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An Apostolic Syndic is a Catholic layman, who in the name, and by the authority, of the Holy See, assumes the care and civil administration of the temporalities and in particular the pecuniary alms destined for the support and benefit of Franciscan convents, and thence provides for the requirements of the brethren.
The Holy See, also called the See of Rome, is the apostolic episcopal see of the bishop of Rome, known as the Pope, ex cathedra the universal ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the worldwide Catholic Church, and a sovereign entity of international law. Founded in the 1st century by Saints Peter and Paul, by virtue of Petrine and Papal primacy according to Catholic tradition, it is the focal point of full communion for Catholic bishops and Catholics around the world organised in polities of the Latin Church, the 23 Eastern Catholic Churches, and their dioceses and religious institutes.
To the Friars Minor, corporate as well as individual ownership was forbidden by the constitution or the rule. During the first years of the order's existence, the literal observance of this precept, being feasible as well as possible, presented no difficulty; but as time went on, and the order developed as a vast organization, and spread over the whole world, countless difficulties had to be faced and fierce controversy arose, the quaestio de paupertate lasting for centuries. To preserve and safeguard as far as possible the letter as well as the spirit of the complete "expropriation" advocated by St. Francis, the popes adopted the fictio juris of assuming to themselves the ownership of all goods bestowed upon the friars. Thus the friars were legally regarded as mere users, the right of property being vested in the Roman pontiff, except in cases where the donors made explicit reservation in their own behalf. But as the civil administration of property in one's own interest is an act of ownership, and this was prohibited by the rule, such administration had to be exercised by a steward appointed, or at least authorized, by the Holy See.
According to the Decretal of Nicholas III, "Exiit qui seminat" (art. 12, n. 2) of 14 August 1279, the appointment of the Apostolic Syndic rested with the sovereign pontiff or the order's cardinal protector; sometimes bishops acted as their delegates in this matter; but Martin IV ("Exultantes", 18 January 1283) empowered the superiors of the order —the general, the provincials, and the custodes— within their respective spheres of jurisdiction, to appoint and remove syndics as circumstances might require.
Pope Nicholas III, born Giovanni Gaetano Orsini, was Pope from 25 November 1277 to his death in 1280.
Since the thirteenth century it has been customary at Rome to confide to some particular Cardinal a special solicitude in the Roman Curia for the interests of a given religious order or institute, confraternity, church, college, city, nation etcetera. Such a person is known as a Cardinal Protector. He was its representative or orator when it sought a favor or a privilege, defended it when unjustly accused, and besought the aid of the Holy See when its rights, property or interests were violated or imperiled.
The larger powers with which the syndic was invested by Martin IV and by his successors, Martin V ("Constitutiones Martinianae" in Wadding, "Annales", X, 301) and Paul IV ("Ex Clementi", 1 July 1555), gave rise to the appellation syndicus Martinianus in contradistinction to syndicus communis. This latter, as constituted by Nicholas III (Exiit) and Clement V ("Exivi de Paradiso", 6 May 1312), could deal only with movable property (valuables excepted) and with purchase moneys. The Martinian syndic on the other hand, as trustee and agent of the Holy See on behalf of the friars, might receive and dispose of all goods movable and immovable (money offerings, legacies, and remunerations) and, in pursuance of his trust, institute proceedings in the courts and take such other steps as might be deemed necessary to protect the interest of the community in whose favour he acted.
The Apostolic syndic and his wife and children were accorded the enjoyment of all and sundry indulgences, pardons, and privileges which the friars themselves have obtained, or shall obtain, from the Holy See (Clement VII, "Dum Consideramus", 16 April 1526).
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have expired, been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable.
The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church, also referred to as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia and the Original Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in the United States and designed to serve the Roman Catholic Church. The first volume appeared in March 1907 and the last three volumes appeared in 1912, followed by a master index volume in 1914 and later supplementary volumes. It was designed "to give its readers full and authoritative information on the entire cycle of Catholic interests, action and doctrine".
The Roman Curia comprises the administrative institutions of the Holy See and the central body through which the affairs of the Catholic Church are conducted. It acts in the Pope’s name and with his authority for the good and for the service of the particular Churches and provides the central organization for the Church to advance its objectives.
Pope John XXII, born Jacques Duèze, was Pope from 7 August 1316 to his death in 1334.
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi. These orders include the Order of Friars Minor, the Order of Saint Clare, and the Third Order of Saint Francis. They adhere to the teachings and spiritual disciplines of the founder and of his main associates and followers, such as Clare of Assisi, Anthony of Padua, and Elizabeth of Hungary, among many others.
Michael of Cesena was an Italian Franciscan, general of that Order, and theologian.
The Apostolic Palace is the official residence of the pope, the head of the Catholic Church, located in Vatican City. It is also known as the Papal Palace, the Palace of the Vatican and the Vatican Palace. The Vatican itself refers to the building as the Palace of Sixtus V, in honor of Pope Sixtus V, who built most of the present form of the palace.
Apostolic poverty is a Christian doctrine professed in the thirteenth century by the newly formed religious orders, known as the mendicant orders, in direct response to calls for reform in the Roman Catholic Church. In this, these orders attempted to live their lives without ownership of lands or accumulation of money, following the precepts given to the seventy disciples in the Gospel of Luke (10:1-24), and succeeding to varying degrees. The ascetic Pope Paschal II's solution of the Investiture Controversy in his radical Concordat of 1111 with the Emperor, repudiated by the cardinals, was that the ecclesiastics of Germany should surrender to the imperial crown their fiefs and secular offices. Paschal proved to be the last of the Gregorianist popes.
A Catholic religious order is a religious order of the Catholic Church. According to the 1983 Code of Canon Law, they form part of a category of Catholic religious institutes.
Syndic is a term applied in certain countries to an officer of government with varying powers, and secondly to a representative or delegate of a university, institution or other corporation, entrusted with special functions or powers.
The Council of Sutri was called by the Holy Roman Emperor Henry III and opened on December 20, 1046, in the hilltown of Sutri, at the edge of the Duchy of Rome. The Catholic Church does not list this as an ecumenical council.
As known, Saint Francis founded three orders and gave each of them a special rule. Here, only the rule of the first order is to be considered, i.e., that of the Order of Friars Minor.
In Coena Domini was a recurrent papal bull between 1363 and 1770, so called from its opening words, formerly issued annually on Holy Thursday, or later on Easter Monday.
A canonical visitation is the act of an ecclesiastical superior who in the discharge of his office visits persons or places with a view to maintaining faith and discipline, and of correcting abuses. A person delegated to carry out such a visitation is called a visitor. When, in exceptional circumstances, the Holy See delegates an Apostolic visitor "to evaluate an ecclesiastical institute such as a seminary, diocese, or religious institute ... to assist the institute in question to improve the way in which it carries out its function in the life of the Church," this is known as an apostolic visitation.
The Apostolic Datary was one of the five Ufficii di Curia in the Roman Curia of the Roman Catholic Church. It was instituted no later than the 14th AD. Pope Paul VI abolished it in 1967.
The Apostolic Chancery was a dicastery of the Roman Curia at the service of the Supreme Pontiff of the Roman Catholic Church. The principal and presiding official was the Cardinal Chancellor of Holy Roman Church who was always Cardinal-Priest of the Basilica di San Lorenzo in Damaso. The original, principal function of the office was to collect money to maintain the Papal Army. Pope Pius VII reformed the office when Emperor Napoleon I of France obviated the need for Papal armies. In the early 20th century the office collected money for missionary work. Pope Paul VI abrogated the Cancellaria Apostolica on 27 February 1973. Its obligations were transferred to the Secretariat of State.
Bonagratia de San Giovanni in Persiceto was an Italian Friar Minor, who became Minister General of the Order.
Sicut Judaeis was a papal bull setting out the official position of the papacy regarding the treatment of Jews. The first bull by that name was issued in about 1120 by Calixtus II and served as a papal charter of protection to Jews. It was prompted by attacks on Jews by the First Crusade, during which over five thousand Jews were slaughtered in Europe. The bull forbade Christians, on pain of excommunication, from forcing Jews to convert, from harming them, from taking their property, from disturbing the celebration of their festivals, and from interfering with their cemeteries.
The Custody of the Holy Land is a custodian priory of the Franciscan order in Jerusalem, founded as Province of the Holy Land in 1217 by Saint Francis of Assisi, who also founded the Franciscan Order. Its mission is to guard "the grace of the Holy Places" of the Holy Land and the rest of the Middle East, "sanctified by the presence of Jesus", as well as pilgrims visiting them, on behalf of the Catholic Church. Between 2004 and 2016, the Custodial Curia was led by Custos Fr. Pierbattista Pizzaballa, with the approval of the Holy See. Since 2016, the chief custodian has been Francesco Patton. Its headquarters are located in the Monastery of Saint Saviour, a 16th-century Franciscan monastery near the New Gate in the Old City of Jerusalem. The office can bestow--only to those entering its office--the Jerusalem Pilgrim's Cross upon deserving Catholic visitors to the city.
This is a glossary of terms used within the Catholic Church.
Jean de Beaune was a Dominican inquisitor in Carcassonne during the early 14th century who played a role in precipitating the Apostolic poverty controversy of the period.
Blessed Nicola da Forca Palena was an Italian Roman Catholic professed member of the Third Order of Saint Francis and the co-founder of the Poor Hermits of Saint Jerome - founded alongside Blessed Pietro Gambacorta. He established the Sant'Onofrio church in Rome where he was later buried. He became a friend to both Pope Eugene IV and Pope Nicholas V.