Middlesex (UK Parliament constituency)

Last updated
Middlesex
Former County constituency
for the House of Commons
1265–1885
Number of memberstwo
Replaced by Brentford, Ealing, Enfield, Hampstead, Harrow, Hornsey, Tottenham and Uxbridge
During its existence contributed to new seat(s) of: City of London (1298)

Westminster (1545)
Finsbury, Marylebone and Tower Hamlets (1832)

Contents

Hackney and Chelsea (1867)

Middlesex is a former constituency. It was a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of England, then of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800, and finally of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1885. It returned two members by various voting systems including hustings.

United Kingdom constituencies electoral area in the UK (do not use in P31; use subclasses of this instead)

In the United Kingdom (UK), each of the electoral areas or divisions called constituencies elect one member to a parliament or assembly, with the exception of European Parliament and Northern Ireland Assembly constituencies which are multi member constituencies.

House of Commons of England parliament of England up to 1707

The House of Commons of England was the lower house of the Parliament of England from its development in the 14th century to the union of England and Scotland in 1707, when it was replaced by the House of Commons of Great Britain. In 1801, with the union of Great Britain and Ireland, that house was in turn replaced by the House of Commons of the United Kingdom.

Parliament of England historic legislature of the Kingdom of England

The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England, existing from the early 13th century until 1707, when it merged with the Parliament of Scotland to become the Parliament of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain.

Boundaries and boundary changes

Soliciting Votes by William Hogarth, of Chiswick, Middlesex, 1754. William Hogarth - Soliciting Votes - WGA11457.jpg
Soliciting Votes by William Hogarth, of Chiswick, Middlesex, 1754.
Map of Middlesex, drawn by Thomas Kitchin, geographer 1769 (with some towns not in the county i.e. south of the river or outside of the dashed line). It has a heading of Remarks that mentions 2 seats of Westminster and 4 of the City of London Map of Middlesex, drawn by Thomas Kitchin, geographer, 1769.jpg
Map of Middlesex, drawn by Thomas Kitchin, geographer 1769 (with some towns not in the county i.e. south of the river or outside of the dashed line). It has a heading of Remarks that mentions 2 seats of Westminster and 4 of the City of London
Map of the seven single-MP county constituencies created by subdivision of the final version of the seat which existed between 1867 and 1885 and returned two MPs. Brentford division is highlighted which was named after the town where the hustings took place after 1700. Brentford1885.png
Map of the seven single-MP county constituencies created by subdivision of the final version of the seat which existed between 1867 and 1885 and returned two MPs. Brentford division is highlighted which was named after the town where the hustings took place after 1700.

This county constituency consisted of the historic county of Middlesex, in south-eastern England, comprising Spelthorne, Poyle, South Mimms and Potters Bar in other modern counties, together with the north, west, and north-west sectors of the present-day Greater London. Central London was gradually removed from the seat. Its southern boundary was the River Thames.

Historic counties of England Geographical designations for areas of England, based on historical traditions

The historic counties of England are areas that were established for administration by the Normans, in many cases based on earlier kingdoms and shires created by the Anglo-Saxons and others. They are alternatively known as ancient counties, traditional counties, former counties or simply as counties. In the centuries that followed their establishment, as well as their administrative function, the counties also helped define local culture and identity. This role continued even after the counties ceased to be used for administration after the creation of administrative counties in 1889, which were themselves amended by further local government reforms in the years following.

Middlesex historic county of England

Middlesex is an ancient county in southeast England. It is now entirely within the wider urbanised area of London. Its area is now also mostly within the ceremonial county of Greater London, with small sections in other neighbouring ceremonial counties. It was established in the Anglo-Saxon system from the territory of the Middle Saxons, and existed as an official unit until 1965. The historic county includes land stretching north of the River Thames from 17 miles (27 km) west to 3 miles (5 km) east of the City of London with the rivers Colne and Lea and a ridge of hills as the other boundaries. The largely low-lying county, dominated by clay in its north and alluvium on gravel in its south, was the second smallest county by area in 1831.

Poyle village in the United Kingdom

Poyle is a largely industrial and agricultural area in the unitary authority of Slough, in the ceremonial county of Berkshire, England. It is located 18 miles (29 km) west of Charing Cross in London and immediately west of the M25 motorway, near Heathrow Airport; it also adjoins the Colne Valley regional park.

The county seat returned two Members of Parliament (sometimes referred to by the medieval term of knights of the shire). The place of election for the county was until 1700 at Hampstead Heath, thereafter at The Butts in the town centre of Brentford. [1] Hustings were typically over a period of a fortnight when candidates set out their stall, and visible bribery had become not uncommon in closer contests around the country in such larger seats at the time, inspiring William Hogarth’s series of four pictures titled ‘Four Prints of An Election’ (when printed). [1]

Hampstead Heath London park

Hampstead Heath is a large, ancient London heath, covering 320 hectares. This grassy public space sits astride a sandy ridge, one of the highest points in London, running from Hampstead to Highgate, which rests on a band of London Clay. The heath is rambling and hilly, embracing ponds, recent and ancient woodlands, a lido, playgrounds, and a training track, and it adjoins the former stately home of Kenwood House and its estate. The south-east part of the heath is Parliament Hill, from which the view over London is protected by law.

Brentford town in west London, England

Brentford is a town in western Greater London, England, the contested county town of Middlesex and part of the London Borough of Hounslow. It lies at the confluence of the River Brent and the Thames, 8 miles (13 km) west-by-southwest of Charing Cross. It has formed part of Greater London since 1965.

A husting originally referred to a native Germanic governing assembly, the thing. By metonymy, the term may now refer to any event, such as debates or speeches, during an election campaign where one or more of the representative candidates are present. The term is used synonymously with stump in the United States.

Until 1832 the county franchise was limited to forty shilling freeholders. The decrease in the value of money due to inflation and the expansion of the wealth and population as the urbanised area in the east around London and Westminster grew contributed to gradually expanding the electorate. The county was estimated by Henning to have about 1,660 voters in 1681. Sedgwick estimated about 3,000 in the 171554 period. Namier and Brook suggested there were about 3,500 in 175490. The number had reached about 6,000 by 17901820, according to Thorne. Close elections between popular candidates would therefore be expensive - the worth of being a local magistrate, major landowner or other dignitary carrying little weight among such a generally urban and numerous upper-middle class forming the bulk of the electorate.

Inflation is a sustained increase in the general price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time. When the general price level rises, each unit of currency buys fewer goods and services; consequently, inflation reflects a reduction in the purchasing power per unit of money – a loss of real value in the medium of exchange and unit of account within the economy. The measure of inflation is the inflation rate, the annualized percentage change in a general price index, usually the consumer price index, over time. The opposite of inflation is deflation.

For subsequent changes in the franchise see Reform Act 1832 and Reform Act 1867. From 1832 voters were registered; the size of the electorate is shown below.

Reform Act 1832 UK parliament act of 1832

The Representation of the People Act 1832 was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of England and Wales. According to its preamble, the Act was designed to "take effectual Measures for correcting divers Abuses that have long prevailed in the Choice of Members to serve in the Commons House of Parliament". Before the reform, most members nominally represented boroughs. The number of electors in a borough varied widely, from a dozen or so up to 12,000. Frequently the selection of MPs was effectively controlled by one powerful patron: for example Charles Howard, 11th Duke of Norfolk, controlled eleven boroughs. Criteria for qualification for the franchise varied greatly among boroughs, from the requirement to own land, to merely living in a house with a hearth sufficient to boil a pot.

Reform Act 1867

The Representation of the People Act 1867, 30 & 31 Vict. c. 102 was a piece of British legislation that enfranchised part of the urban male working class in England and Wales for the first time. It received Royal Assent by the British Crown on August 15, 1867, following its passage by UK Parliament to take enactment in stages over the next couple of years, culminating in full enactment on January 1, 1869.

The geographic county until 1885 also contained the borough constituencies of City of London (first recorded as having its extraordinary four members from 1298) and Westminster (enfranchised with two members from 1545). In 1832 three two-seat Boroughs were added (or enfranchised): Finsbury, Marylebone, and Tower Hamlets. In 1867 two new parliamentary boroughs each returning two MPs were constituted: 'Hackney' (St Leonard's Shoreditch, St Matthew's Bethnal Green and St John's Hackney) formerly represented in borough elections via Tower Hamlets and 'Chelsea' (parishes of Chelsea, Kensington, Hammersmith and Fulham). [2] The single-member non-territorial University constituency of London University (18681950) was somewhat connected to the county by having most of its graduates eligible to vote.

City of London (UK Parliament constituency) Parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom

The City of London was a United Kingdom Parliamentary constituency. It was a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of England then of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1950.

Westminster (UK Parliament constituency) former parliamentary constituency in the Parliament of England

Westminster was a parliamentary constituency in the Parliament of England to 1707, the Parliament of Great Britain 1707–1800 and the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801. It returned two members to 1885 and one thereafter.

The parliamentary borough of Finsbury was a constituency of the House of Commons of the UK Parliament from 1832 to 1885, and from 1918 to 1950. The constituency was first created in 1832 as one of seven two-seat "metropolis" parliamentary boroughs other than the two which already existed: Westminster and the City of London; the latter until 1885 retained an exceptional four seats. Finsbury was directly north of the City of London and was smaller than the Finsbury division of the Ossulstone hundred but took in land of Holborn division to its southwest in pre-introduction changes by Boundary Commissioners. It included Finsbury, Holborn, Moorfields, Clerkenwell, Islington, Stoke Newington and historic St Pancras. The 1918 constituency corresponded to the smaller Metropolitan Borough of Finsbury ; it was a seat, thus electing a single member, fulfilling a longstanding aim of Chartism which underscored the 1832 reforms.

Possession of a county electoral qualification, deriving from owning various types of property or having ecclesiastical 'offices' (controversially and sporadically defined) in an area not otherwise represented, conferred the right to vote in the county elections.

An 1885 redistribution of seats saw Middlesex and its early breakaway seats in and around the City reformed under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885 reflecting the wider electorate of the Reform Act 1884 and need to 'liberate' boroughs, i.e. urban areas without properly apportioned representation:

Local government bodies

In 1889 the 40 urban constituencies that comprised the south-eastern part fell into (for local government) a County of London save for the much smaller City of London which remained a separate quasi-county and legal jurisdiction. The seven county divisions (constituencies) in the north and west of the historic county came under a new local government body, the administrative county of Middlesex. Both counties were also known by their governing bodies' name, County Councils (abbreviated to LCC and MCC). The seven successor seats were Brentford, Ealing, Enfield, Harrow, Hornsey, Tottenham and Uxbridge. These (and numerous later successor seats) had MCC local governance until its abolition in 1965.

Members of Parliament

Preliminary note: The English civil year started on Lady Day, 25 March, until 1752 (Scotland having changed to 1 January in 1600). The year used in the lists of Parliaments in this article have been converted to the new style where necessary. It should be noted that old style dates for days between 1 January and 24 March actually referred to days after 31 December. No attempt has been made to compensate for the eleven days which did not occur in September 1752 in both England and Scotland as well as other British controlled territories (when the day after 2 September was 14 September), so as to bring the British Empire fully in line with the Gregorian calendar.

Constituency created (1265): See Montfort's Parliament for further details. Knights of the shire are known to have been summoned to most Parliaments from 1290 (19th Parliament of King Edward I of England) and to every one from 1320 (19th Parliament of King Edward II of England).

Knights of the shire 1265–1660

Some of the members elected during this period have been identified, but this list does not include Parliaments where no member has been identified before the reign of King Henry VIII. In the list (as opposed to the table below) the year given is for the first meeting of the Parliament, with the month added where there was more than one Parliament in the year. If a second year is given this is a date of dissolution. Early Parliaments usually only existed for a few days or weeks, so dissolutions in the same year as the first meeting are not recorded in this list If a specific date of election is known this is recorded in italic brackets. The Roman numerals in brackets, following some names, are those used to distinguish different politicians of the same name in 'The House of Commons' 1509-1558 and 1558-1603.

In this period, Parliament was not an institution with a regular pattern of elections and sittings. Therefore, a separate entry is made for each Parliament, even if the same Knight of the Shire served in successive Parliaments.

List of known Knights of the Shire before 1509

ParliamentFirst memberSecond member
1295 (Nov) William de Brook Stephen de Gravesend
1296 Richard de Wyndesor Richard le Rous
1297 (Oct) Richard le Rous ?
1298 (Mar) Richard le Rous ?
1298 (May) Richard le Rous ?
1300 Richard le Rous ?
1301 Richard le Rous ?
1302 (Oct) Richard le Rous ?
1305 (Feb) Richard le Rous ?
1306 Richard le Rous ?
1386 Sir Adam Francis William Swanland [3]
1388 (Feb) Sir Adam Francis William Swanland [3]
1388 (Sep) William Barnville Godfrey Atte Perry [3]
1390 (Jan) John Shorditch I Thomas Coningsby [3]
1390 (Nov) John Shorditch I Sir Adam Francis [3]
1391 Thomas Bray William Norton [3]
1393 William Tamworth Thomas Maidstone [3]
1394 John Shorditch II James Ormesby [3]
1395 John Shorditch II Thomas Coningsby [3]
1397 (Jan) Thomas Goodlake Thomas Maidstone [3]
1397 (Sep) Sir Adam Francis Sir John Wroth [3]
1399 John Durham Thomas Maidstone [3]
1401 William Loveney Sir John Wroth [3]
1402 James Northampton Thomas Coningsby [3]
1404 (Jan) William Wroth Sir John Wroth [3]
1404 (Oct) Sir Roger Strange William Powe [3]
1406 Henry Somer Sir John Wroth [3]
1407 Henry Somer William Loveney [3]
1410
1411 Sir Adam Francis Sir Roger Strange [3]
1413 (Feb)
1413 (May) William Loveney Richard Wyot [3]
1414 (Apr) Simon Camp Walter Green [3]
1414 (Nov) Thomas Charlton John Walden [3]
1415 Simon Camp Thomas Coningsby [3]
1416 (Mar)
1416 (Oct) Henry Somer Walter Gawtron [3]
1419 Thomas Frowyk Thomas Coningsby [3]
1420 Sir John Boys Walter Green [3]
1421 (May) Henry Somer Sir Thomas Charlton [3]
1421 (Dec) Richard Maidstone Edmund Bibbesworth [3]
1429 Henry Somer
1442 Thomas Charlton [4] John Somerset
1447 Thomas Charlton [4]
1449 Thomas Charlton [4]
1453 Thomas Charlton [4]
1459 Sir Thomas Charlton [4]
1460 Sir Thomas Charlton [4]
1491 Sir Thomas Lovell [5]

Table of Knights of the Shire 1509-1660

SummonedElectedAssembledDissolvedFirst MemberSecond Member
17 October 15091509/1021 January 151023 February 1510 Sir Thomas Lovell (I)unknown
28 November 15111511/124 February 15124 March 1514unknownunknown
23 November 15141514/155 February 151522 December 1515unknownunknown
unknown152315 April 152313 August 1523 Sir Thomas More (I) aunknown
9 August 152915293 November 152914 April 1536 Robert Wroth b Richard Hawkes c
27 April 153615368 June 153618 July 1536unknownunknown
1 March 1539153928 April 153924 July 1540 Sir Ralph Sadler Robert Cheeseman
23 November 15411541/4216 January 154228 March 1544 Robert Cheeseman John Hughes d
1 December 15441544/4523 November 154531 January 1547 Sir William Paget Thomas Wroth
2 August 154715474 November 154715 April 1552 Sir Thomas Wroth John Newdigate
5 January 155315531 March 155331 March 1553 Sir Robert Bowes Sir Thomas Wroth
14 August 155315535 October 15535 December 1553 Sir Edward Hastings John Newdigate
17 February 155415542 April 15543 May 1554 Sir Edward Hastings John Newdigate
3 October 1554155412 November 155416 January 1555 Sir Edward Hastings Sir Roger Cholmley
3 September 1555155521 October 15559 December 1555 Sir Edward Hastings Sir Roger Cholmley
6 December 15571557/5820 January 155817 November 1558 Sir Roger Cholmley John Newdigate
5 December 155829 December 155823 January 15598 May 1559 Sir Roger Cholmley Sir Thomas Wroth
10 November 15621562/6311 January 15632 January 1567 Sir William Cordell Sir Thomas Wroth
unknown15712 April 157129 May 1571 Francis Newdigate John Newdigate
28 March 157215728 May 157219 April 1583 Robert Wroth (I) Sir Owen Hopton
12 October 1584158423 November 158414 September 1585 Robert Wroth (I) Sir Owen Hopton
15 September 1586158615 October 158623 March 1587 Robert Wroth (I) William Fleetwood (III)
18 September 158819 December 15884 February 158929 March 1589 Robert Wroth (I) William Fleetwood (III)
4 January 1593159318 February 159310 April 1593 Robert Wroth (I) Francis Bacon
23 August 159715 September 159724 October 15979 February 1598 Sir Robert Wroth (I) Sir John Peyton (I)
11 September 16018 October 160127 October 160119 December 1601 Sir John Fortescue (I) Sir Robert Wroth (I)
31 January 1604160419 March 16049 February 1611 Sir William Fleetwood Sir Robert Wroth
unknown16145 April 16147 June 1614 Sir Julius Caesar Sir Thomas Lake
13 November 16201620/2116 January 16218 February 1622 Sir Francis Darcy Sir Gilbert Gerard, Bt
20 December 16231623/2412 February 162427 March 1625 Sir Gilbert Gerard, Bt Sir John Suckling
2 April 1625162517 May 162512 August 1625 Sir John Francklyn Sir Gilbert Gerard, Bt
20 December 162516266 February 162615 June 1626 Sir Gilbert Gerard, Bt Sir Edward Spencer
31 January 1628162817 March 162810 March 1629 Sir Francis Darcy Sir Henry Spiller
1629–1640No Parliaments summoned
20 February 1640164013 April 16405 May 1640 Sir John Francklyn Sir Gilbert Gerard, Bt
24 September 164016403 November 164016 March 1660 e Sir John Francklyn f Sir Gilbert Gerard, Bt g
18 May 1648 Sir Edward Spencer h

Notes:-

Table of Members of the Commonwealth Parliaments 1653-1659

The County had three nominated members in the Barebones Parliament, four representatives in the First and Second and the usual two in the Third of the Protectorate Parliaments

SummonedElectedAssembledDissolved1st Member2nd Member3rd Member4th Member
4 July 165312 December 1653 Sir William Roberts Augustine Wingfield Arthur Squib
1 June 165416543 September 165422 January 1655 Sir James Harrington, Bt Sir William Roberts Josiah Berners Edmund Harvey
10 July 1656165617 September 16564 February 1658 Sir John Barkstead Sir William Roberts Chaloner Chute William Kiffen
9 December 16581658/5927 January 165922 April 1659 Francis Gerard Chaloner Chute

Knights of the shire 1660–1885

Year1st Member1st Party2nd Member2nd Party
1660 Sir Lancelot Lake Non Partisan Sir William Waller Non Partisan
1661 Sir Thomas Allen Non Partisan
1679 Sir Robert Peyton Non Partisan Sir William Roberts, Bt Non Partisan
1681 Robert Atkyns Non Partisan
1681 Nicholas Raynton Non Partisan
1685 Sir Charles Gerard, Bt Non Partisan Ralph Hawtrey Non Partisan
1695 Edward Russell Non Partisan Sir John Wolstenholme, Bt Non Partisan
1696 Sir John Bucknall Non Partisan
1698 Warwick Lake Non Partisan
1701 Hugh Smithson Tory
1701 John Austen Whig
1702 Hugh Smithson Tory
1705 Scorie Barker Non Partisan Sir John Wolstenholme, Bt Non Partisan
1709 John Austen Whig
1710 Hon. James Bertie Tory Hugh Smithson Tory
1722 Sir John Austen, Bt. Whig
1727 Sir Francis Child Tory
1734 William Pulteney Whig
1740 Sir Hugh Smithson, Bt
(later Sir Hugh Percy, Bt)a
Tory
1742 Sir Roger Newdigate, Bt Tory
1747 Sir William Beauchamp-Proctor, Bt Whig Whig
1750 George Cooke Tory
1768 John Wilkes Radical
1768 John Glynn Whig [6]
1769 Henry Luttrell Tory [6]
1774 John Wilkes Radical [6]
1779 Thomas Wood Whig
1780 George Byng Whig [6]
1784 William Mainwaring Tory [6]
1790 George Byng Whig [6] [7]
1802 Sir Francis Burdett, Bt Whig [6]
1804 George Boulton Mainwaring Tory [6]
1805 Sir Francis Burdett, Bt Whig [6]
1806 George Boulton Mainwaring Tory [6]
1806 William Mellish Tory [6]
1820 Samuel Charles Whitbread Whig [6]
1830 Joseph Hume Radical [6] [8]
1837 Thomas Wood Conservative [6]
1847 Lord Robert Grosvenor Whig [9] [10] [11]
1847 Ralph Bernal Osborne Radical [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17]
1857 Robert Culling Hanbury Whig [18] [19]
1857 Hon. George Byng
(later Viscount Enfield)b
Whig [20] [21] [22]
1859 Liberal Liberal
1867 Henry Labouchère Liberal
1868 Lord George Hamilton Conservative
1874 Octavius Coope Conservative
1885 constituency divided

Notes:-

Elections

General notes

In multi-member elections the bloc voting system was used. Voters could cast a vote for one or two candidates, as they chose. The leading candidates with the largest number of votes were elected.

In by-elections, to fill a single seat, the first past the post system applied.

After 1832, when registration of voters was introduced, a turnout figure is given for contested elections. In two-member elections, when the exact number of participating voters is unknown, this is calculated by dividing the number of votes by two. To the extent that electors did not use both their votes this will be an underestimate of turnout.

Where a party had more than one candidate in one or both of a pair of successive elections change is calculated for each individual candidate, otherwise change is based on the party vote.

Candidates for whom no party has been identified are classified as Non Partisan. The candidate might have been associated with a party or faction in Parliament or consider himself to belong to a particular political tradition. Political parties before the nineteenth century were not as cohesive or organised as they later became. Contemporary commentators (even the reputed leaders of parties or factions) in the eighteenth century did not necessarily agree who the party supporters were. The traditional parties, which had arisen in the late seventeenth century, became increasingly irrelevant to politics in the eighteenth century (particularly after 1760), although for some contests in some constituencies party labels were still used. It was only towards the end of the century that party labels began to acquire some meaning again, although this process was by no means complete for several more generations.

Sources: The results for elections 1660-1790 were taken from the History of Parliament Trust publications. The results are based on Stooks Smith from 1790 until the 1832 general election and Craig from 1832. Where Stooks Smith gives additional information after 1832 this is indicated in a note.

Results 1660–1885

Parliament of England

General Election 5 April 1660: Middlesex (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Non Partisan Lancelot Lake ElectedN/AN/A
Non Partisan William Waller ElectedN/AN/A
Non Partisan Gilbert Gerard DefeatedN/AN/A
Non Partisan William RobertsDefeatedN/AN/A
Non Partisan James Harington DefeatedN/AN/A
Non Partisan John Page DefeatedN/AN/A
  • Note (1660) vote totals unavailable
General Election 4 April 1661: Middlesex (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Non Partisan Lancelot Lake ElectedN/AN/A
Non Partisan Thomas Allen ElectedN/AN/A
Non Partisan John Robinson DefeatedN/AN/A
  • Note (1661) vote totals unavailable
General Election 21 February 1679: Middlesex (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Non Partisan Robert Peyton UnopposedN/AN/A
Non Partisan William Roberts UnopposedN/AN/A
  • Note (1679): Roberts was not the same man as the 1660 candidate of the same name.
General Election 3 September 1679: Middlesex (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Non Partisan William Roberts 72045.37N/A
Non Partisan Robert Peyton 67042.22N/A
Non Partisan Francis Gerard 19412.22N/A
Non Partisan William Smyth 30.19N/A
  • Note (1679): Smyth is referred to as Smith in House of Commons 1660-1690, but Smyth seems to be correct from Leigh Rayment's list of baronets.
  • Expulsion from the House of Peyton
By-Election 13 January 1681: Middlesex
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Non Partisan Robert Atkyns 68055.78+55.78
Non Partisan Hugh Middleton 37931.09+31.09
Non Partisan Charles Umfrevile 16013.13+13.13
Majority30124.69N/A
Non Partisan hold Swing N/A
General Election 3 March 1681: Middlesex (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Non Partisan William Roberts 1,05435.73+35.73
Non Partisan Nicholas Raynton 87429.63+29.63
Non Partisan Hugh Middleton 60720.58-10.51
Non Partisan Charles Gerard 41514.07+14.07
General Election 18 March 1685: Middlesex (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Non Partisan Charles Gerard ElectedN/AN/A
Non Partisan Roger Hawtrey ElectedN/AN/A
Non Partisan Hugh Middleton DefeatedN/AN/A
Non Partisan Nicholas Raynton DefeatedN/AN/A
Non Partisan Thomas Johnson DefeatedN/AN/A
Non Partisan William Smyth DefeatedN/AN/A
  • Note (1685) vote totals unavailable. Smyth is referred to as Smith in House of Commons 1660-1690, but Smyth seems to be correct from Leigh Rayment's list of baronets.
General Election 11 January 1689: Middlesex (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Non Partisan Charles Gerard ElectedN/AN/A
Non Partisan Roger Hawtrey ElectedN/AN/A
Non Partisan Robert Peyton DefeatedN/AN/A
Non Partisan Thomas Johnson DefeatedN/AN/A
  • Note (1689) vote totals unavailable
General Election 1690: Middlesex (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Non Partisan Charles Gerard UnopposedN/AN/A
Non Partisan Roger Hawtrey UnopposedN/AN/A
General Election 14 November 1695: Middlesex (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Non Partisan Edward Russell UnopposedN/AN/A
Non Partisan John Wolstenholme UnopposedN/AN/A
By-Election 8 January 1696: Middlesex
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Non Partisan John Bucknall UnopposedN/AN/A
Non Partisan hold Swing N/A
General Election 4 August 1698: Middlesex (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Non Partisan Warwick Lake UnopposedN/AN/A
Non Partisan John Wolstenholme UnopposedN/AN/A
General Election 16 January 1701: Middlesex (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Non Partisan Warwick Lake UnopposedN/AN/A
Tory Hugh Smithson UnopposedN/AN/A
General Election 3 December 1701: Middlesex (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Non Partisan Warwick Lake UnopposedN/AN/A
Whig John Austen UnopposedN/AN/A
General Election 30 July 1702: Middlesex (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Non Partisan Warwick Lake UnopposedN/AN/A
Tory Hugh Smithson UnopposedN/AN/A
General Election 28 May 1705: Middlesex (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Non Partisan Scorie Barker UnopposedN/AN/A
Non Partisan John Wolstenholme UnopposedN/AN/A

Parliament of Great Britain

General Election 1708: Middlesex (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Non Partisan Scorie Barker UnopposedN/AN/A
Non Partisan John Wolstenholme UnopposedN/AN/A
  • Death of Wolstenholme
By-Election 3 March 1709: Middlesex
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig John Austen UnopposedN/AN/A
Whig gain from Non Partisan Swing N/A
General Election 12 October 1710: Middlesex (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Tory James Bertie UnopposedN/AN/A
Tory Hugh Smithson UnopposedN/AN/A
General Election 1713: Middlesex (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Tory James Bertie UnopposedN/AN/A
Tory Hugh Smithson UnopposedN/AN/A
General Election 27 January 1715: Middlesex (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Tory James Bertie 1,60427.60N/A
Tory Hugh Smithson 1,55326.72N/A
Whig John Austen 1,33022.80N/A
Whig Henry Barker1,32522.80N/A
General Election 30 March 1722: Middlesex (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Tory James Bertie 1,80039.43+11.83
Whig John Austen 96721.18-1.62
Whig Henry Barker90818.89-3.91
Tory George Cooke 66214.50+14.50
Tory William Withers 2285.00+5.00
General Election 6 September 1727: Middlesex (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Tory James Bertie 1,41029.21-10.22
Tory Francis Child 1,30527.03+27.03
Whig Henry Barker1,07422.25+3.36
Whig Lord Paget 1,03921.52+21.52
General Election 25 April 1734: Middlesex (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Tory Francis Child UnopposedN/AN/A
Whig William Pulteney UnopposedN/AN/A
  • Death of Child
By-Election 15 March 1740: Middlesex
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Tory Hugh Smithson 38272.21N/A
Whig Henry Barker14727.79N/A
Majority23544.42N/A
Tory hold Swing N/A
  • Smithson (not the same person as the former MP of the same name) subsequently changed his surname to Percy
General Election 14 May 1741: Middlesex (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig William Pulteney UnopposedN/AN/A
Tory Hugh Percy UnopposedN/AN/A
By-Election 5 August 1742: Middlesex
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Tory Roger Newdigate UnopposedN/AN/A
Tory gain from Whig Swing N/A
General Election 2 July 1747: Middlesex (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Hugh Percy 1,79736.33N/A
Whig William Beauchamp-Proctor 1,45729.45N/A
Tory George Cooke 89918.17N/A
Tory Roger Newdigate 79416.05N/A
By-Election 8 March 1750: Middlesex
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Tory George Cooke 1,61757.38+39.21
Whig Fraser Honywood 1,20142.62+42.62
Majority41614.76N/A
Tory gain from Whig Swing N/A
General Election 2 May 1754: Middlesex (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Tory George Cooke UnopposedN/AN/A
Whig William Beauchamp-Proctor UnopposedN/AN/A
General Election 7 April 1761: Middlesex (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Tory George Cooke UnopposedN/AN/A
Whig William Beauchamp-Proctor UnopposedN/AN/A
By-Election 27 November 1766: Middlesex
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Tory George Cooke UnopposedN/AN/A
Tory hold Swing N/A
General Election 28 March 1768: Middlesex (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Radical John Wilkes 1,29744.33N/A
Tory George Cooke 82728.26N/A
Whig William Beauchamp-Proctor 80227.41N/A
  • Note (1768): Stooks Smith attributes 1,292 votes to Wilkes. Stooks Smith does not give candidates party labels in Middlesex until after this election.
  • Death of Cooke
By-Election 14 December 1768: Middlesex
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig John Glynn 1,54854.89+54.89
Tory William Beauchamp-Proctor 1,27245.11+17.70
Majority2769.79N/A
Whig gain from Tory Swing N/A
  • Note (1768): Poll 6 days (Source: Stooks Smith)
  • Expulsion from the House of Wilkes, declared incapable of being elected 3 February 1769
By-Election 16 February 1769: Middlesex
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Radical John Wilkes UnopposedN/AN/A
Radical hold Swing N/A
  • Expulsion from the House of Wilkes, election declared void
By-Election 16 March 1769: Middlesex
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Radical John Wilkes UnopposedN/AN/A
Radical hold Swing N/A
  • Expulsion from the House of Wilkes, election declared void 17 March 1769
By-Election 13 April 1769: Middlesex
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Radical John Wilkes 1,14379.16N/A
Tory Henry Luttrell 29620.50N/A
Whig William Whitaker50.35N/A
Majority84758.66N/A
Radical hold Swing N/A
  • Election return of Wilkes amended to Luttrell by Parliament on 14 April 1769 and Luttrell seated as the MP 15 April 1769
General Election 20 October 1774: Middlesex (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig John Glynn UnopposedN/AN/A
Radical John Wilkes UnopposedN/AN/A
  • Death of Glynn
By-Election 28 October 1779: Middlesex
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Thomas Wood UnopposedN/AN/A
Whig hold Swing N/A
General Election 14 September 1780: Middlesex (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig George Byng UnopposedN/AN/A
Radical John Wilkes UnopposedN/AN/A
General Election 22 April 1784: Middlesex (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Tory William Mainwaring 2,11836.72N/A
Radical John Wilkes 1,85832.21N/A
Whig George Byng 1,79231.07N/A
General Election 28 June 1790: Middlesex (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig George Byng UnopposedN/AN/A
Tory William Mainwaring UnopposedN/AN/A
  • Note (1790): The George Byng who contested Middlesex elections from this year is a different person from the one who stood previously
General Election 3 June 1796: Middlesex (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig George Byng UnopposedN/AN/A
Tory William Mainwaring UnopposedN/AN/A

Parliament of the United Kingdom

General Election 13 July 1802: Middlesex (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig George Byng 3,848 38.5 N/A
Radical Francis Burdett 3,207 32.1 N/A
Tory William Mainwaring 2,93629.4N/A
  • Note (1802): Poll 15 days (Source: Stooks Smith)
  • Election of Burdett declared void 9 July 1804
By-Election 23 July 1804: Middlesex
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Tory George Boulton Mainwaring 2,828 50.0 N/A
Radical Francis Burdett 2,82350.0N/A
Majority50.0N/A
Tory gain from Radical Swing N/A
  • Note (1804): Poll 15 days (Source: Stooks Smith)
  • Election of Mainwearing challenged by a petition of Burdett. Mainwaring unseated and Francis Burdett seated on 5 March 1805. (Source: The Times (of London), edition of 6 March 1805)
  • Election of Burdett challenged by a petition of Mainwearing. Burdett unseated and George Boulton Mainwaring seated with effect from 10 February 1806. (Source: The Times (of London), edition of 10 February 1806)
General Election 10 November 1806: Middlesex (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Tory William Mellish 3,213 47.9 -2.2
Whig George Byng 2,304 34.3 +34.3
Radical Francis Burdett 1,19717.8-32.1
  • Note (1806): Poll 15 days (Source: Stooks Smith)
General Election 18 May 1807: Middlesex (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Tory William Mellish 2,706 42.8 -5.1
Whig George Byng 2,368 37.4 +3.1
Tory Christopher Baynes 1,25219.8+19.8
General Election 12 October 1812: Middlesex (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig George Byng Unopposed
Tory William Mellish Unopposed
General Election 26 June 1818: Middlesex (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig George Byng Unopposed
Tory William Mellish Unopposed
General Election 17 March 1820: Middlesex (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig George Byng 4,004 37.6 N/A
Whig Samuel Charles Whitbread 3,585 33.6 N/A
Tory William Mellish 3,07328.8N/A
  • Note (1820): Poll 12 days (Source: Stooks Smith)
General Election 1826: Middlesex (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig George Byng Unopposed
Whig Samuel Charles Whitbread Unopposed
General Election 5 August 1830: Middlesex (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig George Byng Unopposed
Radical Joseph Hume Unopposed
General Election 1831: Middlesex (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig George Byng Unopposed
Radical Joseph Hume Unopposed
General Election 1832: Middlesex (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal Joseph Hume 3,238 36.9 N/A
Liberal George Byng 3,033 34.6 N/A
Conservative Charles Forbes 1,49417.0N/A
Liberal J.S. Lillie 1,00411.5N/A
Turnout 6,93974.0N/A
  • Note (1832): 5,132 voted. Hume was classified as a Radical candidate. (Source: Stooks Smith).
General Election 1835: Middlesex (3 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal George Byng 3,505 37.7 +3.1
Liberal Joseph Hume 3,096 33.3 -3.7
Conservative Thomas Wood 2,70729.1+12.0
Turnout 8.00575.5+1.6
  • Note 1 (1835): 6,046 voted. Hume was classified as a Radical candidate. (Source: Stooks Smith).
  • Note 2 (1835): The Thomas Wood who contested Middlesex elections from this year is a different person from the one who was elected in 1779
General Election 31 July 1837: Middlesex (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal George Byng 4,796 26.6 -11.1
Conservative Thomas Wood 4,582 25.4 -3.7
Liberal Joseph Hume 4,38024.3-9.0
Conservative Henry Pownall 4,27323.7+23.7
Turnout 12,81772.3-3.3
  • Note (1837): 9,260 voted. Hume was classified as a Radical candidate. (Source: Stooks Smith).
General Election 1841: Middlesex (2 seats) [6]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig George Byng Unopposed
Conservative Thomas Wood Unopposed
Registered electors 13,915
Whig hold
Conservative hold

Byng's death caused a by-election.

By-election, 3 February 1847: Middlesex [23]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Robert Grosvenor Unopposed
Whig hold

12577

General Election 4 August 1847: Middlesex (2 seats) [23]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Robert Grosvenor 4,944 39.3 N/A
Radical Ralph Bernal Osborne 4,175 33.2 N/A
Conservative Thomas Wood 3,45827.5N/A
Turnout 6,289 (est)45.6 (est)N/A
Registered electors 13,781
Majority7696.1N/A
Whig hold Swing N/A
Majority7175.7N/A
Radical gain from Conservative Swing N/A
General Election 1852: Middlesex (2 seats) [23]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Robert Grosvenor 5,241 37.7 1.6
Radical Ralph Bernal Osborne 4,390 31.6 1.6
Conservative John Spencer-Churchill 4,25830.7+3.2
Turnout 6,945 (est)47.5 (est)+1.9
Registered electors 14,610
Majority8516.1
Whig hold Swing 1.6
Majority1321.04.7
Radical hold Swing 1.6
General Election 29 April 1857: Middlesex (2 seats) [23]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Robert Culling Hanbury 5,426 39.7 +8.1
Whig Robert Grosvenor 5,327 38.9 +1.2
Conservative Henry Cadogan 2,92821.49.3
Majority2,39917.5+11.4
Turnout 8,305 (est)55.4 (est)+7.9
Registered electors 14,977
Whig hold Swing +6.4
Whig gain from Radical Swing +2.9
By-election, 3 September 1857: Middlesex [23]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig George Byng Unopposed
Whig hold
General Election 1859: Middlesex (2 seats) [23]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal Robert Culling Hanbury 3,678 43.6 +3.9
Liberal George Byng 3,618 42.9 +4.0
Conservative James Haig [24] 1,14713.67.8
Majority2,47129.3+11.8
Turnout 4,795 (est)31.6 (est)23.8
Registered electors 15,171
Liberal hold Swing +3.9
Liberal hold Swing +4.0
General Election 1865: Middlesex (2 seats) [23]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal George Byng Unopposed
Liberal Robert Culling Hanbury Unopposed
Registered electors 14,847
Liberal hold
Liberal hold
  • Death of Hanbury
By-election 15 April 1867: Middlesex [23]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal Henry Labouchere Unopposed
Liberal hold
General Election 21 November 1868: Middlesex (2 seats) [23]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative George Hamilton 7,850 37.9 N/A
Liberal George Byng 6,487 31.3 N/A
Liberal Henry Labouchere 6,39730.9N/A
Majority1,3636.6N/A
Turnout 14,292 (est)56.7 (est)N/A
Registered electors 25,196
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing N/A
Liberal hold Swing N/A
General Election 14 February 1874: Middlesex (2 seats) [23]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative George Hamilton 10,343 33.3 +14.3
Conservative Octavius Coope 9,867 31.8 +12.8
Liberal George Byng 5,62318.113.2
Liberal Frederick Lehmann 5,19216.714.2
Majority4,24413.7+7.1
Turnout 15,513 (est)61.9 (est)+5.2
Registered electors 25,071
Conservative hold Swing +14.0
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +13.3
By-election, 12 April 1878: Middlesex [23]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative George Hamilton Unopposed
Conservative hold
General Election 1880: Middlesex (2 seats) [23]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative George Hamilton 12,904 37.8 +4.5
Conservative Octavius Coope 12,328 36.1 +4.3
Liberal Herbert Gladstone 8,87626.08.8
Majority3,45214.3+0.6
Turnout 21,492 (est)70.0 (est)+8.1
Registered electors 30,707
Conservative hold Swing +4.5
Conservative hold Swing +4.4
By-election, 3 July 1885: Middlesex [23]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative George Hamilton Unopposed
Conservative hold
  • Constituency divided in the 1885 redistribution

See also

Related Research Articles

Ayrshire was a county constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1708 to 1800 and of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 until 1868, when it was divided into North Ayrshire and South Ayrshire.

Inverness-shire was a county constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1708 to 1801 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 until 1918.

Oxford University was a university constituency electing two members to the British House of Commons, from 1603 to 1950. The last two members to represent Oxford University when it was abolished were A. P. Herbert and Arthur Salter.

Berkshire was a parliamentary constituency in England, represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of England until 1707, then of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1885. The county returned two knights of the shire until 1832 and three between 1832 and 1885.

West Riding of Yorkshire was a parliamentary constituency in England from 1832 to 1865. It returned two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

Wallingford was a constituency in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

North Northamptonshire was a county constituency in Northamptonshire, represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

Bristol was a two-member constituency, used to elect members to the House of Commons in the Parliaments of England, Great Britain (1707–1800) and the United Kingdom. The constituency existed until Bristol was divided into single member constituencies in 1885.

Thirsk was a parliamentary borough in Yorkshire, represented in the English and later British House of Commons in 1295, and again from 1547. It was represented by two Members of Parliament until 1832, and by one member from 1832 to 1885, when the constituency was abolished and absorbed into the new Thirsk and Malton division of the North Riding of Yorkshire.

Knaresborough was a parliamentary constituency which returned two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom until 1868, and then one MP until its abolition in 1885.

East Cornwall was a county constituency in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) by the bloc vote system of election.

East Cumberland is a former county constituency in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) by the bloc vote system of election.

Marylebone was a parliamentary constituency in Middlesex, England from 1832 to 1885. The parliamentary borough formed part of the built up area of London, and returned two members to the House of Commons of the UK Parliament and was created under the Reform Act 1832. It was abolished and divided under the Redistribution of Seats Act, 1885 into seats.

Launceston, also known at some periods as Dunheved, was a parliamentary constituency in Cornwall which returned two Members of Parliament to the British House of Commons from 1295 until 1832, and one member from 1832 until 1918. It was a parliamentary borough until 1885, and a county constituency thereafter.

South Northumberland was a county constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It was represented by two Members of Parliament (MPs), elected by the bloc vote system.

Newcastle-upon-Tyne was a borough constituency in the county of Northumberland of the House of Commons of England to 1706 then of the House of Commons of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1918. It returned two Members of Parliament (MPs), elected by the bloc vote system.

Oxfordshire (UK Parliament constituency) Parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom

Oxfordshire was a county constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of England then of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1885. It was represented by two Members of Parliament. In 1832 this was increased to three Members of Parliament. The constituency was abolished in 1885, being split into three single member divisions.

East Worcestershire was a county constituency in the county of Worcestershire, represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

References

Citations

  1. 1 2 "Brentford Elections In The Past: scenes of riot, disorder and tumult" Brentford TW8: Brentford's local website Accessed 2017-60-03
  2. Reform Act 1867, Sch. B & Sch. C Legislation.gov.uk Publisher: UK Government. Accessed 2017-08-19
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 "History of Parliament" . Retrieved 2011-09-17.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Charlton, Sir Thomas". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 2011-12-01.
  5. Cavill. The English Parliaments of Henry VII 1485-1504.|access-date= requires |url= (help)
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Stooks Smith, Henry. (1973) [1844-1850]. Craig, F. W. S. (ed.). The Parliaments of England (2nd ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. pp. 206–208. ISBN   0-900178-13-2.
  7. "Middlesex Election" . Leeds Times. 17 January 1835. p. 2. Retrieved 17 May 2019 via British Newspaper Archive.
  8. Mosse, Richard Bartholomew (1838). The Parliamentary Guide: a concise history of the Members of both Houses, etc. p. 127–128. Retrieved 17 May 2019 via Google Books.
  9. "Forthcoming Elections". London Daily News. 31 July 1847. p. 4. Retrieved 11 August 2018 via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).Cite uses deprecated parameter |subscription= (help)
  10. Pollard, Alfred Frederick (1901). "Grosvenor, Robert (1801-1893)"  . Dictionary of National Biography (1st supplement). London: Smith, Elder & Co.|access-date= requires |url= (help)
  11. Dod, Charles Roger; Dod, Robert Phipps (1847). Dod's Parliamentary Companion, Volume 15. Dod's Parliamentary Companion. p. 177. Retrieved 11 August 2018 via Google Books.
  12. "Ralph Bernal". Legacies of British Slave-ownership. University College London. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  13. Malcolmson, A. P. W. (2006). The Pursuit of the Heiress: Aristocratic Marriage in Ireland 1740-1840 (Illustrated ed.). Ulster Historical Foundation. p. 176. ISBN   9781903688656 . Retrieved 11 August 2018 via Google Books.
  14. "The Brazil Controversy". The Spectator. 18 February 1865. p. 13. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  15. Rubinstein, William D.; Jolles, Michael A.; Rubinstein, Hilary L., eds. (2011). The Palgrave Dictionary of Anglo-Jewish History. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 191. ISBN   978-1-4039-3910-4 . Retrieved 11 August 2018 via Google Books.
  16. Hawkins, Angus (2015). Victorian Political Culture: 'Habits of Heart & Mind'. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 280. ISBN   978-0-19-872848-1 . Retrieved 11 August 2018 via Google Books.
  17. "Members Returned, with Their Political Predilections". Bath Chronicle and Weekly Gazette. 12 August 1847. p. 2. Retrieved 11 August 2018 via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).Cite uses deprecated parameter |subscription= (help)
  18. "Middlesex". Coventry Standard. 10 April 1857. pp. 2–3. Retrieved 11 August 2018 via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).Cite uses deprecated parameter |subscription= (help)
  19. "Portsmouth Times and Naval Gazette". 18 April 1857. p. 6. Retrieved 11 August 2018 via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).Cite uses deprecated parameter |subscription= (help)
  20. "Latest News". York Herald. 5 September 1857. p. 7. Retrieved 15 July 2018 via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).Cite uses deprecated parameter |subscription= (help)
  21. "Representation of Middlesex". Leeds Mercury. 1 September 1857. p. 4. Retrieved 11 August 2018 via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).Cite uses deprecated parameter |subscription= (help)
  22. "Representation of Middlesex". London Daily News. 2 September 1857. p. 4. Retrieved 11 August 2018 via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).Cite uses deprecated parameter |subscription= (help)
  23. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Craig, F. W. S., ed. (1977). British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885(e-book)|format= requires |url= (help) (1st ed.). London: Macmillan Press. pp. 424–425. ISBN   978-1-349-02349-3.
  24. "Middlesex Election". Marylebone Mercury. 7 May 1859. pp. 1–2. Retrieved 11 August 2018 via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).Cite uses deprecated parameter |subscription= (help)

Sources

  • British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885, compiled and edited by F.W.S. Craig (The Macmillan Press 1977)
  • The House of Commons 1509-1558, by S.T. Bindoff (Secker & Warburg 1982)
  • The House of Commons 1558-1603, by P.W. Hasler (HMSO 1981)
  • The House of Commons 1660-1690, by Basil Duke Henning (Secker & Warburg 1983)
  • The House of Commons 1715-1754, by Romney Sedgwick (HMSO 1970)
  • The House of Commons 1754-1790, by Sir Lewis Namier and John Brooke (HMSO 1964)
  • The House of Commons 1790-1820, by R.G. Thorne (Secker & Warburg 1986)
  • The Parliaments of England by Henry Stooks Smith (1st edition published in three volumes 1844-50), second edition edited (in one volume) by F.W.S. Craig (Political Reference Publications 1973)
  • Who's Who of British Members of Parliament: Volume I 1832-1885, edited by M. Stenton (The Harvester Press 1976)
  • D Brunton & D H Pennington, Members of the Long Parliament (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1954)
  • Cobbett's Parliamentary history of England, from the Norman Conquest in 1066 to the year 1803 (London: Thomas Hansard, 1808)
  • List of members nominated for Parliament of 1653 at British History Online