Maldon (UK Parliament constituency)

Last updated

Maldon
County constituency
for the House of Commons
Maldon2007Constituency.svg
Boundary of Maldon in Essexfor the 2010 general election
EnglandEssex.svg
Location of Essex within England
County Essex
Electorate 69,539 (December 2010) [1]
Major settlements Althorne, Battlesbridge, Burnham-on-Crouch, North Fambridge, Southminster, South Woodham Ferrers
Current constituency
Created 2010
Member of Parliament John Whittingdale (Conservative)
Number of membersOne
Created from Maldon and East Chelmsford
18851983
Number of membersOne
Type of constituency County constituency
Replaced by Colchester South and Maldon and Rochford
Created from East Essex, Maldon
1332–1885
Number of memberstwo to 1868, one from 1868 to 1885
Type of constituency Borough constituency
Replaced byMaldon

Maldon is a constituency [n 1] represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2010 by John Whittingdale, a Conservative. [n 2]

Contents

History

The Parliamentary Borough of Maldon, which included the parish of Heybridge, had sent two members to Parliament since 1332 (36 years after the Model Parliament). Under the Reform Act of 1867, its representation was reduced to one and in 1885 the Parliamentary Borough was abolished and replaced with a Division of the County of Essex (later a County Constituency) under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885.

The constituency was abolished for the 1983 general election following the Third Periodic Review of Westminster Constituencies, but re-established for the 2010 general election by the Fifth Review. The current seat is a successor to the Maldon and East Chelmsford constituency which existed from 1997 to 2010.

Boundaries

1885–1918: The Municipal Borough of Maldon, the Sessional Divisions of Hinckford South (Braintree Bench) and Witham, and parts of the Sessional Divisions of Hinckford South (Halstead Bench), Lexden, and Winstree. [2]

Formally known as the Eastern or Maldon Division of Essex, incorporating the abolished Parliamentary Borough of Maldon and extending northwards to include the towns of Witham, Braintree and Halstead.

1918–1950: The Municipal Borough of Maldon, the Urban Districts of Braintree, Burnham-on-Crouch, and Witham, the Rural District of Maldon, and the Rural District of Braintree (including the detached part of the parish of Inworth which was wholly surrounded by the parishes of Great Braxted and Kelvedon). [3]

Area to the south between River Crouch and River Blackwater, including Burnham-on-Crouch, transferred from the South-Eastern Division of Essex.  Northern-most area, including Halstead, and eastern fringes transferred to Saffron Walden and Colchester respectively.  Other minor changes.

1950–1955: The Municipal Borough of Maldon, the Urban Districts of Braintree and Bocking, Burnham-on-Crouch, and Witham, the Rural District of Maldon, and part of the Rural District of Braintree. [4]

Marginal changes as a result of changes to local authority boundaries.

1955–1974: The Municipal Borough of Maldon, the Urban Districts of Braintree and Bocking, Burnham-on-Crouch, and Witham, the Rural District of Maldon, and part of the Rural District of Braintree as altered by the County of Essex (Braintree and Lexden and Winstree Rural Districts) Confirmation Order 1955. [4]

Marginal changes as a result of changes to local authority boundaries.

1974–1983: The Municipal Borough of Maldon, the Urban District of Burnham-on-Crouch, and the Rural Districts of Maldon and Rochford. [5]

The Urban Districts of Braintree and Bocking, and Witham and the Rural District of Braintree formed the basis for the new County Constituency of Braintree.  The Rural District of Rochford transferred from South East Essex.

Constituency abolished for the 1983 general election.  Southern area, comprising the former Rural District of Rochford, included in the new County Constituency of Rochford.  Remainder formed the majority of the new County Constituency of South Colchester and Maldon.

2010–present: The District of Maldon wards of Althorne, Burnham-on-Crouch North, Burnham-on-Crouch South, Heybridge East, Heybridge West, Maldon East, Maldon North, Maldon South, Maldon West, Mayland, Purleigh, Southminster, and Tillingham, and the Borough of Chelmsford wards of Bicknacre and East and West Hanningfield, Little Baddow, Danbury and Sandon, Rettendon and Runwell, South Hanningfield, Stock and Margaretting, South Woodham Chetwood and Collingwood, and South Woodham Elmwood and Woodville. [6]

Following the Boundary Commission's Fifth Periodic Review of Westminster constituencies, Parliament radically altered some constituencies and created new ones to allow for changes in population. The majority of the former Maldon and East Chelmsford constituency formed the basis of this new seat for 2010. The constituency included Maldon and Burnham-on-Crouch, and lost the Chelmsford parts [n 3] . To compensate, wards in and around South Woodham Ferrers were added from the former Rayleigh constituency, and Margaretting was added from the former West Chelmsford constituency.

The historic constituency (1332–1983)

Maldon
Former borough constituency
for the House of Commons
1332–1885
Number of memberstwo (1295–1868)
one (1868–1885)
Essex, Maldon
Former county constituency
for the House of Commons
18851983
Number of membersone

Maldon was originally a Parliamentary borough in Essex, first represented in the House of Commons in 1332; it elected two MPs until 1868, and one from 1868 until 1885. In that year the borough was abolished but the name was transferred to a county division of Essex, which continued with some boundary changes until 1983.

Maldon borough (1332–1885)

Boundaries and franchise before the Reform Act

Until the Great Reform Act of 1832, the borough consisted of the three parishes of the town of Maldon, a small market town and port on the coast of Essex.

Maldon had been a municipal as well as a Parliamentary borough. Its first charter dated from the reign of Henry II, and at one time the Corporation had the sole right to elect the town's MPs. From 1701 at the latest, however, the right to vote was exercised by the freemen of the town, whether or not resident within the borough; and, unusually, honorary freemen and those acquiring the freedom by purchase were also entitled to vote in Maldon. This had several consequences. The electorate in Maldon was much bigger than was usual in a town of that size — in the first half of the 18th century, the number of qualified voters was generally about 800 (the majority of whom did not live in Maldon). It also meant that the town corporation, with the power to create freemen and therefore voters, was in a position to gerrymander elections if it so wished. This might, as was the case in some other boroughs, have ended in one interest gaining control of the corporation and turning Maldon into a pocket borough; in fact, however, Maldon instead stayed independent but venal, and gaining election there tended to be an expensive business. Sometimes it was not merely a case of bribing the voters: in 1690, it was recorded in the House of Commons journals that the wives and daughters of Maldon freemen were being bribed at election time as well.

One interest that was firmly established by the middle of the 18th century, however, was that of the government, which ensured that lucrative posts in the customs house were reserved for loyally-voting freemen, and also attempted to have government supporters – often strangers to the town – elected to vacancies on the corporation. It was generally taken for granted that the government candidates would normally be elected.

The Strutt ascendancy

However, in the 1750s the government's control of Maldon weakened, and a prominent local Tory, John Strutt, found he had enough influence with the voters to sway elections. He secured the election of several of his friends over the years and eventually, in 1774, successfully stood for election himself.

In the meanwhile, however, there was a dramatic change in the system. In 1763 one of the sitting MPs, Strutt's friend Bamber Gascoyne, was appointed to the Board of Trade and therefore had to stand for re-election at Maldon. Gascoyne's opponent, John Huske, accused him of threatening that any freemen working in the customs house who did not vote for him would be dismissed (which, by that time, would have been an illegal threat). Although the Prime Minister, George Grenville, denied having authorised Gascoyne to make any such threat and Gascoyne denied having made it, it seems clear it was believed in Maldon and the corporation sided with Huske, creating enough new freemen to ensure Gascoyne was defeated. Both sides started actions for bribery, but Gascoyne had decided on more drastic action. He took out a writ against the Corporation, and the Courts ordered the ousting of the majority of members; eventually, in 1768, the Corporation was dissolved by judicial order.

For half a century the duties of returning officer were transferred to the High Sheriff of Essex. However, the Sheriff could not assume the Corporation's function of swearing in new freemen, and Strutt's influence was thus entirely secured against any possibility of new voters being created to outvote him. However, there was a problem: by the time of the general election of 1807 the number of remaining qualified voters had dwindled to 58, and the constituency was in imminent danger of quite literally dying out. Yet there were more than 800 new freemen who were only barred from voting because there was nobody to swear them in. Finally a new charter was granted, in time to enfranchise them for the election of 1810.

Matters then returned to normal in Maldon for the remaining 22 years before the Reform Act. Strutt's son, Joseph Holden Strutt, retained much of the influence that his father had wielded, being generally considered to be able to nominate one of the two MPs or to choose to sit himself; as he exercised all government patronage in Maldon, he was well-placed to secure the other seat as well. But when the voters proved uncooperative, they could easily enough be overruled: at the 1826 election, the Corporation secured the result it wanted by admitting another thousand new freemen in time for them to vote: 3,113 freemen voted, of whom only 251 were Maldon residents.

After the Reform Act

In the initial drafts of the Reform Bill, Maldon was to lose one of its two seats. It was eventually spared this fate, but its population of 3,831 in 1831 left it very close to the borderline. The eventual Reform Act extended the borough by adding the neighbouring parish of Heybridge, increasing the population to 4,895; but with only 716 qualified voters under the new franchise its electorate was less than a quarter of what it had previously been. The constituency was a highly marginal one, victory rarely being secured by more than a handful of votes. In 1852, only 40 votes separated first place from fourth, and the second Tory's majority over his Whig opponent was only 6; after the losing candidates petitioned, alleging corruption, the election was declared void [7] and Maldon's right to representation was suspended while a Royal Commission investigated. However, no major scandal was uncovered and (unlike some other boroughs similarly investigated at the same period) its right to vote was reinstated and a writ for a new by-election which took place in 1854 was issued. [8]

Maldon county constituency (1885–1983)

The Second Reform Act, implemented in 1868, took seats from most of the smallest boroughs, and Maldon's representation was halved; but it was still too small, and at the election of 1885 the borough was abolished altogether. The county division into which the town was placed, however, was named after the town. (Officially, until 1918, it was the Eastern (or Maldon) Division of Essex; after that, simply the Maldon division.) As well as Maldon itself this contained the towns of Braintree, Halstead and Witham. Once again this constituency was a marginal one — almost the only rural county seat in the South East at this period not to be safely Conservative. The strength of the Liberal vote seems to have been based partly on the strength of Nonconformism in the Halstead area, but also on trade unionism among the agricultural labourers (which elsewhere in Essex was offset by a strongly Tory maritime vote which Maldon lacked).

Maldon in Essex, 1918-1945 Maldon1918.png
Maldon in Essex, 1918–1945

After 1918, boundary changes added Burnham on Crouch and the surrounding district, but the constituency was still a rural one, with 35% of the occupied male population employed in the agricultural sector at the time of the 1921 census. The Labour Party rather than the Liberals were now the Conservatives' main opponents. When the Liberal Party split in 1922, Maldon's Liberals split as well, and the constituency was the first where the Lloyd George Liberals set up a constituency association, though this was apparently without the sanction of the national party headquarters and the association is not recorded as having organised any activities. In 1923 no Liberal candidate stood at all, and Labour captured the seat for the first time. The Conservatives retook the seat in 1924, holding it until the 1940s, but it was won by Tom Driberg in a wartime by-election; yet his hold on the seat was rarely secure and he eventually moved to sit for a safer seat. Thereafter Maldon remained Conservative until its abolition, though at first by the narrowest of margins.

The Maldon constituency was abolished in the boundary changes which came into effect at the 1983 election, being divided between the new Colchester South and Maldon and Rochford constituencies.

Members of Parliament

MPs 1332–1640

ParliamentFirst memberSecond member
1386 Richard Bush John Glover [9]
1388 (Feb) John Dyer Henry Hales [9]
1388 (Sep) John Crakebon John Welles [9]
1390 (Jan) John Skinner I John Joce [9] |
1390 (Nov)
1391 John Welles John Page [9]
1393 John Skinner John Glover [9]
1394
1395
1397 (Jan) John Glover John Joce [9]
1397 (Sep)
1399 John Joce John Crakebon [9]
1401
1402 John Page Thomas Paffe [9]
1404 (Jan) John Burgess Thomas Paffe [9]
1404 (Oct)
1406 John Flower Robert Painter [9]
1407 John Page John Hockham [9]
1410 ?William Wade [9]
1411 John Flower John Burgess [9]
1413 (Feb)
1413 (May) Richard Galon John Burgess [9]
1414 (Apr)
1414 (Nov) John Flower John Burgess [9]
1415
1416 (Mar)
1416 (Oct)
1417 Thomas Paffe Richard Sampson [9]
1419 Richard Galon William Bennett [9]
1420 John Burgess Richard Galon [9]
1421 (May) John Cooper Richard Bawde [9]
1421 (Dec) William Burgh William Gore [9]
1422 Robert Darcy [10]
1487Sir Richard Fitzlewis [11]
1491Robert Plummer [11]
1504 Sir William Say
1510 Sir Richard FitzLewis Thomas Hintlesham [12]
1512 Thomas Cressener ? [12]
1515 John Strangman ? [12]
1523 John Bozom Thomas Wyburgh [12]
1529 Thomas Tey Edward Peyton [12]
1536 William Harris John Raymond [12]
1539 John Edmonds William Bonham [12]
1542 Edward Bury Henry Dowes [12]
1545 Clement Smith Nicholas Throckmorton [12]
1547Sir Clement Smith Henry Dowes, died
and replaced by Jan 1552 by
William Bassett [12]
1553 (Mar) Sir Walter Mildmay Henry Fortescue [12]
1553 (Oct) ?Anthony Browne John Raymond [12]
1554 (Apr) Thomas Hungate Edmund Tyrrell [12]
1554 (Nov) Anthony Browne John Wiseman [12]
1555 Sir Henry Radclyffe Richard Weston [12]
1558 Edmund Tyrrell Roger Appleton, died
and replaced by Nov 1558 by
Henry Golding [13]
1559 Sir Humphrey Radcliffe Henry Golding [13]
1562/3 John Lathom Richard Argall [13]
1571 Peter Osborne. sat for Guildford,
repl. by
George Blythe
Gabriel Croft [13]
1572 Thomas Gent Vincent Harris, died
and repl. Oct 1574 by
Edward Sulyard [13]
1584 Edward Lewknor William Wiseman [13]
1586 John Butler Edward Lewknor [13]
1588 John Butler William Vernon, sick
and replaced by
Edward Lewknor [13]
1593 Sir Thomas Mildmay, Bt Edward Lewknor [13]
1597 Thomas Harris William Wiseman [13]
1601 William Wiseman Richard Weston [13]
1604 Sir Edward Lewknor, died
and replaced 1605 by
Sir Theophilus Howard
William Wiseman, died
and replaced 1610 by
Sir John Sammes
1610 Sir Robert Rich
1614 Sir John Sammes Charles Chiborne
1621-1622 Sir Henry Mildmay Sir Julius Caesar
1624 Sir William Masham, Bt Sir Arthur Harris
1625 Sir William Masham, Bt Sir Henry Mildmay
1626 Sir William Masham, Bt Sir Thomas Cheek
1628-1629 Sir Henry Mildmay Sir Arthur Harris
1629–1640No Parliaments summoned

MPs 1640–1868

YearFirst member [14] First partySecond member [14] Second party
April 1640 Sir Henry Mildmay Parliamentarian John Porter
November 1640 Sir John Clotworthy Parliamentarian
January 1648Clotworthy disabled from sitting January 1648,
but readmitted June 1648
June 1648 Sir John Clotworthy Parliamentarian
December 1648Clotworthy excluded in Pride's Purge - seat vacant
1653Maldon was unrepresented in the Barebones Parliament
1654 Colonel Joachim Matthews Maldon had only one seat in the First and
Second Parliaments of the Protectorate
1656
January 1659 Henry Mildmay
May 1659 Colonel Sir Henry Mildmay One seat vacant
April 1660 Tristram Conyers Henry Mildmay
June 1660 Edward Herrys
1661 Sir John Tyrell Sir Richard Wiseman
1677 Sir William Wiseman, 1st Baronet
March 1679 Sir John Bramston
October 1679 Sir Thomas Darcy, 1st Baronet
1685 Sir John Bramston
1689 Charles Montagu
1693 Sir Eliab Harvey
1695 Irby Montagu
1699 John Bullock
January 1701 William Fytche
November 1701 John Comyns
1708 Sir Richard Child Thomas Richmond Whig
1710 John Comyns [n 4]
1711 William Fytche
1712 Thomas Bramston I
1715 Samuel Tufnell
1722 Sir John Comyns
1727 Henry Parsons Thomas Bramston II
1734 Martin Bladen
1740 Benjamin Keene
1741 Sir Thomas Drury, Bt Robert Colebrooke
1747 Sir Richard Lloyd, KC
1754 Colonel John Bullock
1761 Bamber Gascoyne Independent
1768 John Huske
1773 Charles Rainsford
1774 John Strutt Tory Hon. Richard Savage Nassau
1780 Eliab Harvey
1784 The Lord Waltham
1787 Sir Peter Parker, Bt
1790 Joseph Strutt Tory [15] Charles Western Whig [15]
1806 Benjamin Gaskell [n 5] Whig [15]
1807 Charles Western Whig [15]
1812 Benjamin Gaskell Whig [15]
1826 Hon. George Allanson-Winn Tory [15] Thomas Barrett-Lennard Whig [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20]
1827 Hugh Dick Tory [15]
1830 Quintin Dick Tory [15]
1834 Conservative [15]
1837 John Round Conservative [15]
1847 David Waddington Conservative Thomas Barrett-Lennard Whig [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20]
1852 [7] Charles du Cane Conservative Taverner John Miller Conservative
1853Writ suspended [8]
1854 George Peacocke Conservative John Bramley-Moore Conservative
1857 Thomas Western Whig
1859 Liberal George Peacocke [n 6] Conservative
1865 Ralph Earle Conservative
1868 Representation reduced to one member

MPs 1868–1983

ElectionMember [14] Party
1868 Edward Hammond Bentall Liberal
1874 George Sandford Conservative
1878 George Courtauld Liberal
1885 Arthur Kitching Liberal
1886 Charles Wing Gray Conservative
1892 Cyril Dodd Liberal
1895 Hon. Charles Strutt Conservative
1906 Thomas Bethell Liberal
1910 James Fortescue Flannery Conservative
1922 Edward Ruggles-Brise Conservative
1923 Valentine Crittall Labour
1924 Edward Ruggles-Brise Conservative
1942 Tom Driberg Independent
1945 Labour
1955 Brian Harrison Conservative
1974 John Wakeham Conservative
1983 constituency abolished

MPs since 2010

The re-formed Maldon seat was fought for the first time at the 2010 general election.

ElectionMember [14] Party
2010 John Whittingdale Conservative

Elections

Elections in the 2010s

General election 2019: Maldon [21]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative John Whittingdale 36,304 72.0 +4.1
Labour Stephen Capper6,26312.4-8.9
Liberal Democrats Colin Baldy5,99011.9+7.5
Green Janet Band1,8513.7+1.5
Majority30,04159.6+12.9
Turnout 50,40869.4-0.8
Conservative hold Swing +6.5
General election 2017: Maldon
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative John Whittingdale 34,111 67.9 +7.4
Labour Peter Edwards10,68121.3+9.3
Liberal Democrats Zoe O'Connell2,1814.3-0.1
UKIP Jesse Pryke1,8993.8-10.9
Green Steve Betteridge1,0732.1-1.0
BNP Richard Perry2570.5N/A
Majority23,43046.7+0.8
Turnout 50,20270.2+0.7
Conservative hold Swing -1.0
General election 2015: Maldon [22]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative John Whittingdale 29,112 60.6 +0.8
UKIP Beverley Acevedo [23] 7,04214.7+9.6
Labour Peter Edwards [24] 5,69011.8−0.8
Independent Ken Martin2,4245.0N/A
Liberal Democrats Zoe O'Connell [25] 2,1574.5−14.8
Green Bob Graves [26] 1,5043.1N/A
Sustainable PopulationJohn Marett1160.2N/A
Majority22,07045.9+5.4
Turnout 48,04569.6−0.1
Conservative hold Swing
General election 2010: Maldon [27] [28]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative John Whittingdale 28,661 59.8 N/A
Liberal Democrats Elfreda Tealby-Watson9,25419.3N/A
Labour Swatantra Nandanwar6,07012.7N/A
UKIP Jesse Pryke2,4465.1N/A
BNP Len Blaine1,4643.1N/A
Majority19,40740.5
Turnout 47,89569.6N/A
Conservative win (new seat)

Elections in the 1970s

General election 1979: Maldon
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative John Wakeham 29,58557.8+14.3
Labour Robert Oliver12,84825.1−4.9
Liberal Michael Wright8,73017.1−9.4
Majority16,73732.7+13.1
Turnout 77.9+1.7
Conservative hold Swing
General election October 1974: Maldon
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative John Wakeham 20,48543.5−0.4
Labour Anthony John Shaw14,09830.0+3.4
Liberal John Beale12,47326.5−3.0
Majority6,38713.6-0.7
Turnout 76.2-6.0
Conservative hold Swing
General election February 1974: Maldon
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative John Wakeham 22,08843.9
Liberal John Beale14,86629.5
Labour Vera Morris13,36826.6
Majority7,22214.35
Turnout 82.16
Conservative hold Swing
General election 1970: Maldon
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Brian Harrison 29,22950.60
Labour Stephen Haseler 22,95739.75
Liberal John Beale5,5749.65
Majority6,27210.86
Turnout 79.75
Conservative hold Swing

Elections in the 1960s

General election 1966: Maldon
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Brian Harrison 22,57245.5
Labour Bruce Douglas-Mann 22,06644.4
Liberal William H. Jacks5,01510.10
Majority5061.02
Turnout 83.29
Conservative hold Swing
General election 1964: Maldon
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Brian Harrison 21,54745.37
Labour S. Gordon Richards20,01642.15
Liberal William H. Jacks5,92412.47
Majority1,5313.22
Turnout 83.28
Conservative hold Swing

Elections in the 1950s

General election 1959: Maldon
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Brian Harrison 21,77248.21
Labour S. Gordon Richards19,53243.25
Liberal Leonard Charles Montague Walsh3,8608.55
Majority2,2404.96
Turnout 83.02
Conservative hold Swing
General election 1955: Maldon
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Brian Harrison 22,00250.63
Labour Lynton Scutts21,45249.37
Majority5501.27
Turnout 83.52
Conservative gain from Labour Swing
General election 1951: Maldon
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour Tom Driberg 22,75650.79
Conservative Aubrey R. Moody22,05249.21
Majority7041.57
Turnout 87.38
Labour hold Swing
General election 1950: Maldon
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour Tom Driberg 20,56747.53
Conservative Aubrey R. Moody18,84343.55
Liberal William Drummond Abernethy3,8598.92
Majority1,7243.98
Turnout 86.16
Labour hold Swing

Elections in the 1940s

Driberg was elected in 1942 as an Independent Labour candidate, but took the Labour Party whip in January 1945, and stood in the 1945 election as a Labour Party candidate.

General election, 1945: Maldon
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour Tom Driberg 22,48060.40.9
Conservative Melford Stevenson 14,75339.6+6.3
Majority7,72720.89.2
Turnout 37,23374.5+30.1
Labour hold Swing
1942 Maldon by-election
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Independent Tom Driberg 12,21961.3
Conservative Reuben Hunt6,22631.322.1
National Independent and Agricultural Richard Matthews 1,4767.4
Majority5,99330.0
Turnout 19,92144.429.4
Independent gain from Conservative Swing

Elections in the 1930s

General election, 1935: Maldon
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Edward Ruggles-Brise 17,07253.417.4
Labour William Frederick Toynbee9,26428.90.3
Liberal Hilda Buckmaster 5,68017.7N/A
Majority7,80824.516.1
Turnout 32,01673.80.9
Conservative hold Swing
General election, 1931: Maldon
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Edward Ruggles-Brise 22,05570.8+27.1
Labour William Frederick Toynbee9,07829.25.9
Majority12,97741.6+32.9
Turnout 31,13374.74.8
Conservative hold Swing

Elections in the 1920s

General election, 1929: Maldon
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Unionist Edward Ruggles-Brise 14,02043.88.5
Labour Herbert Evans 11,22435.11.8
Liberal Herbert A. May6,74821.1+10.3
Majority2,7968.76.7
Turnout 31,99279.53.1
Unionist hold Swing -3.3
General election, 1924: Maldon
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Unionist Edward Ruggles-Brise 13,20952.3+2.2
Labour Valentine Crittall 9,32336.913.0
Liberal H. R. G. Brooks2,72410.8N/A
Majority3,88615.4
Turnout 25,25682.6+13.0
Unionist gain from Labour Swing
General election, 1923: Maldon
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour Valentine Crittall 10,32950.1+22.3
Unionist Edward Ruggles-Brise 10,28049.9+2.7
Majority490.219.6
Turnout 21,89269.65.2
Labour gain from Unionist Swing +9.7
General election, 1922: Maldon
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Unionist Edward Ruggles-Brise 10,33747.23.9
Labour George Dallas 6,08527.811.8
Liberal James Parish5,47025.0+15.7
Majority4,25219.4+7.9
Turnout 21,89274.8+18.1
Unionist hold Swing

Elections in the 1910s

General election 1918: Maldon
PartyCandidateVotes%±
C Unionist James Fortescue Flannery 8,13851.1
Labour George Dallas 6,31539.6
Liberal Ernest William Tanner1,4909.3
Majority1,82311.5
Turnout 15,94356.7
Unionist hold Swing
Cindicates candidate endorsed by the coalition government.

Election results 1832–1918

Elections in the 1830s

General election 1832: Maldon [15] [29]
PartyCandidateVotes%
Whig Thomas Barrett-Lennard 44839.3
Tory Quintin Dick 41636.5
Whig Peter Luard Wright [30] 27724.3
Turnout 67193.7
Registered electors 716
Majority322.8
Whig hold
Majority13912.2
Tory hold
General election 1835: Maldon [15] [29]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Quintin Dick 44136.6+18.4
Whig Thomas Barrett-Lennard 40733.829.8
Conservative Henry St John-Mildmay 35629.6+11.4
Turnout 72191.42.3
Registered electors 789
Majority342.89.4
Conservative hold Swing +16.7
Majority514.2+1.4
Whig hold Swing 29.8
General election 1837: Maldon [15] [29]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Quintin Dick 42034.42.2
Conservative John Round 40733.3+3.7
Whig Thomas Barrett-Lennard 39532.31.5
Majority131.11.7
Turnout 76086.84.6
Registered electors 876
Conservative hold Swing 0.7
Conservative gain from Whig Swing +2.2

Elections in the 1840s

General election 1841: Maldon [15] [29]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Quintin Dick 47235.5+1.1
Conservative John Round 44633.5+0.2
Whig Thomas Abdy 41331.01.3
Majority332.5+1.4
Turnout 81595.3+8.5
Registered electors 855
Conservative hold Swing +0.9
Conservative hold Swing +0.4
General election 1847: Maldon [29]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative David Waddington 46134.6+1.1
Whig Thomas Barrett-Lennard 44333.3+2.3
Conservative Quintin Dick 42732.13.4
Turnout 887 (est)93.3 (est)2.0
Registered electors 951
Majority181.41.1
Conservative hold Swing
Majority161.2N/A
Whig gain from Conservative Swing +2.3

Elections in the 1850s

General election 1852: Maldon [29]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Charles Du Cane 37026.3N/A
Conservative Taverner John Miller 35725.4N/A
Whig Thomas Barrett-Lennard 35124.98.4
Ind. Conservative Quintin Dick [31] 33023.48.7
Majority60.41.0
Turnout 704 (est)83.3 (est)10.0
Registered electors 845
Conservative hold Swing N/A
Conservative gain from Whig Swing N/A

The 1852 election was declared void on petition due to bribery and treating, [32] and the writ was suspended in March 1853. [7] A by-election was held in August 1854 to fill the vacancy.

By-election, 17 August 1854: Maldon [29] [33] [34]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative George Peacocke 40629.2+2.9
Conservative John Bramley-Moore 39928.7+3.3
Whig Thomas Barrett-Lennard 33524.10.8
Radical Thomas MacEnteer [35] 21715.6N/A
Peelite Quintin Dick [36] 342.421.0
Majority644.6+4.2
Turnout 696 (est)71.8 (est)11.5
Registered electors 968
Conservative hold Swing +1.7
Conservative hold Swing +1.9
General election 1857: Maldon [29]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Whig Thomas Western 42735.8+10.9
Conservative John Bramley-Moore 40534.0+7.7
Conservative George Peacocke 36030.2+4.8
Majority221.8N/A
Turnout 810 (est)92.1 (est)+8.8
Registered electors 879
Whig gain from Conservative Swing 0.8
Conservative hold Swing +0.8
General election 1859: Maldon [29]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative George Peacocke 50337.0+6.8
Liberal Thomas Western 43131.74.1
Conservative Augustus William Henry Meyrick [37] 42731.42.6
Turnout 896 (est)83.7 (est)8.4
Registered electors 1,071
Majority725.3N/A
Conservative hold Swing +4.4
Majority40.31.5
Liberal hold Swing 4.2

Elections in the 1860s

General election 1865: Maldon [29]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative George Peacocke 46136.20.8
Conservative Ralph Earle 42032.9+1.5
Liberal Thomas Western 39430.90.8
Majority262.03.3
Turnout 835 (est)97.1 (est)+13.4
Registered electors 859
Conservative hold Swing 0.2
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +1.0

Seat reduced to one member

General election 1868: Maldon [29]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal Edward Hammond Bentall 65756.6+25.7
Conservative George Sandford 50443.425.7
Majority15313.2N/A
Turnout 1,16183.114.0
Registered electors 1,397
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing +25.7

Elections in the 1870s

General election 1874: Maldon [29]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative George Sandford 63254.9+11.5
Liberal John Bennett [38] 51945.1-11.5
Majority1139.8N/A
Turnout 1,15175.67.5
Registered electors 1,522
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +11.5

Sandford's resignation caused a by-election.

1878 Maldon by-election [29]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal George Courtauld 67155.9+10.8
Conservative William Abdy 53044.1-10.8
Majority14111.7N/A
Turnout 1,20178.3+2.7
Registered electors 1,534
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing +10.8

Elections in the 1880s

General election 1880: Maldon [29]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal George Courtauld 67951.1+6.0
Conservative William Abdy 65148.9-6.0
Majority282.1N/A
Turnout 1,33085.0+9.4
Registered electors 1,564
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing +6.0
General election 1885: Maldon [39] [40] [41]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal Arthur Kitching 4,50953.8+2.7
Conservative Charles Wing Gray 3,87846.2-2.7
Majority6317.6+5.5
Turnout 8,38785.0+0.0
Registered electors 9,869
Liberal hold Swing +2.7
General election 1886: Maldon [39] [40]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Charles Wing Gray 4,14352.9+6.7
Liberal Edward Barnard 3,68647.1-6.7
Majority4575.8N/A
Turnout 7,82979.3-5.7
Registered electors 9,869
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +6.7

Elections in the 1890s

General election 1892: Maldon [39] [40]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal Cyril Joseph Settle Dodd 4,32151.0+3.9
Conservative Charles Wing Gray 4,15349.0-3.9
Majority1682.0N/A
Turnout 8,47483.4+4.1
Registered electors 10,160
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing +3.9
General election 1895: Maldon [39] [40] [42]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Charles Strutt 4,61853.5+4.5
Liberal Cyril Joseph Settle Dodd 4,00646.5-4.5
Majority6127.0N/A
Turnout 8,62485.9+2.5
Registered electors 10,041
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +4.5

Elections in the 1900s

General election 1900: Maldon [39] [40] [42]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Charles Strutt 4,64958.5+5.0
Liberal John Henderson 3,30141.55.0
Majority1,34817.0+10.0
Turnout 7,95079.46.5
Registered electors 10,018
Conservative hold Swing +5.0
Bethell Thomas Bethell.jpg
Bethell
General election 1906: Maldon [39] [40]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal Thomas Bethell 4,77350.8+9.3
Conservative Charles Strutt 4,62449.29.3
Majority1491.6N/A
Turnout 9,39788.5+9.1
Registered electors 10,613
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing +9.3

Elections in the 1910s

Flannery James Fortescue Flannery.jpg
Flannery
General election January 1910: Maldon [39] [43]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative James Fortescue Flannery 5,69154.1+4.9
Liberal Thomas Bethell 4,82245.9-4.9
Majority8698.2+9.8
Turnout 91.3+2.8
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +4.9
Jardine Willoughby Jardine.jpg
Jardine
General election December 1910: Maldon [39] [43]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative James Fortescue Flannery 5,38653.4-0.7
Liberal James Jardine 4,69346.6+0.7
Majority6936.8-1.4
Turnout 87.5-3.8
Conservative hold Swing -0.7

General Election 1914/15:

Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915. The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by July 1914, the following candidates had been selected;

Pre-1832 election results

Elections in the 1830s

General election 1830: Maldon [15] [44]
PartyCandidateVotes%
Tory Quintin Dick Unopposed
Whig Thomas Barrett-Lennard Unopposed
Registered electors c.3,400
Tory hold
Whig hold
General election 1831: Maldon [15] [44]
PartyCandidateVotes%
Tory Quintin Dick Unopposed
Whig Thomas Barrett-Lennard Unopposed
Registered electors c.3,400
Tory hold
Whig hold

See also

Notes and references

Notes
  1. A county constituency (for the purposes of election expenses and type of returning officer).
  2. As with all constituencies, the constituency elects one Member of Parliament (MP) by the first past the post system of election at least every five years.
  3. to Witham and Chelmsford
  4. Comyns was re-elected in 1715, but his election was declared void because he refused to take the oath that he met the property qualification to be elected. Tufnell, was seated in his place.
  5. On petition, Gaskell was adjudged not to have been duly elected, and his opponent, Western, was seated in his place.
  6. Peacocke changed his name to Sandford during the Parliament of 1865.
References
  1. "Electorate Figures - Boundary Commission for England". 2011 Electorate Figures. Boundary Commission for England. 4 March 2011. Archived from the original on 6 November 2010. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
  2. Great Britain, Incorporated Council of Law Reporting for England and Wales. The public general acts. unknown library. Proprietors of the Law Journal Reports, 1884.
  3. Fraser, Hugh (1918). The Representation of the people act, 1918 : with explanatory notes. University of California Libraries. London : Sweet and Maxwell.
  4. 1 2 Craig, Fred W. S. (1972). Boundaries of parliamentary constituencies 1885-1972;. Chichester: Political Reference Publications. ISBN   0900178094. OCLC   539011.
  5. "The Parliamentary Constituencies (England) Order 1970". www.legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
  6. "The Parliamentary Constituencies (England) Order 2007". www.legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
  7. 1 2 3 "MALDON ELECTION". Hansard. 18 March 1853. Retrieved 4 May 2009.
  8. 1 2 "NEW WRIT FOR MALDON". Hansard. 11 August 1854. Retrieved 4 May 2009.
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 "History of Parliament". History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  10. "DARCY, Robert (d.1448), of Maldon, Essex. | History of Parliament Online". www.historyofparliamentonline.org.
  11. 1 2 Cavill. The English Parliaments of Henry VII 1485-1504.
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 "History of Parliament". History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  13. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 "History of Parliament". History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  14. 1 2 3 4 Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "M" (part 1)
  15. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Stooks Smith, Henry. (1973) [1844-1850]. Craig, F. W. S. (ed.). The Parliaments of England (2nd ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. pp.  110–112. ISBN   0-900178-13-2.
  16. 1 2 Escott, Margaret (2009). "BARRETT LENNARD, Thomas (1788–1856), of Belhus, Aveley, Essex and Hyde Park Terrace, Mdx". The History of Parliament. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  17. 1 2 Fisher, David R. (2009). "Maldon". The History of Parliament. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  18. 1 2 Hall, Catherine; Draper, Nicholas; McClelland, Keith; Donington, Katie; Lang, Rachel (2014). "Appendix 4: MPs 1832-80 in the compensation records". Legacies of British Slave-ownership: Colonial Slavery and the Formation of Victorian Britain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 292. ISBN   978-1-107-04005-2 . Retrieved 22 April 2018.
  19. 1 2 "Witham" . Essex Standard. 6 August 1847. p. 2. Retrieved 27 May 2018 via British Newspaper Archive.
  20. 1 2 "Essex Elections" . Morning Post. 26 December 1832. p. 2. Retrieved 27 May 2018 via British Newspaper Archive.
  21. "Maldon Parliamentary constituency". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 19 November 2019.
  22. "Election Data 2015". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
  23. "UK Polling Report".
  24. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 23 November 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  25. http://www.libdems.org.uk/zoe_o_connell
  26. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 February 2015. Retrieved 21 December 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  27. "Election Data 2010". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
  28. "BBC News | Election 2010 | Constituency | Maldon". news.bbc.co.uk.
  29. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Craig, F. W. S., ed. (1977). British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885(e-book)|format= requires |url= (help) (1st ed.). London: Macmillan Press. ISBN   978-1-349-02349-3.
  30. "Maldon" . Morning Advertiser. 12 December 1832. p. 1. Retrieved 18 April 2020 via British Newspaper Archive.
  31. "The Elections" . London Daily News. 12 July 1852. pp. 2–3. Retrieved 27 May 2018 via British Newspaper Archive.
  32. "Maldon Petition" . Southern Reporter and Cork Commercial Courier. 22 March 1853. p. 4. Retrieved 27 May 2018 via British Newspaper Archive.
  33. "The Elections" . Berkshire Chronicle. 19 August 1854. p. 8. Retrieved 27 May 2018 via British Newspaper Archive.
  34. "Maldon Election" . 17 August 1854. p. 1. Retrieved 27 May 2018 via British Newspaper Archive.
  35. "Election Intelligence" . Morning Post. 17 August 1854. p. 4. Retrieved 27 May 2018 via British Newspaper Archive.
  36. "The Elections" . Blackburn Standard. 23 August 1854. p. 2. Retrieved 27 May 2018 via British Newspaper Archive.
  37. "To the Electors of the Borough of Maldon" . Chelmsford Chronicle. 29 April 1859. p. 1. Retrieved 27 May 2018 via British Newspaper Archive.
  38. "Electors of Maldon" . Essex Herald. 3 February 1874. p. 1. Retrieved 6 January 2018 via British Newspaper Archive.
  39. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 British Parliamentary Election Results 1885-1918, F. W. S. Craig.
  40. 1 2 3 4 5 6 The Liberal Year Book, 1907.
  41. Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1886.
  42. 1 2 Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1901
  43. 1 2 Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1916
  44. 1 2 Fisher, David R. "Maldon". The History of Parliament. Retrieved 18 April 2020.

Sources

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