List of denominations in the Latter Day Saint movement

Last updated
An 1842 portrait of Joseph Smith (1805-1844), founder of the Latter Day Saint movement Joseph Smith, Jr. portrait owned by Joseph Smith III.jpg
An 1842 portrait of Joseph Smith (1805-1844), founder of the Latter Day Saint movement

The denominations in the Latter Day Saint movement are sometimes collectively referred to as Mormonism . Although some denominations opposed the use of this term because they consider it to be derogatory, it is especially used when referring to the largest Latter Day Saint group, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), and offshoots of it. Denominations opposed to the use of the term consider it to be connected to the polygamy once practiced by the Utah church. [1]

Mormonism Religious tradition of the Latter Day Saint movement

Mormonism is the predominant religious tradition of the Latter Day Saint movement of Restorationist Christianity started by Joseph Smith in Western New York in the 1820s and 30s.

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints nontrinitarian Christian restorationist church

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, often informally known as the LDS Church or Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian, Christian restorationist church that is considered by its members to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ. The church is headquartered in Salt Lake City, Utah in the United States, and has established congregations and built temples worldwide. According to the church, it has over 16 million members and 65,000 full-time volunteer missionaries. In 2012, the National Council of Churches ranked the church as the fourth-largest Christian denomination in the United States, with over 6.5 million members there as of January 2018. It is the largest denomination in the Latter Day Saint movement founded by Joseph Smith during the early 19th century period of religious revival known as the Second Great Awakening.

Contents

The Latter Day Saint movement includes:

Joseph Smith American religious leader and the founder of the Latter Day Saint movement

Joseph Smith Jr. was an American religious leader and founder of Mormonism and the Latter Day Saint movement. When he was 24, Smith published the Book of Mormon. By the time of his death, 14 years later, he had attracted tens of thousands of followers and founded a religion that continues to the present.

Church of Christ (Latter Day Saints) original name of the Latter Day Saint church

The Church of Christ was the original name of the Latter Day Saint church founded by Joseph Smith. Organized informally in 1829 in New York and then formally on April 6, 1830, it was the first organization to implement the principles found in Smith's newly published Book of Mormon, and thus represents the formal beginning of the Latter Day Saint movement. Later names for this organization included the Church of the Latter Day Saints, the Church of Jesus Christ, the Church of God, the Church of Christ of Latter Day Saints, and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.

Community of Christ religious body founded in 1830 and part of the Latter Day Saint movement

The Community of Christ, known from 1872 to 2001 as the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (RLDS), is an American-based international church, and is the second-largest denomination in the Latter Day Saint movement. The church reports 250,000 members in 1,100 congregations in 59 countries. The church traces its origins to Joseph Smith's establishment of the Church of Christ on April 6, 1830. A group of members including his eldest son Joseph Smith III formally established the current church on April 6, 1860 in the aftermath of the 1844 death of Joseph Smith.

A Brighamite-centric timeline of formations and origins for most LDS denominations. LDS Denominations.png
A Brighamite-centric timeline of formations and origins for most LDS denominations.


Though a few small factions broke with Smith's organization during his lifetime, he retained the allegiance of the vast majority of Latter Day Saints until his death in June 1844. Following Smith's death, the movement experienced a leadership crisis which led to a schism within the church. The largest group, which would become the LDS Church, followed Brigham Young, settling in what would become the Utah Territory. The second-largest faction, the RLDS Church, coalesced around Joseph Smith III, eldest son of Joseph Smith. Other would-be leaders included the senior surviving member of the First Presidency, Sidney Rigdon; the newly baptized James Strang from Wisconsin; and Alpheus Cutler, one of the Council of Fifty. Each of these men still retains a following as of 2014—however tiny it may be in some cases—and all of their organizations have experienced further schisms. [5] [6] [7] Other claimants, such as Granville Hedrick, William Bickerton and Charles B. Thompson, later emerged to start still other factions, some of which have further subdivided. 12 denominations are listed in the following table.

Death of Joseph Smith Founder and leader of the Latter Day Saint movement

Joseph Smith, the founder and leader of the Latter Day Saint movement, and his brother, Hyrum Smith, were killed by a mob in Carthage, Illinois, on June 27, 1844. The brothers had been in jail awaiting trial when an armed mob of about 200 men stormed the facility, their faces painted black with wet gunpowder. Hyrum was killed first, having been shot in the face. As he fell, Hyrum shouted, "I'm a dead man, Joseph!" After emptying the pistol with which he tried to defend himself, Joseph was then shot several times while trying to escape from a second-story window and fell from that window as he died.

The succession crisis in the Latter Day Saint movement occurred after the death of Joseph Smith, the movement's founder, on June 27, 1844.

Brigham Young 19th-century Latter Day Saint religious leader

Brigham Young was an American religious leader, politician, and settler. He was the second president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1847 until his death in 1877. He founded Salt Lake City and he served as the first governor of the Utah Territory. Young also led the foundings of the precursors to the University of Utah and Brigham Young University.

Estimation of membership in the Latter Day Saint movement by denomination
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS)16,313,735 [8] 98.0110%
Community of Christ (RLDS)250,3011.5038%
The Church of Jesus Christ (Bickertonite)23,2000.1394%
Church of Jesus Christ with the Elijah Message12,5000.0751%
Apostolic United Brethren10,0000.0601%
Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (FLDS)10,0000.0601%
Restoration Branches10,0000.0601%
Church of Christ (Hedrickites)7,3100.0439%
Fellowships of the remnants5,0000.0300%
Church of Christ (Fettingite)2,4500.0147%
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Strangite)3000.0018%
Church of Jesus Christ (Cutlerite)120.0001%

Categorizing the churches

An 1851 tinted lithograph depicting the death of Joseph Smith in 1844 G. W. Fasel - Charles G. Crehen - Nagel & Weingaertner - Martyrdom of Joseph and Hiram Smith in Carthage jail, June 27th, 1844.jpg
An 1851 tinted lithograph depicting the death of Joseph Smith in 1844

Given the large number of Latter Day Saint churches and their differing backgrounds, categorizing them can be difficult. A common approach in some histories and studies [ citation needed ] is to use Rocky Mountain Saints for those denominations headquartered in the American West and Prairie Saints for those denominations that formed in and around Nauvoo, Illinois; Voree, Wisconsin; Independence, Missouri; and other locations in the Midwest and East. These terms do not necessarily relate the current geographical locations of all denominations within those two groupings, but rather the original location of their respective parent organizations, which may be seen in the table below.

Mormon studies is the interdisciplinary academic study of the beliefs, practices, history and culture of those known by the term Mormon and denominations belonging to the Latter Day Saint movement whose members do not generally go by the term "Mormon". The Latter Day Saint movement includes not only The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints but also the Community of Christ (CoC) and other groups, as well as those falling under the umbrella of Mormon fundamentalism.

Nauvoo, Illinois City in Illinois, United States

Nauvoo is a small city in Hancock County, Illinois, United States, on the Mississippi River near Fort Madison, Iowa. The population of Nauvoo was 1,149 at the 2010 census. Nauvoo attracts visitors for its historic importance and its religious significance to members of several groups: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints ; the Community of Christ, formerly the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (RLDS); other groups stemming from the Latter Day Saint movement; and the Icarians. The city and its immediate surrounding area are listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the Nauvoo Historic District.

Another method uses provenance: for instance, all denominations that ultimately trace their history back to the LDS Church in Utah are organized as one factional group. Divergent Paths of the Restoration—a reference work on this subject—follows this approach. [5]

In such studies, and in general Latter Day Saint parlance, the -ite -suffixed terms Josephite and Brighamite have been used for the Missouri-based Community of Christ and the Utah-based LDS Church respectively; these terms have sometimes been used to distinguish groups of denominations. Those denominations within each group share a common ancestry and basic beliefs that are different from groups sharing other provenances. The present article, in a similar fashion, distinguishes among groups of denominations by use of commonly understood names such as Mormon fundamentalist or else by short descriptions that often reference a founder of the first church within a factional group–for example, Joseph Smith III in reference to Community of Christ and various churches and factions that trace their origin to it.

List of Latter Day Saint movement churches

Era of Joseph Smith

Joseph Smith's original church, [5] and those bodies which broke with him during his lifetime.

Original church within movement

The original organization, founded by Joseph Smith in 1830, later called the Church of the Latter-Day Saints and then The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. [9] [10]

NameOrganized byDateCurrent statusNotes
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints [5] Joseph Smith April 6, 1830Smith's original organization; multiple denominations currently claim to be its true successorIn 1834, official name changed to "Church of the Latter Day Saints". In 1838, official name changed again to "Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints". [9] [10] Unofficial names included Church of God and Church of Jesus Christ. [11]

Churches that separated from Smith's organization prior to 1844

Other small churches formed on the basis of disagreements with Smith prior to his murder in 1844 (including church established by William Law within 1844), all of which are now defunct.

Church name Organized byDateSplit fromCurrent statusNotes
Pure Church of Christ [12] Wycam Clark1831Church of ChristDefunctFirst schismatic denomination in the Latter Day Saint movement.
Independent Church [13] – Hoton [14] 1832Church of ChristDefunctLittle is known about this second schismatic denomination apart from the date of establishment, the surname of its founder, and that Hoton denounced Joseph Smith and the Book of Mormon. [14]
Church of Christ [5] Ezra Booth 1836Church of the Latter Day SaintsDefunctTaught that Joseph Smith was not a prophet, and the Book of Mormon was not scripture.
Church of Christ [15] Warren Parrish 1837Church of the Latter Day SaintsDefunctAlso referred to as the Church of Christ (Parrishite). Believed that Smith was a "fallen prophet". Rejected the Book of Mormon and parts of the Bible.
Alston Church [12] Isaac Russell 1839Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day SaintsDefunctTaught that the Latter Day Saints should remain in Missouri, and not emigrate to Illinois.
Church of Christ [5] William ChubbyLate 1830sChurch of Jesus Christ of Latter Day SaintsDefunctEstablished with the special mission of ministering to African Americans.
Church of Jesus Christ, the Bride, the Lamb's Wife [12] George M. Hinkle 1840Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day SaintsDefunctTaught that Smith was not a prophet, and the Book of Mormon was not scripture.
Church of Christ [5] Hiram Page 1842Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day SaintsDefunctLittle is known concerning this denomination, except that its founder was one of the Eight Witnesses to the Book of Mormon's golden plates
True Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints [12] William Law 1844Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day SaintsDefunctOpposed plural marriage; published the Nauvoo Expositor. Charges levied against Smith over the destruction of this periodical led to his assassination.

Apostolic succession by Brigham Young

Sometimes called "Rocky Mountain Saints," "Brighamites," or "Mormons", tracing their leadership or influence through Brigham Young's apostolic succession.

LDS Church

By far the largest and best known Latter Day Saint church, which is colloquially, but imprecisely, referred to as the "Mormon Church".

NameOrganized byDateContinuation of\split fromCurrent statusNotes
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints [5] [16] Brigham Young
and
Quorum of the Twelve
1844
(trust reorganized);
1851 [17]
(incorporated)
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints15 million members as of 2013 [18] The largest Latter Day Saint denomination. Headquartered in Salt Lake City, Utah. Often colloquially referred to as the Mormon Church. Adherents are popularly called Mormons or Latter-day Saints. Resulted from Latter Day Saints that followed Joseph Smith. Practiced plural marriage until it was discontinued in 1890. Disincorporated in 1877 by the Edmunds–Tucker Act, reorganized in 1923 as the Corporation of the President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

LDS-derived churches upholding polygamy after the Manifesto of 1890

Churches that believe they are strictly following the revelations and teachings of Joseph Smith and Brigham Young, including the practice of plural marriage, which was discontinued by the LDS Church in the late-19th century after the Manifesto.

NameOrganized byDateSplit fromCurrent statusNotes
Council of Friends [19] Lorin C. Woolley 1920sThe Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day SaintsMultiple denominations claim to be true successorAlso known as the Priesthood Council, this group was originally headquartered in Salt Lake City, Utah, and the Short Creek Community. One of the earliest Mormon fundamentalist groups, originating at end of plural marriage in LDS Church. Later splintered into several groups, particularly upon death of Joseph W. Musser in 1954. Most modern Mormon fundamentalist groups may be traced back to this organization.
Latter Day Church of Christ [20] Elden Kingston 1935 [20] Council of Friends [19] Roughly 2,000 membersHeadquartered in Davis County, Utah. Commonly known as the "Kingston clan" and the "Davis County Cooperative Society".
Apostolic United Brethren [20] Rulon C. Allred 1954Council of FriendsApproximately 10,000 members (1998) [21] Headquarters in Bluffdale, Utah. Organized during schism between two groups over issue of presiding authority between Rulon C. Allred and Leroy S. Johnson, upon death of Joseph W. Musser. [20]
Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints [20] Leroy S. Johnson 1954Council of Friends6,000 members
(self-reported census) [22]
Traditionally headquartered in Colorado City, Arizona, with a community of roughly 700 members near Eldorado, Texas. The FLDS is perhaps best known for being headed by Warren Jeffs, who was convicted of sexually assaulting multiple children.
Church of the Firstborn of the Fulness of Times [20] Joel F. LeBaron 1955Apostolic United Brethren [23] Precise continuity unknown, several hundred or a thousand believers' following one or another putative successors to denomination leadershipHeadquartered in Colonia Lebaron, Mexico [24] Established in northern Mexico and elsewhere, this group claims an especial priesthood keys owing to a line of authority through Benjamin F. Johnson, a member of the Council of Fifty.
Church of the Firstborn [25] Ross Wesley LeBaron1955Church of the Firstborn of the Fulness of TimesA hundred or moreOriginally headquartered in Salt lake City, Utah. (Within months of the organization of the Church of the Firstborn of the Fulness of Times, Ross Wesley LeBaron broke with his brothers and formed his own denomination calling it simply, ""The Church of the Firstborn." Wesley believed he was sent to prepare the way for the One Mighty and Strong, who would be "an Indian prophet" [26] [27] Three notable early followers were Fred Collier (whose 100-plus membership clan live in Hanna, Utah and elsewhere [28] ), Tom Green, and Robert Black. [25]
Church of Jesus Christ in Solemn Assembly [29] [30] Alex Joseph 1974 [30] Apostolic United BrethrenApproximately 400 headquartered in Big Water, Utah In conjunction with the Church of Jesus Christ in Solemn Assembly, Alex Joseph group created the Confederate Nations of Israel in 1977, a Hybrid church–political organization patterned after the Council of Fifty. Members can be from any religious denomination or atheist. Around one-quarter of members practice plural marriage.
Church of the First Born Lamb of God [20] Ervil LeBaron 1972Church of the Firstborn of the Fulness of TimesCurrent status unknown, may continue in LeBaron family in Los Molinos, Baja CaliforniaErvil LeBaron split with his brother, Joel F. LeBaron in 1972. Ervil then ordered his brother Joel killed in 1972, and Apostolic United Brethren leader Rulon C. Allred killed in 1977. LeBaron was extradited to the United States and sentenced to life in prison where he died in 1981.
Church of the New Covenant in Christ [12] John W. Bryant 1975Apostolic United BrethrenHeadquartered in Salem, Oregon Previously called the "Church of Christ Patriarchal" and the "Evangelical Church of Christ". One of Bryant's estranged wives says Bryant converted temple ordinances into sexual rites and that he authorized a type of "free love" among the members.
Righteous Branch of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints [20] Gerald Peterson, Sr. 1978Apostolic United BrethrenApproximately 100-200 members. Headquartered in St. George, Utah.This small group of about 100–200 people was founded by Gerald Peterson Sr. They claim Gerald Peterson Sr. was the rightful successor to Rulon C. Allred and Spencer W. Kimball. They claim Allred and others, including the God and Jesus, visited Peterson, who held and exercised all priesthood responsibilities and keys.
Sons Ahman Israel [31] David Israel1981Church of the New Covenant in Christ [32] Based in Cane Beds, Arizona.

The number of members is unknown.

One of the lesser known Fundamentalist Groups, organized by David Israel (real name, Gilbert Clark) with members of the Apostolic United Brethren and members of John W. Bryant's Group. [33]
School of the Prophets [12] [34] Robert C. Crossfield 1982The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day SaintsHeadquartered in Salem, UtahIn 1968 Crossfield published the Book of Onias which condemned many LDS Church leaders. He was excommunicated in 1972. [35] The continuing revelations were later published as the Second Book of Commandments. In 1982 Crossfield established the School of the Prophets, presided over by a president and six counselors [35] .
Centennial Park [20] Marion Hammon
and
Alma Timpson
1984Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day SaintsRoughly 1,500 members [20] Also known as the "Second Ward". Organized by group who broke from Leroy S. Johnson over questions regarding presiding authority. [20]
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and the Kingdom of God [20] [36] Frank Naylor
and
Ivan Neilsen
1990Centennial Park200–300 members. Headquartered in Bluffdale, Utah [37] Also known as the "Naylor group" and the "Third Ward". [20] Organized by group who broke from Centennial Park over conflicts in the leadership of Alma Timpson.
True and Living Church of Jesus Christ of Saints of the Last Days [20] James D. Harmston 1994The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints300–500 members (2004) [38] Headquartered in Manti, Utah.Also called "TLC Church" and formed independent of the Woolley or the LeBaron priesthood lineages.
The Church of the Firstborn and the General Assembly of Heaven [39] Terrill R. Dalton 2001The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day SaintsCurrently headquartered in Fromberg, Montana Originally organized in Magna, Utah, by former members of the LDS Church. Practice polygamy and the law of consecration. Dalton purports to be the Holy Ghost and the Father of Jesus. [40]
Church of Jesus Christ (Original Doctrine) Inc. [41] Winston Blackmore 2002Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day SaintsHeadquartered in Bountiful, British Columbia with approximately 700 membersAlso known as the Blackmore/Bountiful Community, this schism from the FLDS Church occurred when church president Warren Jeffs excommunicated Blackmore, causing the community of Bountiful to split nearly in half.
Church of Jesus Christ in Zion [42] Roger E. Billings 2004The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day SaintsApproximately 1,000 members

Originating in Independence, Missouri

This little known Group is headed by Roger Billings, who like so many is a former member of the mainstream LDS church.

Left-of-center LDS-derived churches

The defunct Godbeites and a few other small churches that broke with the LDS Church to pursue a more liberal, inclusive, or rationalist theology.

NameOrganized byDateSplit off / Continuation ofCurrent statusNotes
The Church of Zion [43] William S. Godbe 1868The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day SaintsDefunctAlso known as "Godbeites".
United Order Family of Christ [44] David-Edward Desmond 1966The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day SaintsLasted until at least 1973, probably until 1974.Founded in Denver, Colorado; the church was founded specifically for young gay men only, ages 18 to 30; members practiced the United Order.
Restoration Church of Jesus Christ [44] Antonio A. Feliz 1985The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day SaintsDissolved in 2010.Majority of members were LGBT. Commonly called the "Gay Mormon Church" or the "Liberal Mormon Church". Originally called the "Church of Jesus Christ of All Latter-day Saints".

Additional churches claiming lineage through Brigham Young or founded in the U.S. Intermountain West

Several small churches rooted in Mormonism; formed under the belief that their leader was inspired to restore a new religious tradition in the mold of Joseph Smith

NameOrganized byDateSplit off / Continuation ofCurrent statusNotes
Church of the Potter Christ [45] Arnold Potter 1857The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day SaintsDefunctPotter wore a long beard and white robes; his followers wore black robes; followers emigrated from California to Council Bluffs, Iowa, in 1861.
Church of the Firstborn (Morrisite) [46] Joseph Morris 1861The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day SaintsAssumed defunctRemnants of this organization survived into the mid-20th century. Involved in the Morrisite War; believe in reincarnation. Morris claimed to be the successor of James Strang, though his organization broke from the LDS, not the Strangite, church.
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Gibsonite) [47] Walter M. Gibson 1861The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day SaintsDefunctOrganized in Pacific Islands; sold leadership offices to native peoples; gathering place established on Lanai, Hawaii.
Kingdom of Heaven [48] William W. Davies 1866Church of the Firstborn (Morrisite)DefunctLived a communal life near Walla Walla, Washington, from 1867 to 1881.
Church of Jesus Christ of Saints of the Most High [49] John R. Eardley 1882Church of the Firstborn (Morrisite)Disbanded in 1969The last known surviving remnant of the "Morrisites".
Order of Enoch [50] James Brighouse 1884Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints and Church of the Firstborn (Morrisite)Continues into the 21st centuryBelieve in reincarnation; rejected plural marriage; believe that Jesus reincarnated as Brighouse and again in 1909 as Dr. Dahesh and that the millennium will commence in the 24th century.
Third Convention [51] Abel Páez1936The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day SaintsContinued into the 21st century [52] Formed by Abel Páez and a dissident group of Mexican Latter-day Saints who broke away from the main body of church authority in 1936 over a dispute about local governance and autonomy of the church in Mexico.
House of Aaron [48] [53] Maurice L. Glendenning 1943 [53] The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day SaintsLess than 1,000 membersAlso called "Aaronic Order" and the "Order of Aaron". Religious researchers have categorized The House of Aaron as part of the Latter Day Saint movement, which this denomination disputes. [48] [53] [54]
Zion's Order, Inc. [48] Merl Kilgore 1951Aaronic Order and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day SaintsHeadquartered in Mansfield, Missouri; approximately 100 membersFormerly known as Zion's Order of the Sons of Levi; use all of the scriptures of the LDS Church except section 132 of the Doctrine and Covenants , plus 650 revelations to Kilgore.
Perfected Church of Jesus Christ of Immaculate Latter-day Saints [48] William C. Conway 1955The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day SaintsUnknownAlso called "Restored Apostolic Church of Jesus Christ of Immaculate Latter-day Saints"; Conway claimed to be the reincarnation of Moroni and to have been visited by a reincarnation of Joseph Smith.
Church of Jesus Christ (Bullaite) [48] [55] Art Bulla 1983The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day SaintsHeadquartered in Salt Lake City, Utah Bulla taught other Latter-day Saints that he was the "One Mighty and Strong" that Joseph Smith prophesied would come to set the church in order. Bulla was interviewed in the anti-Mormon movie The God Makers II with the title "Mormon Prophet" under his name.
The Restored Branch of Jesus Christ [56] [57] Matthew P. Gill2007The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day SaintsHeadquartered in Derbyshire, England Met informally as "The Latter Day Church of Christ" until formal organization. Added the Book of Jeraneck to scriptural canon. [58]

Other lineages of succession

Those churches rejecting Brigham Young's leadership, in favor of some other claimant. These adherents are occasionally referred to, collectively, as "Prairie Saints."

Reorganized Church and other followers of Joseph Smith III ("Josephites")

The Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints and related churches tracing their leadership through Joseph Smith III.

NameOrganized byDateSplit off / Continuation ofCurrent statusNotes
Community of Christ [59] Joseph Smith III 1860Church of Jesus Christ of
Latter Day Saints; some early members came from Strangite church
More than 250,000 members as of 2006 [60] Second-largest Latter Day Saint denomination. Headquartered in Independence, Missouri. Previously known as the "Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints" (RLDS Church); organized by Joseph Smith III in 1860.
Church of the Christian Brotherhood [61] R. C. Evans 1918Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day SaintsDefunctSplit with RLDS Church due to their denial that Joseph Smith practiced plural marriage; Evans published a book documenting evidence that Smith was a polygamist, then went on to reject most of the tenets of Mormonism.
Church of Jesus Christ Restored [62] Stanley King1960sReorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day SaintsHeadquartered in Ontario, CanadaFundamentalist church that split from the RLDS Church and instituted polygamy and the United Order; has about 40 members
Church of Jesus Christ (Toneyite) [48] Forrest Toney1980Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day SaintsHeadquartered in Independence, MissouriLeft RLDS Church in 1980; claimed to be "Elijah and only prophet" of his organization.
Independent RLDS / Restoration Branches [63] Various local leaders of the RLDS church1980sReorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day SaintsAs of 1993, 15,000–30,000 sympathizers who yet retained membership in the RLDS Church (Community of Christ); [64] as of 2011, c. 10,000 members attending several hundred distinct congregations. [65] Affiliated branches and study groups, with each branch relatively autonomous and the movement as a whole centered in Independence, Missouri. [63] [66] RLDS Church branches that became independent of the RLDS Church individually throughout the 1980s, due to opposition to changes in church doctrines and practices. Most priesthood holders of these branches soon became affiliated with the "Conference of Restoration Elders". At a three-day conference in November 2005, the "Joint Conference of Restoration Branches" was formed, [67] which had 6,000 to 7,000 members as of 2010. [68]

Members consider themselves members of the [historical] RLDS Church, in a direct line of succession from those who dissented following doctrinal changes roughly coinciding with the church's name change to Community of Christ. [69]

Church of Jesus Christ Restored 1830 [48] Nolan W. Glauner Mid-1980sReorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day SaintsMembers in Missouri and Africa; headquartered in Tarkio, Missouri Regards Wallace B. Smith as a "fallen prophet" of the RLDS Church for his opening the priesthood to women and for choosing to build the Independence Temple as opposed to the city of Zion.
Church of Christ [70] David B. Clark 1985Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day SaintsHeadquartered in Oak Grove, Missouri Also known as "Lion of God Ministry". Clark broke from the RLDS Church in November 1985. In May 1987, Clark began to issue a newsletter, "The Return". Group adheres closely to the King James Version of the Bible and "The Record of the Nephites" [Book of Mormon], but does not consider other Mormon scripture to be authoritative. They keep annual feasts, including Passover, Pentecost, Tabernacles, etc. [70]
Church of Jesus Christ (Zion's Branch) [5] John and Robert Cato, among others1986Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints200 or so members; headquartered in Independence, MissouriLargely composed of former members of the RLDS Church who oppose what they consider to be recent doctrinal innovations, especially the giving of the priesthood to women in 1984.
Lundgren Group [71] Jeffrey Lundgren [72] 1988Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day SaintsDefunct; approximately 20 followers; headquartered in Kirtland, Ohio [73] The denomination broke off from the RLDS Church when Lundgren was dismissed from the church on October 10, 1988. Lundgren was executed by the state of Ohio on October 24, 2006, for the murder of Dennis Avery and four of his family members. [73]
Restoration Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints [74] Several RLDS entities1991Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day SaintsHeadquartered in Independence, MissouriThe church broke off from the Community of Christ because of its belief that women should not hold the priesthood.
Remnant Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints [75] Frederick N. Larsen 2000Independent RLDS / Restoration Branches [76] 1,000–2,000 members; headquartered in Independence, MissouriChiefly composed of former members of the RLDS Church who were part of the Independent RLDS / Restoration Branches. [76] They oppose what they consider to be recent doctrinal innovations, especially the passing of the church presidency to someone not descended from Joseph Smith (Larsen is a descendant of Smith through his grandson Frederick Madison Smith). [76]

Followers of Granville Hedrick ("Hedrickites")

The Church of Christ (Temple Lot) and related churches tracing their leadership through Granville Hedrick.

NameOrganized byDateSplit off / Continuation ofCurrent statusNotes
Church of Christ (Temple Lot) [77] Granville Hedrick 1863Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints; some members from Gladdenites5,000 members; headquartered on the Temple Lot in Independence, MissouriOwns the Temple Lot; adherents commonly referred to as "Hedrickites."
Church of Christ (Fettingite) [78] Otto Fetting 1929Church of Christ (Temple Lot)Denomination divided into various factionsA denomination which split with the Temple Lot church over reported revelations from John the Baptist to its founder, Otto Fetting; adopted seventh day sabbatarianism under Apostle S.T. Bronson in 1950s.
Church of Christ at Halley's Bluff [79] Thomas B. Nerren
and
E. E. Long
1932Church of Christ (Temple Lot)Headquartered at Schell City, Missouri; less than 100 membersMembers originally believed Otto Fetting's revelations but did not join the Church of Christ (Fettingite). Formally named "Church of Christ at Zion's Retreat" until a 1972 schism in which Dan Gayman led most of its followers away to his Church of Israel.
Church of Christ (Restored) [80] A.C. DeWolf ca. 1937Church of Christ (Fettingite)Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri;approx. 450 membersSplit from Fettingite organization in late 1930s when that denomination initially accepted William Draves' "messages"; claims to be the true continuation of Fetting's church. Non-sabbatarian.
Church of Christ with the Elijah Message [81] Otto Fetting
and
William Draves
1943Church of Christ (Fettingite) [78] c. 12,500 members worldwide as of 1987. [82] [83] Headquartered in Independence, MissouriSplit with the Church of Christ (Fettingite) when that denomination rejected revelations from John the Baptist given to its founder, William Draves, following the death of Otto Fetting.
Church of Christ (Hancock) [5] [84] Pauline Hancock 1946Church of Christ (Temple Lot)Defunct as of 1984First Latter Day Saint denomination to be established by a woman; accepted KJV Bible and Book of Mormon only; later rejected Book of Mormon and dissolved itself in 1984. Among its former members were Jerald and Sandra Tanner, opponents of the Latter Day Saint movement and founders of the Utah Lighthouse Ministry.
Church of Christ (Leighton-Floyd/Burt) [12] Howard Leighton-Floyd
and
H. H. Burt
1965Church of Christ with the Elijah MessageAround 35 membersLeighton-Floyd and Burt split with the Church of Christ with the Elijah Message during the reincorporation of that church under its present name. Leighton-Floyd left shortly after the formation, with Burt assumed leadership of the group. The membership is centered on an agricultural cooperative near Holden, Missouri. [85]
Church of Israel [48] Dan Gayman 1972Church of Christ at Halley's BluffHeadquartered in MissouriName was "Church of Our Christian Heritage" until incorporation in 1981. The church has been accused of being a Christian Identity church, a charge which is denied by Gayman. Few Latter Day Saint beliefs or practices remain in the church.
The Church of Christ With the Elijah Message, The Assured Way of the Lord, Inc. [86] Leonard Draves 2004Church of Christ with the Elijah MessageHeadquartered in Independence, MissouriSplit from the Church of Christ with the Elijah Message, Inc., which in turn split from the Church of Christ With the Elijah Message; founders claim that they are the legitimate continuation of William Draves' organization.

Followers of Sidney Rigdon or William Bickerton ("Bickertonites")

Churches tracing their leadership through Sidney Rigdon or William Bickerton.

NameOrganized byDateSplit off / Continuation ofCurrent statusNotes
Church of Jesus Christ of the Children of Zion [5] [6] Sidney Rigdon 1844Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day SaintsDissolved by 1847Originally also used the name "Church of Christ". Also known as Rigdonites.
The Church of Jesus Christ (Bickertonite) [6] William Bickerton 1862Organized by former members of the Church of Jesus Christ of the Children of Zion (Rigdonites), by then defunct19,029 as of Dec. 31, 2012; [87] headquartered in Monongahela, Pennsylvania Adherents commonly referred to as Bickertonites (church actively opposes use of this term).
Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ (Bickertonite) [48] Half of the Bickertonite Quorum of Twelve Apostles 1907Church of Jesus Christ (Bickertonite)DefunctDispute over nature of life in the millennium split Bickertonite Quorum of the Twelve in two; later merged with the Primitive Church of Jesus Christ (Bickertonite).
Primitive Church of Jesus Christ (Bickertonite) [48] James Caldwell 1914Church of Jesus Christ (Bickertonite)DefunctRejected the First Presidency as a valid leadership organization of the church; later merged with the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ (Bickertonite).

Followers of Alpheus Cutler ("Cutlerites")

The Church of Jesus Christ (Cutlerite) and related churches tracing their leadership through Alpheus Cutler.

NameOrganized byDateSplit off / Continuation ofCurrent statusNotes
Church of Jesus Christ (Cutlerite) [7] Alpheus Cutler 1853Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day SaintsApproximately 12 members (2010); [88] headquartered in Independence, MissouriAdherents commonly called "Cutlerites"; practice "United Order"; retains Nauvoo-era Temple endowment and Baptism for the Dead.
True Church of Jesus Christ (Cutlerite) [89] Clyde Fletcher 1953Church of Jesus Christ (Cutlerite)Never more than 10; headquartered in Clitherall, Minnesota Split from Cutlerites over presidential succession issue; church folded with death of its founder in 1969 and schism was subsequently healed.
Restored Church of Jesus Christ [48] Eugene O. Walton 1980Church of Jesus Christ (Cutlerite)25 members; headquartered in Independence, MissouriSplit from Cutlerites when they rejected Walton's claim to be the "One Mighty and Strong".

Followers of James J. Strang ("Strangites")

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Strangite) and related churches tracing their leadership through James Strang.

NameOrganized byDateSplit off / Continuation ofCurrent statusNotes
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Strangite) [5] James J. Strang 1844Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day SaintsA few hundred members; headquartered in Voree (now Burlington), Wisconsin Currently split between proponents and opponents of incorporation in 1961. Anti-incorporation factions headquartered in Shreveport, Louisiana and Independence, Missouri
Church of Christ (Aaron Smith) [90] Aaron Smith 1846Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Strangite)DefunctShort-lived denomination formed in Voree, Wisconsin.
Church of the Messiah [91] George J. Adams 1861Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Strangite)DefunctLed followers from Maine to Palestine; attempt to establish mission there failed.
Holy Church of Jesus Christ [48] Alexandre R. Caffiaux 1964Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Strangite)DefunctCaffiaux claimed to be the rightful successor to James J. Strang. Church headquartered in France.
Church of Jesus Christ (Drewite) [48] Theron Drew 1965Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Strangite)Extant; one congregation led by Richard Drew, Theron's sonDrew organized the church after being excommunicated from the Strangite church, on account of Drew's promotion of Merl Kilgore as the "One Mighty and Strong" and a potential successor to James Strang.
True Church of Jesus Christ Restored [92] David Roberts 1974Church of Christ with the Elijah Message and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Strangite)Headquartered in Independence, MissouriDifficult to categorize; Roberts claimed to be Strang's successor.

Additional Latter Day Saint churches (usually headquartered in U.S. east of the Rocky Mountains)

Other "Prairie Saint" branches of the movement, such as the Church of Christ (Whitmerite), none of which is known to be extant.

NameOrganized byDateSplit off / Continuation ofCurrent statusNotes
Church of Christ (Wightite) [93] Lyman Wight 1844Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day SaintsExtant until around 1858Wight rejected the claims of leadership made by Brigham Young, William Smith, and James Strang. He moved a group of Latter Day Saints to the central Texas frontier. He accepted Joseph Smith III as his father's successor, but did not live long enough to join the RLDS Church (though most of his followers later did).
Church of Christ (Whitmerite) [12] William E. M'Lellin
and
David Whitmer
1847 and 1871Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day SaintsExtant until around 1925 William E. McLellin claimed that Joseph Smith had designated David Whitmer, one of the Three Witnesses, as his successor. By 1925, most remaining members of the Whitmerite church had united with the Church of Christ (Temple Lot).
Church of Christ (Brewsterite) [12] James C. Brewster
and
Hazen Aldrich
1848Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day SaintsDefunctPublished a periodical entitled The Olive Branch.
The Bride, the Lamb's Wife [94] Jacob Syfritt 1848Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day SaintsDefunctSyfritt claimed to have been taken to heaven to converse with Joseph Smith, who designated him as his true successor.
Congregation of Jehovah's Presbytery of Zion [12] Charles B. Thompson 1848Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day SaintsDefunctAlso called Baneemyites and Conjespresites. Thompson claimed to be "Baneemy" mentioned in The Doctrine and Covenants,D&C 105:27. Said the church had been rejected by God following Joseph Smith's death, and he had been called to renew the priesthood among the gentiles.
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Gladdenite) [12] Gladden Bishop 1851Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day SaintsDissolved after Bishop's death in 1865Many members later helped to form the Church of Christ (Temple Lot).
Pentecostal Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints [95] Mike Bethel 1994The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints [96] Extant as of 1998; status currently unknownThe denomination holds to the canonicity of the Bible and the Book of Mormon, but does not accept other texts in the Latter Day Saint movement such as the Pearl of Great Price and Doctrine and Covenants. [96]

Spontaneous or unknown lineage

Those denominations which originated independent from other organizations and do not trace their doctrinal or priesthood lineage to any 19th-century Latter Day Saint factions, but still hold Latter Day Saint beliefs.

NameOrganized byDateSplit off / Continuation ofCurrent statusNotes
Independent Latter Day Saint congregations in Nigeria [97] Anie D. Obot ca. 1953Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (with LDS Church influences)Extant until around 1978After LDS Church missionaries visited the town of Uyo in 1953, Obot decided to form unauthorized branches of the church in Nigeria and wrote for more information to church headquarters in Salt Lake City, Utah. However, due to Nigerian government visas restrictions and the absence of church leadership, these branches deviated from LDS Church doctrine. This included some practicing of polygamy and establishing their own black priesthood hierarchy, both of which were prohibited at the time by church doctrine.
Independent Latter Day Saint congregations in Ghana [98] Joseph W. B. Johnson 1964Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (with LDS and RLDS influences)Extant until around 1978Upon receiving a copy of the Book of Mormon, Johnson started "Latter day Saint" congregations in Ghana independent from any Latter Day Saint denomination. In 1976, Johnson went to find "The Mormons" (i.e., the LDS Church) and found the RLDS Church instead. However, no further contact was established with the RLDS Church. Upon the announcement of the 1978 Revelation on Priesthood, allowing those of black African descent into the priesthood, Johnson and most of his group were baptized into the LDS Church. [98]
Apostolic Divine Church of Ghana [98] Cape Coast group of the independent Latter-Day Saint congregations in Ghana1976Independent Latter-Day Saint congregations in GhanaExtant for only a few monthsThe Cape Coast group of the independent Latter Day Saint congregations in Ghana (Johnson) schismed when ongoing contact was not established with the LDS Church or RLDS Church in 1976. Some of the individuals in this group formed the Apostolic Divine Church of Ghana, however, this denomination lasted only a few months. [98]
Fellowships of the remnants Spontaneously formed around the teachings of Denver C. Snuffer Jr. 2013Affiliated fellowship groups in schism with the mainstream LDS ChurchAs of 2017, has about 5,000 adherents within about fifty fellowships worldwide

Table of provenances

See also

Related Research Articles

Doctrine and Covenants Part of the scriptural canons of denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement.

The Doctrine and Covenants is a part of the open scriptural canon of several denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement. Originally published in 1835 as Doctrine and Covenants of the Church of the Latter Day Saints: Carefully Selected from the Revelations of God, editions of the book continue to be printed mainly by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and the Community of Christ.

Mormon (word)

The word Mormon most colloquially denotes an adherent, practitioner, follower, or constituent of Mormonism in restorationist Christianity. Mormon also commonly refers, specifically, to a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, which is often colloquially, but imprecisely, referred to as the Mormon Church. In addition, the term Mormon may refer to any of the relatively small sects of Mormon fundamentalism, and any branch of the Latter Day Saint movement that recognizes Brigham Young as the successor to founder Joseph Smith. The term Mormon applies to the religion of Mormonism, as well as its culture, texts, and art.

Latter Day Saint movement Church groups that trace their origins to a Christian primitivist movement founded by Joseph Smith in the late 1820s

The Latter Day Saint movement is the collection of independent church groups that trace their origins to a Christian Restorationist movement founded by Joseph Smith in the late 1820s.

Temple (Latter Day Saints) place of worship of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

In the Latter Day Saint movement, a temple is a building dedicated to be a house of God and is reserved for special forms of worship. A temple differs from a church meetinghouse, which is used for weekly worship services. Temples have been a significant part of the Latter Day Saint movement since early in its inception. Today, temples are operated by several Latter Day Saint denominations. The most prolific builder of temples of the Latter Day Saint movement is The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. There are 165 dedicated temples, 15 under construction, and 29 announced, for a total of 209. Several other variations of the church have built or attempted to build temples. The Community of Christ operates two temples in the United States, which are open to the public and are used for worship services, performances, and religious education. Other denominations with temples are the Apostolic United Brethren, the Church of Christ, the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints and the Righteous Branch of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

Origin of Latter Day Saint polygamy Overview of the inception of plural marriage in the Latter Day Saint movement

Polygamy, or plural marriage, in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints is generally believed to have originated with the founder of Mormonism, Joseph Smith. According to several of his associates, Smith taught that polygamy was a divine commandment and practiced it personally, by some accounts marrying more than 30 women, some of whom had existing marriages to other men. Evidence for Smith's polygamy is provided by the church's "sealing" records, affidavits, letters, journals, and diaries. However, until his death, Smith and the leading church quorums denied that he preached or practiced polygamy. Smith's son Joseph Smith III, his widow Emma Smith, and the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints challenged the evidence and taught that Joseph Smith had opposed polygamy. They instead claimed that Brigham Young, the head of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, introduced plural marriage after Smith's death. In 1852, leaders of the Utah-based LDS Church publicly announced the doctrine of polygamy.

Comparison of the Community of Christ and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Wikipedia article comparing the two Latter Day Saint bodies

Community of Christ and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints are two denominations that share a common heritage in the Church of Christ founded by Joseph Smith on April 6, 1830. Since Smith's death in 1844, they have evolved separately in belief and practices. The LDS Church is headquartered in Salt Lake City, Utah, and claims more than 16 million members worldwide; Community of Christ is headquartered in Independence, Missouri, and reports a worldwide membership of approximately 197,000.

William C. Conway was the leader of a mystical sect in the Latter Day Saint movement that combined the teachings of Joseph Smith with Druidry and some of the ideas of Aleister Crowley and the Ordo Templi Orientis.

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Canada

Since its organization in New York in 1830, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has had a presence in Canada. The first Latter Day Saint missionaries to preach outside of the United States preached in Upper Canada; the first stake to be established outside of the U.S. was the Alberta Stake; and the Cardston Alberta Temple was the first church temple to be built outside of the current boundaries of the United States.

Temple Lot Geographical location important in Latter Day Saint history

The Temple Lot, located in Independence, Jackson County, Missouri, is the first site to be dedicated for the construction of a temple in the Latter Day Saint movement. The area was dedicated on Wednesday, August 3, 1831 by the movement's founder, Joseph Smith, Jr., and purchased on December 19, 1831 by his colleague Edward Partridge to be the center of the New Jerusalem or "City of Zion" after he received a revelation stating that it would be the gathering spot of the Saints during the Last Days.

Mark Hill Forscutt was an English hymn writer and a leader in several denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement. A convert to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Forscutt broke with that denomination for a number of reasons, not the least of which was the practice of plural marriage. Forscutt went on to serve in leadership positions in the Morrisite sect and later in the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.

LDS Visitors Center, Independence, Missouri

The Independence Visitors' Center is a visitors' center owned and operated by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Independence, Missouri. The center is situated on the Greater Temple Lot dedicated and purchased by Joseph Smith and his associates in 1831, only a few yards from the Church of Christ 's headquarters and the Community of Christ Temple.

Outline of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Overview of and topical guide to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

The following outline is provided as an overview of and a topical guide to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

Outline of Joseph Smith Overview of and topical guide to Joseph Smith

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the life and influence of Joseph Smith:

This is a bibliography of works on the Latter Day Saint movement.

References

  1. Robinson, B.A. (2010), Denominations in the LDS Restorationist Movement: The Community of Christ, Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance, retrieved August 8, 2010
  2. See, for example, A collection of sacred hymns for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, in Europe.
  3. , Newsroom, July 15, 2019.
  4. Herald House Style Guide, an official publication of the Community of Christ. See under entry "Saints".
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Shields, Steven (1990), Divergent Paths of the Restoration (Fourth ed.), Independence, Missouri: Restoration Research, ISBN   0-942284-00-3
  6. 1 2 3 Cadman, William H. (1945), A History of the Church of Jesus Christ, Monongahela, PA: The Church of Jesus Christ
  7. 1 2 Fletcher, Rupert J; Whiting, Daisy (1974), Alpheus Cutler and the Church of Jesus Christ, Independence, Missouri: Independence: Church of Jesus Christ, p. 47
  8. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Temples
  9. 1 2 Manuscript History of the Church, LDS Church Archives, book A-1, p. 37; reproduced in Dean C. Jessee (comp.) (1989). The Papers of Joseph Smith: Autobiographical and Historical Writings (Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book) 1:302–303.
  10. 1 2 H. Michael Marquardt and Wesley P. Walters (1994). Inventing Mormonism: Tradition and the Historical Record (Salt Lake City, Utah: Signature Books) p. 160.
  11. Roberts, B.H, ed. (1904), "History of the Church", Deseret News, Salt Lake City, Utah, 3, p. 24, ISBN   1-152-94824-5  – see footnote 12
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Shields, Steven (1990), Divergent Paths of the Restoration (Fourth ed.), Independence, Missouri: Restoration Research, pp. 21–29, 50–53, 197 & 336, ISBN   0-942284-00-3
  13. Young, Brigham, his two Councilors, The Twelve apostles; et al. (1854), Watt, G. D.; Irvine, John (eds.), Journal of Discourses, XI, Liverpool: F.D.& S.W. Richards, p. 6, ISBN   1-4286-2401-5 CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  14. 1 2 Shields, Steven (1990), Divergent Paths of the Restoration (Fourth ed.), Independence, Missouri: Restoration Research, p. 29, ISBN   0-942284-00-3
  15. Bushman, Richard L. (2005), Joseph Smith: Rough Stone Rolling, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, ISBN   1-4000-4270-4 .
  16. Official Web site of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 2010 Intellectual Reserve, Inc., 2010, retrieved April 5, 2010
  17. "An Ordinance, incorporating the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints", Laws and Ordinances of the State of Deseret, Salt Lake City, Utah: Shepard Book Company, 1919 [February 4, 1851], p. 66, retrieved June 29, 2010
  18. Lloyd, R. Scott (October 26, 2013), "Church membership reaches 15 million", Church News
  19. 1 2 Hales, Brian C. "The Council of Friends". mormonfundamentalism.com. Archived from the original on 26 December 2013. Retrieved 16 January 2014.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  20. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 The Primer, Helping Victims of Domestic Violence and Child Abuse in Polygamous Communities: Fundamentalist Mormon Communities (PDF), Utah Attorney General's Office and Arizona Attorney General's Office, June 2006, retrieved June 29, 2010CS1 maint: others (link)
  21. Bennion, Janet (1998), Women of principle: female networking in contemporary Mormon polygyny, Oxford University Press, p. 22, ISBN   0-19-512070-1
  22. Dobner, Jennifer (April 8, 2008). "Facts About the Polygamist Sect FLDS" . Retrieved July 12, 2019.
  23. Bennion, Janet (May 1, 2004), Desert Patriarchy: Mormon and Mennonite Communities in the Chihuahua Valley, University of Arizona Press, p. 126, The sociopolitical structure of LeBaron is based ... on the codes of behavior established in the Apostolic United Brethren.... In 1955....Joel LeBaron...received a revelation...that he should build a new church. This news dismayed many members of the LeBaron community, who had formed an alliance with the AUB, under the leadership of its prophet, Rulon C. Allred.
  24. Booth, William (July 23, 2009), "Ambushed by a Drug War: Mormon Clans in Mexico Find Themselves Targets of the Cartels", Washington Post (Washington Post Foreign Service ed.), Washington, DC, retrieved June 22, 2010
  25. 1 2 Hales, Brian C. "Ross Wesley LeBaron". mormonfundamentalism.com. Archived from the original on 26 December 2013. Retrieved 21 January 2014.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  26. Wright, Lyle O. (1963). "Origins and Development of the Church of the Firstborn of the Fullness of Times" (Master's thesis). p. 40.
  27. Davidson, Staff Writer (June 28, 1988), "Several Men Claim to be The 'One Mighty and Strong'", Deseret News , Salt Lake City, Utah, retrieved April 12, 2011
  28. Moore-Emmett, Andrea (2004). God's Brothel. Pince-Nez Press. ISBN   9781930074132.
  29. Webb, Loren (December 22, 2012), Southern Utah Memories: Alex Joseph Story, Big Water, Utah: KCSG Television, archived from the original on October 21, 2013, retrieved August 21, 2013Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  30. 1 2 Stokes, Jerry (2007), Changing World Religions, Cults & Occult, p. 159, retrieved August 21, 2013
  31. "SAI's Beginnings". Messianic Evangelicals. 21 March 2000. SAI's Beginnings[ permanent dead link ]
  32. January 2017 "Sons Ahman/Aumen Israel (SAI)" Check |url= value (help). The Principle. 1 January 2000. Sons Ahman/Aumen Israel (SAI)
  33. "Mormon Splinter Groups". 4 Mormon. 29 April 2013. Retrieved 2 January 2017. Mormon Splinter Groups
  34. Van Wagoner, Richard S. (1989) [1986], Mormon Polygamy: A History (2d ed.), Salt Lake City, Utah: Signature Books, ISBN   978-0-941214-79-7
  35. 1 2 Hales, Brian C., Robert C. Crossfield, archived from the original on August 27, 2011, retrieved August 26, 2011Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  36. "Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and the Kingdom of God, The". utah.gov. Utah Division of Corporations and commercial Code: Business Search. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 18 November 2014.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  37. Business Entity Search: Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints and Kingdom of God, The (PDF), Utah Department of Commerce, August 9, 2008, retrieved June 4, 2010CS1 maint: others (link)
  38. Llewellyn, John R. (2004), Polygamy Under Attack: From Tom Green to Brian David Mitchell, Agreka Books, p. 30, ISBN   1-888106-76-X
  39. Hollenhorst, John (July 2, 2009), Church of 'Holy Ghost' rocked by sex and assassination allegations, KSL-TV , retrieved 2013-02-15
  40. Holy Ghost' cult stirs Idaho debate after move from Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah: KSL Broadcasting, September 15, 2009
  41. "LDS Church wins, Canadian polygamist loses in fight for 'Mormon' name". Salt Lake Tribune. 14 January 2015. Retrieved 19 January 2015. Finally giving up the fight, Blackmore has agreed to change his group's corporate name to "the Church of Jesus Christ (Original Doctrine) Inc.
  42. "Episode 82: Different Modern-Day Fundamentalist Groups". Year of Polygamy. February 22, 2015. Archived from the original on March 13, 2015. Episode 82: Different Modern-Day Fundamentalist GroupsCite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  43. Walker, Ronald (1994), "Godbeites", in Powell, Allan Kent (ed.), Utah History Encyclopedia, Salt Lake City, Utah: University of Utah Press, p. 674, ISBN   0874804256, OCLC   30473917
  44. 1 2 Quinn, Michael D. (1996), Same-Sex Dynamics among Nineteenth-Century Americans – A Mormon Example, Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press, pp. 438 and 151: note 48, ISBN   9780252022050
  45. Rich, Russell R (1967), Those Who Would Be Leaders: Offshoots of Mormonism, Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University
  46. Godfrey, Kenneth (1994), "The Morrisites", in Powell, Allan Kent (ed.), Utah History Encyclopedia, Salt Lake City, Utah: University of Utah Press, p. 674, ISBN   0874804256, OCLC   30473917
  47. Andrade Jr., Ernest (1996), Unconquerable Rebel: Robert W. Wilcox and Hawaiian Politics, 1880–1903, University Press of Colorado, p. 11, ISBN   0-87081-417-6
  48. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Melton, J. Gordon (1996), Encyclopedia of American Religions (5th ed.), Detroit, Mich: Gale, pp. 540, 582–584 & 561–577, ISBN   978-0-7876-9696-2
  49. Eccles-Caine, Marie, "C. LeRoy Anderson Morrisite Collection", Archive of Intermountain Americana, Salt Lake City, Utah: Utah State University Libraries: Special Collections and Archives, archived from the original on 2006-09-02Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  50. Smith, Joseph; Smith, Heman Conoman; Edwards, Francis Henry (1973), History of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, 4, Independence, Missouri: Herald House, p. 466, ISBN   0-8309-0075-6
  51. Tullis, F. Lamond and Elizabeth Hernandez. "Mormons in Mexico: Leadership, Nationalism, and the Case of the Third Convention." 1987. Accessed 6 April 2009 from: "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-09-07. Retrieved 2009-04-08.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  52. Thomas W. Murphy (1998). ""Stronger Than Ever": Remnants of the Third Convention" (PDF). The Journal of Latter Day Saint History. 10: 1, 8–11. Retrieved 2014-01-27.[ permanent dead link ]
  53. 1 2 3 Erickson, Ralph D. (1969). "History and doctrinal development of the Order of Aaron". Brigham Young University, Dept. of Graduate Studies of the College of Religious Instruction: 5–8. Retrieved 6 January 2014.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  54. Baer, Hans A. (Spring 1979). "The Aaronic Order: The Development of a Modern Mormon Sect" (PDF). Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought . 12 (1): 57–71.
  55. Kraut, Ogden (1991), The One Mighty and Strong, Salt Lake City, Utah: Pioneer Press
  56. "Restoration | The Restored Branch of Jesus Christ | England". Restoration | The Restored Branch of Jesus Christ | England. Retrieved 2019-05-25.
  57. Hamer, John (7 March 2009). "Diverse Latter Day Scripture". By Common Consent . Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  58. Gill, Matthew, Latter Day Church of Jesus Christ Blog, archived from the original on July 8, 2011, retrieved June 22, 2010Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  59. Howard, Richard P. (1992), The Church Through the Years: Beginnings to 1860, Independence, Missouri: Herald House, ISBN   0-8309-0556-1
  60. Queen II, Edward L.; Prothero, Jr., Stephen R.; Shattuck, Jr., Gardiner (2009), Encyclopedia of American Religious History, Volume 1, p. 299, ISBN   978-0-8160-6660-5
  61. Evans, R.C. (1909), Autobiography of Bishop R.C. Evans of the RLDS church, Independence, Missouri: Herald House
  62. Campbell, Jennifer (November 17, 2012). "Allegations of polygamy, abuse and psychological torture within secretive sect". CTVnews.ca. CTV Television Network . Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  63. 1 2 Hunter, Preston (April 23, 2007), Independent Restoration Branches, Research supported by East Haven University, adherents.com, retrieved April 5, 2010
  64. Midgley, Louis (Fall 1993), "The Radical Reformation of the Reorganization of the Restoration: Recent Changes in the RLDS Understanding of the Book of Mormon", Journal of Book of Mormon Studies , 2 (2): 132–163, retrieved 2014-02-06, There are now at least 15,000 and perhaps as many as 30,000 thoroughly marginalized former RLDS [meeting in] Independent Restoration Branches, which constitute separate congregations of RLDS who have removed themselves (or have been removed) from the official RLDS congregations and now operate independently... While [still on] RLDS membership rolls, they hold their own meetings...
  65. The Restored Gospel of Jesus Christ as traditionally taught in the Reorganized Church: Our Invitation, ReorganizedChurch.org, retrieved September 22, 2011
  66. "An Epitome of Faith and Doctrine", CenterPlace.org: Representing independent branches of Restoration RLDS , retrieved June 4, 2008
  67. Joint Conference of Restoration Branches: Conference Resolutions, November 11, 2005 (PDF), November 11, 2005
  68. DeWeese, Adrianne (April 24, 2010), "Restoration Branch Conference Ends", Independence Examiner
  69. DeWeese, Adrianne (April 24, 2010), Restoration branch conference ends, examiner.net, archived from the original on September 27, 2011Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  70. 1 2 The Gale Group, Inc., a division of Thomson Learning, Inc (2003), Church of Christ (David Clark), Oakwood Publishing CompanyCS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) – This group is also known as "Lion of God Ministry". Source "Shields, Steven L. Divergent Paths of the Restoration. Los Angeles: Restoration Research, 1990."
  71. Lohr, David. "Jeffrey Don Lundgren, Prophet of Death". Turner Entertainment Networks, Inc. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 2 July 2013.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  72. Fox News; The Associated Press (October 24, 2006). "Cult Leader Convicted of Killing Family of 5 Executed in Ohio". Fox News. Lucasville, Ohio. Archived from the original on 2013-07-05. Retrieved 2 July 2013.Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  73. 1 2 "Jeffrey Don Lundgren". Office of the Clark County Prosecuting Attorney.
  74. Hunter, Preston (April 23, 2007), Restoration Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, Research supported by East Haven University, adherents.com, retrieved June 22, 2010
  75. Russell, William D, "Defenders of the Faith: Varieties of RLDS Dissent", Sunstone Magazine, Salt Lake City, Utah, pp. 14–19
  76. 1 2 3 Russell, William D. (Winter 2005). "An RLDS Schismatic Group Finds a Prophet of Joseph's Seed" (PDF). Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought . 38 (3).
  77. Hunter, Preston (April 23, 2007), Church of Christ (Temple Lot), Research supported by East Haven University, adherents.com, retrieved April 5, 2010
  78. 1 2 The Gale Group, Inc., a division of Thomson Learning, Inc (2003), Missouri Mormons: Church of Christ (Fetting/Bronson), Oakwood Publishing CompanyCS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  79. The Gale Group, Inc., a division of Thomson Learning, Inc (2003), Missouri Mormons: Church of Christ at Halley's Bluff, Oakwood Publishing CompanyCS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  80. The Gale Group, Inc., a division of Thomson Learning, Inc (2003), Missouri Mormons: Church of Christ (Restored), Oakwood Publishing CompanyCS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  81. Hunter, Preston (April 23, 2007), Church of Christ with the Elijah Message, Adherents.com, retrieved April 5, 2010
  82. Melton, J. Gordon (1996). Encyclopedia of American Religions. Gale Research. p. 576. ISBN   9780810377141.
  83. Campbell, Craig S. (2004). Images of the New Jerusalem: Latter Day Saint faction interpretations of Independence, Missouri. Univ. of Tennessee Press. p. 255. ISBN   9781572333123.
  84. Cater, Kate B. (1969), Denominations that Base their Beliefs on the Teachings of Joseph Smith, Daughters of Utah Pioneers, Salt Lake City, Utah: Sawtooth Books, p. 50
  85. The Gale Group, Inc., a division of Thomson Learning, Inc (2003), Church of Christ (Leighton-Floyd/Burt), Oakwood Publishing CompanyCS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  86. Business Entity Search, Non-Profit Corporation, Domestic, Charter No. N00566777, Dudley, Leonard, W., Jefferson City, Missouri: Missouri Secretary of State, February 5, 2004, retrieved June 29, 2010CS1 maint: others (link)
  87. "The Church of Jesus Christ: General Business and Organization Conference Minutes." Greensburg, PA: The Church of Jesus Christ. Oct. 2013. p. 4895.
  88. Smith, Jason (2010), "Divergent Churches", in Reeve, W. Paul; Parshall, Ardis E. (eds.), Mormonism: A Historical Encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO, p. 236, ISBN   978-1-59884-107-7
  89. Shields, Steven L. Divergent Paths of the Restoration. Herald House, 2001, p. 158.
  90. Further Schisms and the "Mormon War in Illinois, ReligionFacts.com, 2009, retrieved April 7, 2007, see paragraph 4
  91. Oren, Michael (2007), Power, Faith, and Fantasy: America in the Middle East 1776 to the Present, New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company, p. 220
  92. The Gale Group, Inc., a division of Thomson Learning, Inc (2003), Other Mormons: True Church of Jesus Christ Restored, Oakwood Publishing CompanyCS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  93. The Historical magazine, and notes and queries concerning the antiquities, history, and biography of America, 3, London: C. Benjamin Richardson: Trübner & Co., 1959, p. 12, retrieved July 26, 2010
  94. Smith, Herman C, Editor (October 1920), Journal of history vol. 12–13, Lamoni, Iowa: The Board of Publication of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, p. 524CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  95. Hunter, Preston (April 23, 2007), Pentecostal Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Research supported by East Haven University, adherents.com, retrieved April 5, 2010
  96. 1 2 Bowie, David (September 27, 1996), The Pentecostal Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, archived from the original on June 14, 2005, retrieved June 22, 2010
  97. "Mormons: The Black Saints of Nigeria", Time , Time Inc. (Time Warner), vol. 85 no. 25, June 18, 1965
  98. 1 2 3 4 Kissi, Abu (2004), Heiss, Matthew (ed.), "Walking in the Sand: A history of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints in Ghana" (PDF), Studies in Latter-day Saint History Series, Provo, Utah: BYU Studies and the Joseph Fielding Smith Institute for Latter-day Saint History, ISBN   0-8425-2544-0 , retrieved August 26, 2011
  99. https://www.mormonnewsroom.org/facts-and-statistics
  100. https://www.cofchrist.org/Common/Cms/resources/Documents/FY-2014-CofC-audit-FS.pdf

Further reading