Timeline of English history

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This is a timeline of English history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in England and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of England.


Prehistory:  Mesolithic/Neolithic periods   Bronze/Iron Ages
Centuries:  1st   2nd   3rd   4th   5th   6th   7th   8th   9th   10th   11th   12th   13th   14th   15th   16th   17th   18th   19th   20th   21st
References   Sources

1st century BC

55 BC Roman General Julius Caesar invades Great Britain for the first time, gaining a beachhead on the coast of Kent. [1]
54 BCCaesar invades for the second time, gaining a third of the country. These two invasions are known as Caesar's invasions of Britain. [1]

Centuries in 1st millennium: 1st  · 2nd  · 3rd  · 4th  · 5th  · 6th  · 7th  · 8th  · 9th  · 10th

1st century

c.10–c.40Reign of Cunobelinus, an influential king of southern England before the Roman occupation; son of Tasciovanus [2]
43 Aulus Plautius leads an army of forty thousand to invade Great Britain; [3] Emperor Claudius makes Britain a part of the Roman Empire [4]
C. 47 – 50 London settled by the Romans, known as Londinium [5]

2nd century

122 – 128Emperor Hadrian builds walled defences on the border with Scotland, known as Hadrian's Wall [6]

3rd century

4th century

Christianity is introduced by Saint Augustine in 597.

5th century

401Romans begin their withdrawal from Britain [7] :129–131
449The Angles begin their invasion of England and establish tribal kingdoms on the east coast. [8]

6th century

7th century

8th century

740-756Reign of Cuthred, King of Wessex [9]
757 Offa becomes King of Mercia [10]
7938 JuneViking raid on a monastery in Lindisfarne, often taken as the beginning of the Viking age [11]

9th century

849 Alfred the Great, the future king of Wessex (r. 871-899), is born to parents Aethelwulf of Wessex and Osburh.
865Arrival of the Great Heathen Army.
871AprilAlfred the Great succeeds his brother Æthelred as King of the West Saxons
874 Edward the Elder, the future king of England (r. 899-924), is born to parents Alfred the Great and Ealhswith.
894 Æthelstan the Glorious, the future king of England (r. 927-939), is born to parents Edward the Elder and Ecgwynn.

10th century

921 Edmund the Magnificent, the future king of England (r. 939-946), is born to parents Edward the Elder and Eadgifu of Kent.
923 Eadred, the future king of England (r. 946-955), is born to parents Edward the Elder and Eadgifu of Kent.
924 ADÆthelstan becomes king of England
940 Eadwig All-Fair, the future king of England (r. 955-959), is born to parents Edmund I and Ælfgifu of Shaftesbury.
943 Edgar the Peaceful, the future king of England (r. 959-975), is born to parents Edmund I and Ælfgifu of Shaftesbury.
962 Edward the Martyr, the future king of England (r. 975-978) is born to parents Edgar the Peaceful and Æthelflæd.
96317 April Sweyn Forkbeard, the future king of England (r. 1013-1014), is born in Denmark to parents Harald Bluetooth and either Tove or Gunhild.
966 Æthelred the Unready, the future king of England (r. 978~1013), is born to parents Edgar the Peaceful and Ælfthryth.
990 Edmund Ironside, the future king of England (r. 1016-1016), is born to parents Æthelred and Ælfgifu of York.
995 Cnut the Great, the future king of England (r.1016-1035), is born to parents Sweyn Forkbeard and Gunhilda of Poland.
992 ADEarl Byrhtnoth and his thegns led the English against a Viking invasion in the Battle of Maldon in Essex.

11th century

1003 Edward the Confessor, the future king of England (r. 1042-1066), is born to parents Æthelred the Unready and Emma of Normandy.
1016 Harold Harefoot, the future king of England (r.1037-1040), is born to parents Cnut the Great and Ælfgifu of Northhampton.
1016 Cnut the Great of Denmark becomes king of all England [12]
1018 Harthacnut, the future king of England, (r. 1040-1042), is born to parents Cnut the Great and Emma of Normandy.
1022 Harold II, the future king of England (r. 1066-1066), is born to parents Godwin of Wessex and Gytha Thorkelsdóttir.
1028 William the Conqueror, the future king of England (r.1066-1087), is born to parents Robert the Magnificent and Herleva.
1043 Edward the Confessor becomes king of all England [13]
1055 The Great Schism; culmination of theological and political differences between Eastern and Western Christianity [14]
1056 William II, the future king of England (r. 1087-1100), is born to parents William the Conqueror and Matilda of Flanders.
1066 Battle of Fulford : English forces were defeated by Norse invaders in northeastern England.
Battle of Stamford Bridge : the remaining Norse under Harald Hardrada defeated by the bulk of England's army under the command of its king
Battle of Hastings : England's remaining forces defeated by invaders from Normandy, known as the Norman Conquest; William the Conqueror crowned king of England
1068 Henry I, the future king of England (r.1100-1135), is born to parents William the Conqueror and Matilda of Flanders.
1086Work commenced on the Domesday Book
1096 Stephen of Blois, the future king of England (r. 1135-1154), is born to parents Stephen, Count of Blois, and Adela of Normandy.

12th century

11335 March Henry II, the future king of England (r. 1154-1189), is born in Le Mans, France, to parents Geoffrey V of Anjou and Matilda.
1135 The Anarchy began, a civil war resulting from a dispute over succession to the throne that lasted until 1153.
1138The Battle of the Standard, an engagement in which the English defeated an invading Scottish army led by King David I. [15]
11578 September Richard the Lionheart, the future king of England (r. 1189-1199), is born to parents Henry II and Elanor of Aquitaine.
1164The Constitutions of Clarendon, a set of laws which governed the trial of members of the Catholic Church in England, were issued.
116624 December John Lackland, the future king of England (r. 1199-1216), is born to parents Henry II and Elanor of Aquitaine.
1170 Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Becket was assassinated.
1192 Crusades : King Richard I was captured by Austrian Duke Leopold V, Duke of Austria while returning from the Holy Land.
1194 Richard was ransomed and returned to England.

13th century

12071 October Henry III, the future king of England (r. 1216-1272), is born to John and Isabella of Angoulême.
1209King John was excommunicated from the Catholic Church by Pope Innocent III.
1214The English defeated in Battle of Bouvinnes.
1215The Magna Carta was signed.
1237The Treaty of York was signed, fixing the border between Scotland and England.
123917 June Edward I, the future king of England (r. 1272-1307), is born to Henry III and Elanor of Provence.
1264 Battle of Lewes: Rebel English barons led by Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester defeated King Henry III.
1267 Henry recognised the authority of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd in Gwynedd.
1277England annexed Gwynedd.
1279The Statute of Mortmain was issued.
128425 April Edward II, the future king of England (r. 1307-1327), is born to Edward I and Elanor of Castile.
1287 Rhys ap Maredudd led a revolt against English rule in Wales.
1294 Madog ap Llywelyn led a revolt against English rule in Wales.
1297 Battle of Stirling Bridge: The Scots, led by William Wallace, defeated the English.

14th century

130523 August William Wallace was executed by the English on a charge of treason.
131213 November Edward III, the future king of England (r. 1327-1377), is born to Edward II and Isabella of France.
131423 – 24 June Battle of Bannockburn: Scotland won a decisive victory over England.
13281 MayThe Treaty of Edinburgh–Northampton, under which England recognised Scottish independence, was signed.
1348The Black Death arrived in England.
135619 September Battle of Poitiers: Second of the three major battles of the Hundred Years' War took place near Poitiers, France.
13676 January Richard II, the future king of England (r. 1377-1399), is born to parents Edward the Black Prince and Joan of Kent.
1367April Henry IV, the future king of England (r. 1399-1413), is born to parents John of Gaunt and Blanche of Lancaster.
137316 JuneThe Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1373 is signed, forming an alliance between England and Portugal; it remains an active treaty, most recently invoked in the Falklands War (see 1982) [16]
1381May – June Peasants' Revolt: Also called Wat Tyler's Rebellion or the Great Rising, was a major uprising across large parts of England led by Wat Tyler.
138616 September Henry V, the future king of England (r. 1413-1422), is born to parents Henry IV and Mary de Bohun.
1395The Statute of Praemunire was issued.

15th century

140321 July Battle of Shrewsbury was a battle waged between an army led by the Lancastrian King, Henry IV, and a rebel army led by Henry "Harry Hotspur" Percy from Northumberland. [17]
141525 October Battle of Agincourt was a major English victory in the Hundred Years' War [a] that occurred on Saint Crispin's Day, near modern-day Azincourt, in northern France.
14216 December Henry VI, the future king of England (r. 1422~1471), is born to parents Henry V and Catherine of Valois.
144228 April Edward IV, the future king of England (r. 1461~1470), is born to parents Richard of York and Cecily Neville.
14522 October Richard III, the future king of England (r. 1483-1485), is born to parents Richard of York and Cecily Neville.
145522 MayThe start of the Wars of the Roses a civil war for control of the throne of England between the House of York in Yorkshire and House of Lancaster in Lancashire.
145728 January Henry VII, the future king of England (r. 1385-1509), is born to parents Edmund Tudor and Margaret Beaufort.
148522 August Battle of Bosworth Field (Battle of Bosworth): the last significant battle of the Wars of the Roses, the civil war between the Houses of Lancaster and York. Richard III, the last Plantagenet king was killed, succeeded by Henry VII.
148716 June Battle of Stoke was the decisive engagement in an attempt by leading Yorkists to unseat Henry VII of England in favour of the pretender Lambert Simnel.
14702 November Edward V, the future king of England (r. 1483-1483), is born to parents Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville.
149128 June Henry VIII, the future king of England (r. 1509-1547), is born to parents Henry VII and Elizabeth of York.

16th century

1513 Battle of Flodden Field: Invading England, King James IV of Scotland and thousands of other Scots were killed in a defeat at the hands of the English.
151618 February Mary I, the future queen of England (r. 1553-1558), is born to parents Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon.
1521 Lutheran writings begin to circulate in England.
152721 MayPhillip II, the future king of England (r. 1554-1558), is born to parents Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire and Isabella of Portugal.
1526 Lord Chancellor Cardinal Thomas Wolsey ordered the burning of Lutheran books.
1533King Henry VIII severs ties with the Catholic Church and declared himself head of the church in England.
7 September Elizabeth I, the future queen of England (r. 1558-1603), is born to parents Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn.
1534 Henry VIII issued the Act of Supremacy.
Henry VIII issued the Treasons Act 1534.
1535 Thomas More and Cardinal John Fisher were executed.
1536 William Tyndale was executed in Antwerp.
Henry VIII issued the Dissolution of the Monasteries.
153712 October Edward VI, the future king of England (r. 1547-1553), is born to parents Henry VIII and Jane Seymour.
1549 Prayer Book Rebellion: A rebellion occurred in the southwest.
1550England and France sign the Peace of Boulogne.
1553The Act Against Sectaries 1553 was issued.
1558 Elizabeth I claims the throne of England and rules until 1603.
1559The Act of Supremacy 1559 was issued.
156619 June James I, the future king of England (r. 1603-1625), is born to parents Henry Stuart and Mary I.
1571The Treasons Act 1571 was issued.
The Act Prohibiting Papal Bulls from Rome 1571 was issued.
1585The Roanoke Colony was founded in America.
15888 AugustThe Spanish Armada was destroyed.
1589The English Armada (or Counter Armada) was defeated by Spain.
1593The Act Against Papists 1593 was issued.

17th century

160019 November Charles I, the future king of England (r. 1625-1649), is born to parents James I and Anne of Denmark.
1601 Catholic plot against the Earl of Essex includes some of the plotters from the gunpowder plot.
1603 King James VI of Scotland ascends to the English throne, becoming James I of England and uniting the crowns – but not the parliaments – of the two kingdoms.
16055 November Gunpowder Plot: A plot in which Guy Fawkes and other Catholic associates conspired to blow up King James VI and I and the Parliament of England was uncovered.
160714 May Jamestown was founded in the Virginia Colony and was the first permanent English colony in America.
1611 Henry Hudson died.
161829 October Walter Raleigh was executed.
163029 May Charles II, the future king of England (r. 1660-1685) is born to parents Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France.
163314 October James II, the future king of England (r. 1685-1688) is born to parents Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France.
1639 Bishops' Wars: A war with Scotland began which would last until 1640.
1640 Long Parliament: The Parliament was convened.
1642The English Civil War began (see timeline of the English Civil War).
1649January Trial and execution of Charles I
1649 Interregnum began with the First Commonwealth.
16504 November William III, the future king of England (r. 1689-1702), is born to parents William II of Orange and Mary of England.
1653–1659 the Protectorate under the Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell and later (1658) his son Richard Cromwell
1659The Second Commonwealth brings with it a period of great political instability.
1660 Restoration of the monarchy: After a chaotic short revival of the Commonwealth of England, the monarchy was restored in May 1660, after agreeing to the Declaration of Breda, largely through the initiative of General George Monck.
166230 April Mary II, the future queen of England (r. 1689-1694), is born to parents James II and Anne Hyde.
16656 February Anne, the future queen of England (r. 1702-1707), is born to parents James II and Anne Hyde.
16662 – 5 September Great Fire of London  : A major conflagration that swept through the central parts of London.
1688 Glorious Revolution: [18] Also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of James II by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange).
1692–1693 Salem Witch Trials, More than 200 people accused; 20 of which were executed (19 by hanging, 1 being pressed to death). Many accused died in jail awaiting trial.
169427 JulyThe Bank of England is founded.

18th century

1701The Act of Settlement 1701, which required the English monarch to be Protestant, was passed.
17028 March William III died and was succeeded by Anne.
17044 August Gibraltar was captured by a combined Dutch and English fleet under the command of Admiral of the Fleet George Rooke.
13 August Battle of Blenheim : A combined English and Dutch army under the command of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough defeated the French army in Bavaria.
170622 JulyThe Treaty of Union was agreed between representatives of the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland.
1707The Acts of Union 1707 were passed in the Parliament of England and Parliament of Scotland, ratifying the Treaty of Union.
1716The Old Dock, originally known as Thomas Steers' dock, was the world's first commercial wet dock. [19]
1744An attempted French invasion of southern England was stopped by storms.
1760Victory over the French in New France, forming the British East Coast of North America.
1765 William Blackstone published his first volume of Commentaries on the Laws of England .
177519 AprilWar of American Independence officially starts with the battles of Lexington and Concord. Lasts until 1789.
1790s Canal Mania, an intense period of canal building in England and Wales.
179722-25 JulyAdmiral Horatio Nelson suffer his worst defeat in Battle of Santa Cruz de Tenerife (1797) and lost his hand by a cannon ball from a tiger cannon fighting against canarian militias

19th century

1805 Battle of Trafalgar: Horatio Nelson defeats the French at Trafalgar, establishing British naval supremacy over the world's oceans for approximately 140 years.
181916 August Peterloo Massacre: about 18 people killed and several hundred injured in Manchester when cavalry charge a large demonstration demanding parliamentary representation reform [20]
183015 SeptemberThe Liverpool and Manchester Railway [21] [22] [23] (L&MR) was the first inter-city railway in the world. [24] [lower-roman 1] It opened on 15 September 1830 between the Lancashire towns of Liverpool and Manchester in England.
1837June 20 Queen Victoria becomes queen of England, she will reign until January 22, 1901. The Victorian era starts.
185924 November On the Origin of Species by Charles Darwin is published [25]
186310 JanuaryThe first underground train goes into operation in London [26]
1878Women first admitted to the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge [27]
  1. The Stockton and Darlington Railway opened in 1825, but sections of this line employed cable haulage, and only the coal trains were hauled by locomotives. The Canterbury and Whitstable Railway, opened in May 1830, was also mostly cable hauled. Horse-drawn traffic, including passenger services, used the railway upon payment of a toll.

20th century

1912August Harry Brearley invents Stainless Steel in Sheffield, Yorkshire [28]
191428 July World War 1 begins
191811 November World War 1 ends
19393 SeptemberBritain declares war on Nazi Germany and enters World War 2
19458 MayGermany surrenders and World War 2 ends in Europe
19485 JulyThe National Health Service is founded
19731 JanuaryUK joins the European Communities (predecessor of the European Union).
198211 OctoberThe Mary Rose is raised from the seabed of the Solent, where she had sunk in 1545 [29]

21st century

2004The population of England reaches fifty million.
201914 July ICC Cricket World Cup: England win a thriller at Lords and clinch their maiden ODI World Cup led by Eoin Morgan.
2020 Brexit.
2020March Coronavirus pandemic causes over 177,000 deaths despite social distancing and lockdown being put into operation to limit spread of infection.
20228 SeptemberQueen Elizabeth II dies after a reign of 70 years and 214 days

See also

City and town timelines
County timelines

Related Research Articles

Ælfheah, more commonly known today as Alphege, was an Anglo-Saxon Bishop of Winchester, later Archbishop of Canterbury. He became an anchorite before being elected abbot of Bath Abbey. His reputation for piety and sanctity led to his promotion to the episcopate and, eventually, to his becoming archbishop. Ælfheah furthered the cult of Dunstan and also encouraged learning. He was captured by Viking raiders in 1011 during the siege of Canterbury and killed by them the following year after refusing to allow himself to be ransomed. Ælfheah was canonised as a saint in 1078. Thomas Becket, a later Archbishop of Canterbury, prayed to Ælfheah just before his own murder in Canterbury Cathedral in 1170.

Ælle is recorded in early sources as the first king of the South Saxons, reigning in what is now called Sussex, England, from 477 to perhaps as late as 514.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Augustine of Canterbury</span> 6th-century missionary, archbishop, and saint

Augustine of Canterbury was a Christian monk who became the first archbishop of Canterbury in the year 597. He is considered the "Apostle to the English" and a founding figure of the Church of England.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Justus</span> 7th-century missionary, Archbishop of Canterbury, and saint

Justus was the fourth Archbishop of Canterbury. Pope Gregory the Great, sent Justus from Italy to England on a mission to Christianize the Anglo-Saxons from their native paganism, probably arriving with the second group of missionaries despatched in 601. Justus became the first Bishop of Rochester in 604 and attended a church council in Paris in 614.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Laurence of Canterbury</span> 7th-century missionary, Archbishop of Canterbury, and saint

Laurence was the second Archbishop of Canterbury, serving from about 604 to 619. He was a member of the Gregorian mission sent from Italy to England to Christianise the Anglo-Saxons from their native Anglo-Saxon paganism, although the date of his arrival is disputed. He was consecrated archbishop by his predecessor, Augustine of Canterbury, during Augustine's lifetime, to ensure continuity in the office. While archbishop, he attempted unsuccessfully to resolve differences with the native British bishops by corresponding with them about points of dispute. Laurence faced a crisis following the death of King Æthelberht of Kent, when the king's successor abandoned Christianity; he eventually reconverted. Laurence was revered as a saint after his death in 619.

Mellitus was the first bishop of London in the Saxon period, the third Archbishop of Canterbury, and a member of the Gregorian mission sent to England to convert the Anglo-Saxons from their native paganism to Christianity. He arrived in 601 AD with a group of clergy sent to augment the mission, and was consecrated as Bishop of London in 604. Mellitus was the recipient of a famous letter from Pope Gregory I known as the Epistola ad Mellitum, preserved in a later work by the medieval chronicler Bede, which suggested the conversion of the Anglo-Saxons be undertaken gradually, integrating pagan rituals and customs. In 610, Mellitus returned to Italy to attend a council of bishops, and returned to England bearing papal letters to some of the missionaries.

Lyfing of Winchester was an Anglo-Saxon prelate who served as Bishop of Worcester, Bishop of Crediton and Bishop of Cornwall.

Æthelnoth was the archbishop of Canterbury from 1020 until his death. Descended from an earlier English king, Æthelnoth became a monk prior to becoming archbishop. While archbishop, he travelled to Rome and brought back saint's relics. He consecrated a number of other bishops who came from outside his archdiocese, leading to some friction with other archbishops. Although he was regarded as a saint after his death, there is little evidence of his veneration or of a cult in Canterbury or elsewhere.

Coenred was king of Mercia from 704 to 709. Mercia was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom in the English Midlands. He was a son of the Mercian king Wulfhere, whose brother Æthelred succeeded to the throne in 675 on Wulfhere's death. In 704, Æthelred abdicated in favour of Coenred to become a monk.

Honorius was a member of the Gregorian mission to Christianize the Anglo-Saxons from their native Anglo-Saxon paganism in 597 AD who later became Archbishop of Canterbury. During his archiepiscopate, he consecrated the first native English bishop of Rochester as well as helping the missionary efforts of Felix among the East Anglians. Honorius was the last to die among the Gregorian missionaries.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Deusdedit of Canterbury</span> 7th century Anglo-Saxon Archbishop of Canterbury

Deusdedit was a medieval Archbishop of Canterbury, the first native-born holder of the see of Canterbury. By birth an Anglo-Saxon, he became archbishop in 655 and held the office for more than nine years until his death, probably from plague. Deusdedit's successor as archbishop was one of his priests at Canterbury. There is some controversy over the exact date of Deusdedit's death, owing to discrepancies in the medieval written work that records his life. Little is known about his episcopate, but he was considered to be a saint after his demise. A saint's life was written after his relics were moved from their original burial place in 1091.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Frank Stenton</span> English historian

Sir Frank Merry StentonFBA was an English historian of Anglo-Saxon England, a professor of history at the University of Reading (1926–1946), president of the Royal Historical Society (1937–1945), Reading University's vice-chancellor (1946–1950).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cynesige</span> 11th-century Anglo-Saxon Archbishop of York

Cynesige was a medieval English Archbishop of York between 1051 and 1060. Prior to his appointment to York, he was a royal clerk and perhaps a monk at Peterborough. As archbishop, he built and adorned his cathedral as well as other churches, and was active in consecrating bishops. After his death in 1060, the bequests he had made to a monastery were confiscated by the queen.

Hygeberht was the bishop of Lichfield from 779 and archbishop of Lichfield after the elevation of Lichfield to an archdiocese some time after 787, during the reign of the powerful Mercian king Offa. Little is known of Hygeberht's background, although he was probably a native of Mercia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Christianity in Anglo-Saxon England</span>

In the seventh century the pagan Anglo-Saxons were converted to Christianity mainly by missionaries sent from Rome. Irish missionaries from Iona, who were proponents of Celtic Christianity, were influential in the conversion of Northumbria, but after the Synod of Whitby in 664, the Anglo-Saxon church gave its allegiance to the Pope.

Æthelstan was the King of Kent from 839 to 851. He served under the authority and overlordship of his father, King Æthelwulf of Wessex, who appointed him. The late D, E and F versions of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle describe Æthelstan as Æthelwulf's brother, but the A, B and C versions, and Æthelweard's Chronicon, state that he was Æthelwulf's son. Some historians have argued that it is more probable that he was a brother, including Eric John in 1966 and Ann Williams in 1978. However, in 1991 Ann Williams described him as Æthelwulf's son, and this is now generally accepted by historians, including Frank Stenton, Barbara Yorke, and D. P. Kirby.

Natanleod, according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, was a king of the Britons. His inclusion in the Chronicle is believed to be the product of folk etymology.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gregorian mission</span> 6th century Christian mission to Britain

The Gregorian mission or Augustinian mission was a Christian mission sent by Pope Gregory the Great in 596 to convert Britain's Anglo-Saxons. The mission was headed by Augustine of Canterbury. By the time of the death of the last missionary in 653, the mission had established Christianity among the southern Anglo-Saxons. Along with the Irish and Frankish missions it converted Anglo-Saxons in other parts of Britain as well and influenced the Hiberno-Scottish missions to Continental Europe.

The Christianisation of Anglo-Saxon England was a process spanning the 7th century. It was essentially the result of the Gregorian mission of 597, which was joined by the efforts of the Hiberno-Scottish mission from the 630s. From the 8th century, the Anglo-Saxon mission was, in turn, instrumental in the conversion of the population of the Frankish Empire.


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    26. Wolmar, Christian (2004). The Subterranean Railway: how the London Underground was built and how it changed the city forever. Atlantic. p. 135. ISBN   978-1-84354-023-6.
    27. Frances Lannon (30 October 2008). "Her Oxford". Times Higher Education. Archived from the original on 2 January 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
    28. "A non-rusting steel". The New York Times. 31 January 1915.
    29. Wendell Lewis, "Raising the Mary Rose" in Marsden (2003), pp. 53–59; Rule (1983), pp. 206–27.


    Further reading