Dowel

Last updated
Wooden dowel pins Riflenie na shkantakh.JPG
Wooden dowel pins

A dowel is a cylindrical rod, usually made of wood, plastic, or metal. In its original manufactured form, a dowel is called a dowel rod. Dowel rods are often cut into short lengths called dowel pins.[ citation needed ] Dowels are commonly used as structural reinforcements in cabinet making and in numerous other applications, including:

Contents

Wood dowel

Manufacturing process

A dowel plate Dowel template.jpg
A dowel plate

The traditional tool for making dowels is a dowel plate, an iron (or better, hardened tool steel) plate with a hole having the size of the desired dowel. To make a dowel, a piece of wood is split or whittled to a size slightly bigger than desired and then driven through the hole in the dowel plate. The sharp edges of the hole shear off the excess wood. [1] [2] [3]

A second approach to cutting dowels is to rotate a piece of oversized stock past a fixed knife, or alternatively, to rotate the knife around the stock. Machines based on this principle emerged in the 19th century. [4] [5] Frequently, these are small bench-mounted tools. [6] [7]

For modest manufacturing volumes, wood dowels are typically manufactured on industrial dowel machines based on the same principles as the rotary cutters described above. Such machines may employ interchangeable cutting heads of varying diameters, thus enabling the machines to be quickly changed to manufacture different dowel diameters. Typically, the mechanism is open-ended, with material guides at the machine's entry and exit to enable fabrication of continuous dowel rods of unlimited length. Since the 19th century, some of these dowel machines have had power feed mechanisms to move the stock past the cutting mechanism. [8] [9]

Application

When dowels are glued into blind holes, a very common case in dowel-based joinery, there must be a path for air and excess glue to escape when the dowel is pressed into place. If no provision is made to relieve the hydraulic pressure of air and glue, hammering the dowel home or clamping the joint can split the wood. An old solution to this problem is to plane a flat on the side of the dowel; some sources suggest planing the flat on the rough stock before the final shaping of the round dowel. [2] Some dowel plates solve the problem by cutting a groove in the side of the dowel as it is forced through; this is done by a groove screw, a pointed screw intruding from the side into the dowel cutting opening. [3]

When two pieces of wood are to be joined by dowels embedded in blind holes, there are numerous methods for aligning the holes. For example, pieces of shot may be placed between the wood pieces to produce indentations when the pieces are clamped together; after the clamp is released, the indentations indicate the center points for drilling. [1]

History

Hand cut 8" dowel, c1840 Hand cut house construction dowel c1840.jpg
Hand cut 8" dowel, c1840

The word dowel was used in Middle English; it appears in Wycliffe's Bible translation (circa 1382-1395) in a list of the parts of a wheel: "...and the spokis, and dowlis of tho wheelis..." [10]

See also

Related Research Articles

Router (woodworking)

The router is a power tool with a flat base and a rotating blade extending past the base. The spindle may be driven by an electric motor or by a pneumatic motor. It routs an area in hard material, such as wood or plastic. Routers are used most often in woodworking, especially cabinetry. They may be handheld or affixed to router tables. Some woodworkers consider the router one of the most versatile power tools.

Woodworking joints Where pieces of wood are fixed together in an assembly

Joinery is a part of woodworking that involves joining pieces of wood or lumber, to produce more complex items. Some wood joints employ fasteners, bindings, or adhesives, while others use only wood elements. The characteristics of wooden joints - strength, flexibility, toughness, appearance, etc. - derive from the properties of the materials involved and the purpose of the joint. Therefore, different joinery techniques are used to meet differing requirements. For example, the joinery used to construct a house can be different from that used to make puzzle toys, although some concepts overlap. In British English usage it is distinguished from carpentry which relates to structural timber work.

Lathe Machine tool which rotates the work piece on its axis

A lathe is a machine tool that rotates a workpiece about an axis of rotation to perform various operations such as cutting, sanding, knurling, drilling, deformation, facing, and turning, with tools that are applied to the workpiece to create an object with symmetry about that axis.

Medium-density fibreboard Engineered wood product

Medium-density fibreboard (MDF) is an engineered wood product made by breaking down hardwood or softwood residuals into wood fibres, often in a defibrator, combining it with wax and a resin binder, and forming it into panels by applying high temperature and pressure. MDF is generally denser than plywood. It is made up of separated fibres but can be used as a building material similar in application to plywood. It is stronger and denser than particle board.

Drill bit Cutting tools

Drills are cutting tools used to remove material to create holes, almost always of circular cross-section. Drills come in many sizes and shapes and can create different kinds of holes in many different materials. In order to create holes drill bits are usually attached to a drill, which powers them to cut through the workpiece, typically by rotation. The drill will grasp the upper end of a bit called the shank in the chuck.

Biscuit joiner

A biscuit joiner or biscuit jointer is a woodworking tool used to join two pieces of wood together. A biscuit joiner uses a small circular saw blade to cut a crescent-shaped hole in the opposite edges of two pieces of wood or wood composite panels. An oval-shaped, highly dried and compressed wooden biscuit is covered with glue, or glue is applied in the slot. The biscuit is immediately placed in the slot, and the two boards are clamped together. The wet glue expands the biscuit, further improving the bond.

Collet type of chuck

A collet is a subtype of chuck that forms a collar around an object to be held and exerts a strong clamping force on the object when it is tightened, usually by means of a tapered outer collar. It may be used to hold a workpiece or a tool.

Chuck (engineering) Clamp used to hold an object with radial symmetry, especially a cylinder

A chuck is a specialized type of clamp used to hold an object with radial symmetry, especially a cylinder. In a drill, a mill and a transmission, a chuck holds the rotating tool; in a lathe, it holds the rotating workpiece.

Turning Machining process

Turning is a machining process in which a cutting tool, typically a non-rotary tool bit, describes a helix toolpath by moving more or less linearly while the workpiece rotates.

Frame and panel

Frame and panel construction, also called rail and stile, is a woodworking technique often used in the making of doors, wainscoting, and other decorative features for cabinets, furniture, and homes. The basic idea is to capture a 'floating' panel within a sturdy frame, as opposed to techniques used in making a slab solid wood cabinet door or drawer front, the door is constructed of several solid wood pieces running in a vertical or horizontal direction with exposed endgrains. Usually, the panel is not glued to the frame but is left to 'float' within it so that seasonal movement of the wood comprising the panel does not distort the frame.

Mitre box Woodworking tool used to guide a saw

A mitre box or miter box is a wood working appliance used to guide a hand saw for making precise cuts, usually 45° mitre cuts. Traditional mitre boxes are simple in construction and made of wood, while adjustable mitre boxes are made of metal and can be adjusted for cutting any angle from 45° to 90°.

Butt joint

A butt joint is a technique in which two pieces of material are joined by simply placing their ends together without any special shaping. The name "butt joint" comes from the way the material is joined together. The butt joint is the simplest joint to make since it merely involves cutting the material to the appropriate length and butting them together. It is also the weakest because unless some form of reinforcement is used, it relies upon glue or welding alone to hold it together. Because the orientation of the material usually presents only one end to a long gluing or welding surface, the resulting joint is inherently weak.

C-clamp Type of clamp device

A C-clamp or G-clamp or G-cramp is a type of clamp device typically used to hold a wood or metal work piece, and often used in, but are not limited to, carpentry and welding. Often believed that these clamps are called "C" clamps because of their C-shaped frame, or also often called C-clamps or G-clamps because including the screw part, they are shaped like an uppercase letter G. However, in fact, they were originally called a carriage maker's clamp, or Carriage Clamp.

Pocket-hole joinery

Pocket-hole joinery, or pocket-screw joinery, involves drilling a hole at an angle — usually 15 degrees — into one work piece, and then joining it to a second work piece with a self-tapping screw.

This glossary of woodworking lists a number of specialized terms and concepts used in woodworking, carpentry, and related disciplines.

Screw-cutting lathe

A screw-cutting lathe is a machine capable of cutting very accurate screw threads via single-point screw-cutting, which is the process of guiding the linear motion of the tool bit in a precisely known ratio to the rotating motion of the workpiece. This is accomplished by gearing the leadscrew to the spindle with a certain gear ratio for each thread pitch. Every degree of spindle rotation is matched by a certain distance of linear tool travel, depending on the desired thread pitch.

Screw Type of fastener characterized by a thread wrapped around a cylinder core

A screw and a bolt are similar types of fastener typically made of metal and characterized by a helical ridge, called a male thread. Screws and bolts are used to fasten materials by the engagement of the screw thread with a similar female thread in the matching part.

Threading is the process of creating a screw thread. More screw threads are produced each year than any other machine element. There are many methods of generating threads, including subtractive methods ; deformative or transformative methods ; additive methods ; or combinations thereof.

Bolt (fastener)

A bolt is a form of threaded fastener with an external male thread requiring a matching pre-formed female thread such as a nut. Bolts are very closely related to screws.

Annular cutter

An annular cutter is form of core drill used to create holes in metal. An annular cutter, named after the annulus shape, cuts only a groove at the periphery of the hole and leaves a solid core or slug at the center.

References

  1. 1 2 Ivin Sickels, Exercises in Wood-Working, American Book Company, 1889; see Exercise 18.— Uniting with Dowels, pages 104-105.
  2. 1 2 Dowel Making and Doweling, Scientific American, Vol. XLIX, No. 6 (Aug. 11, 1883); page 88.
  3. 1 2 H. H. Parker, Making Wood Dowels, Popular Mechanics, Vol. 41, No. 6 (June, 1924); page 957.
  4. William H. Whitlock, Improvement in Turning Tool, U.S. Patent 83,573 , granted Oct. 27, 1868.
  5. Sanford A. Penny, Lathe, U.S. Patent 398,077 , granted Feb. 19, 1889.
  6. Edward A. Cherry, Tool for Forming Round Dowels and Rods, U.S. Patent 1,367,462 , granted Feb. 1, 1921; this is the Stanley No. 77 Dowel and Rod Turner.
  7. Abdul Aziz, Leonard G. Lee and Lloyd Sevack, Dowel Maker, U.S. Patent 6,263,929 , granted Aug. 26, 2001; this is the Lee Valley Veritas Dowel Maker.
  8. Oscar H. Ordway, Dowel Making Machine, U.S. Patent 603,965 , granted May 10, 1898.
  9. George W. Davis, Dowel-Making Machine, U.S. Patent 1,427,073 , granted Aug. 22, 1922.
  10. 3 Kings 7:33 in Wycliffe's Bible.