II |
|Son of the sister of Pius II; lay relative; salary of 2000 ducats a year and castellan of Castel Sant'Angelo; hereditary principate as Duke of Amalfi, conferred through King Ferrante, an office held by later papal relatives as well|
|Girolamo Riario|| Sixtus IV |
|Pazzi conspirator; brother of cardinal-nephew Pietro Riario; title later removed|
|Franceschetto Cybo||Innocent VIII (1484–1492)||Illegitimate son of Innocent VIII|
|Roberto Eustachio||Former condottiero for Milan; led the campaign against Alfonso of Calabria; later returned to the service of the Republic of Venice|
|Niccolò di Pitigliano (Orsini)||Appointed June 27, 1489, in the midst of a conflict with Ferrante|
|Giovanni Borgia|| Alexander VI |
|Son; also Duke of Gandia and Gonfalonier; assassinated by an unknown perpetrator, most likely his political enemies.|
|Cesare Borgia||Son; former cardinal-nephew, also Gonfalonier; often directly or indirectly accused of Giovanni's assassination, but unlikely to have been the actual culprit. Julius II, the "Warrior Pope", refused to confirm Cesare upon his election.|
|Francesco Maria I della Rovere|| Julius II |
|Son of Julius II's brother, Giovanni, and the adopted heir of Guidobaldo, Duke of Urbino; retained for one year after Julius II's death, paid 13,844 ducats plus a 30,000 ducat allowance for his company of 200 men-at-arms and 100 light cavalry|
|Giuliano di Lorenzo de' Medici|| Leo X |
|Giuliano's cousin Giulio (future Pope Clement VII) was papal legate to the army|
|Lorenzo II de' Medici, Duke of Urbino||Appointed after the death of Giuliano in 1516; initially commanded the papal army in the War of Urbino (1517)|
|Bernardo Dovizi||Appointed after the wounding of Lorenzo; commanded the papal army in the War of Urbino (1517)[ citation needed ]|
|Federico II, Duke of Mantua||Son of Isabella d'Este; also Gonfalonier; did not intervene in the Sack of Rome (1527)|
|Adrian VI (1522–1523)|
|Francesco Maria I della Rovere|| Clement VII |
|Reappointed by Clement VII after his Dukedom had been stripped by Leo X and then reinstated by Adrian VI|
|Pier Luigi Farnese|| Paul III |
|Appointed February 2, 1537l; son of Paul III and former Gonfaloniere (appointed January 1535); held both titles simultaneously|
|Giambattista del Monte|| Julius III |
|Nephew of Julius III|
|Guidobaldo II della Rovere|
|Giovanni Carafa||Paul IV (1555–1559)||Appointed after the resignation of Guidobaldo; nephew of Paul IV; allegedly "affable and incompetent"|
|Marcantonio Colonna||Gregory XIII (1572–1585)||Led the papal fleet during the Battle of Lepanto (1571)|
|Taddeo Barberini|| Urban VIII |
|Brother of cardinal-nephew Antonio Barberini |
Gaspare Altieri (c.1670) nephew of Pope Clement X, later Prince of Oriolo. Engraving by Abraham Brueghel and Nicolas Guerard of the "Wine of St. Martin: dedicated to Gaspare Altierti, Generale di Santa Chiesa.
|Livio Odescalchi||Innocent XI (1676–1689)||Nephew of Innocent XI; also Gonfalonier|
|Antonio Ottoboni||Alexander VIII (1689–1691)|
Cesare Borgia, Duke of Valentinois, was an Italian condottiero, nobleman, politician, and cardinal with Aragonese and Italian origins, whose fight for power was a major inspiration for The Prince by Machiavelli. He was the son of Pope Alexander VI and his long-term mistress Vannozza dei Cattanei. He was the brother of Lucrezia Borgia; Giovanni Borgia (Juan), Duke of Gandia; and Gioffre Borgia, Prince of Squillace. He was half-brother to Don Pedro Luis de Borja (1460–88) and Girolama de Borja, children of unknown mothers.
Pope Alexander VI, born Rodrigo de Borja, was Pope from 11 August 1492 until his death. He is one of the most controversial of the Renaissance popes, partly because he acknowledged fathering several children by his mistresses. Therefore his Italianized Valencian surname, Borgia, became a byword for libertinism and nepotism, which are traditionally considered as characterizing his pontificate.
Pope Pius III, born Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 22 September 1503 to his death. He had one of the shortest pontificates in papal history.
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The Papal States, officially the State of the Church, were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870. They were among the major states of Italy from roughly the 8th century until the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia successfully unified the Italian Peninsula by conquest in a campaign virtually concluded in 1861 and definitively in 1870. At their zenith, the Papal States covered most of the modern Italian regions of Lazio, Marche, Umbria and Romagna, and portions of Emilia. These holdings were considered to be a manifestation of the temporal power of the pope, as opposed to his ecclesiastical primacy.
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The history of the papacy, the office held by the pope as head of the Catholic Church, according to Catholic doctrine, spans from the time of Peter to the present day.
The Renaissance Papacy was a period of papal history between the Western Schism and the Protestant Reformation. From the election of Pope Martin V of the Council of Constance in 1417 to the Reformation in the 16th century, Western Christianity was largely free from schism as well as significant disputed papal claimants. There were many important divisions over the direction of the religion, but these were resolved through the then-settled procedures of the papal conclave.
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Introitus et Exitus Cameræ Apostolicæ is a six-hundred-and-six-volume financial record of the Apostolic Camera of the Holy See, from 1279 to 1524, located in the Vatican Secret Archives. The volumes span the reigns of thirty-two popes from Pope Nicholas III to Pope Clement VII. The volumes relating to the Avignon Popes (1305—1387) as well as the following antipopes were moved from Comtat Venaissin to the Secret Archives in 1783.
A cardinal-nephew was a cardinal elevated by a pope who was that cardinal's relative. The practice of creating cardinal-nephews originated in the Middle Ages, and reached its apex during the 16th and 17th centuries. The last cardinal-nephew was named in 1689 and the practice was extinguished in 1692. The word nepotism originally referred specifically to this practice, when it appeared in the English language about 1669. From the middle of the Avignon Papacy (1309–1377) until Pope Innocent XII's anti-nepotism bull, Romanum decet pontificem (1692), a pope without a cardinal-nephew was the exception to the rule. Every Renaissance pope who created cardinals appointed a relative to the College of Cardinals, and the nephew was the most common choice, although one of Alexander VI's creations was his own son.
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The papal conclave of September 1503 elected Pope Pius III to succeed Pope Alexander VI. Due to the Italian Wars, the College of Cardinals was surrounded by three potentially hostile armies, loyal to Louis XII of France, Ferdinand II of Aragon, and Cesare Borgia.
The Gonfalonier of the Church or Papal Gonfalonier was a military and political office of the Papal States. Originating from the use of the Papal banner during combat, the office later became largely ceremonial and political. At his nomination, the Gonfalonier was given two banners, one with the arms of the Church and another with the arms of the reigning pope. The Gonfalonier was entitled to include ecclesiastical emblems upon his own arms, usually only during his term of office but on occasion permanently. Pope Innocent XII ended the rank, along with the captaincy general, and replaced them both with the position of Flag-bearer of the Holy Roman Church, which later became hereditary in the Naro Patrizi.
Giovanni Poggio was an Italian Roman Catholic bishop and cardinal. He is mainly known for the elaborate decorations he arranged for his residence, the Palazzo Poggi.
Duke of Romagna is a title of nobility, originally in Papal peerage. It was created on 1501 by Apostolic authority of Pope Alexander VI and cardinal council for Cesar Borgia, duke of Valentinois, after his conquest of Romagna, Urbino and Camerino.