Preston (UK Parliament constituency)

Last updated

Preston
Borough constituency
for the House of Commons
Preston2007Constituency.svg
Boundary of Preston in Lancashire
EnglandLancashire.svg
Location of Lancashire within England
County Lancashire
Electorate 55,937 (December 2018) [1]
Major settlements Preston
Current constituency
Created 1983
Member of Parliament Sir Mark Hendrick (Labour Co-op)
SeatsOne
Created from Preston North, Preston South
1529–1950
SeatsTwo
Replaced by Preston North, Preston South
1295–1311 (at the earliest)
SeatsTwo
Replaced byPreston (see above)

Preston is a constituency [n 1] represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2000 by Sir Mark Hendrick, a member of the Labour Party and Co-operative Party. [n 2]

Contents

History

1295–1950

The seat was created for the Model Parliament and sent members until at least 1331 until a new (possibly confirmatory) grant of two members to Westminster followed. From 1529 extending unusually beyond the 19th century until the 1950 general election the seat had two-member representation. Party divisions tended to run stronger after 1931 before which two different parties' candidates frequently came first and second at elections under the bloc vote system.

In 1929, a recently elected Liberal, Sir William Jowitt decided to join the Labour Party and called for a by-election (which implies a single vacancy) to support this change of party, which he won, to take up for two years the position of Attorney General of England and Wales as part of the Government. He became the highest judge during the Attlee Ministry, the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain and Speaker of the House of Lords under a then hereditary-dominated House leading to a Conservative majority. Consequently, he was selected to be elevated to a peerage as 1st Earl Jowitt. With no sons, he was to be the last Earl and wrote the Dictionary of English Law.

1950–1983

Preston was abolished as a constituency by the House of Commons (Redistribution of Seats) Act 1949 being replaced by Preston North and Preston South constituencies.

1983–present

The representatives since the seat's revival after 33 years of being split between (larger area) North and South seats have all been members of the Labour Party.

The member from 1987 to 2000 was Audrey Wise, a member of the Socialist Campaign Group and reformer of maternity healthcare in opposition on the Select Committee.

Boundaries

Preston (UK Parliament constituency)
Map of current boundaries

1832–1868: The old borough of Preston, and the township of Fishwick. [2]

1868–1885: The existing parliamentary borough, excluding such part (if any) as lies on the south side of the River Ribble. [3]

1885–1918: The existing parliamentary borough, so much of the municipal borough of Preston as was not already included in the parliamentary borough, so much of the parish of Lea, Ashton, Ingol, and Cottam, and of the parish of Penwortham, as were added to the municipal borough of Preston on 1 June 1889 by the Ribble Navigation and Preston Dock Act 1883, and the local government district of Fulwood. [4]

1983–1997: The Borough of Preston wards of Ashton, Avenham, Brookfield, Central, Deepdale, Fishwick, Ingol, Larches, Moorbrook, Park, Ribbleton, St John's, St Matthew's, and Tulketh.

1997–2010: The Borough of Preston wards of Ashton, Avenham, Brookfield, Central, Deepdale, Fishwick, Larches, Moor Park, Ribbleton, Riversway, St Matthew's, and Tulketh, and the Borough of South Ribble wards of Bamber Bridge Central, Bamber Bridge South, and Walton-le-Dale.

2010–2024: The City of Preston wards of Ashton, Brookfield, Deepdale, Fishwick, Ingol, Larches, Moor Park, Ribbleton, Riversway, St George's, St Matthew's, Town Centre, Tulketh, and University.

2024 onwards: The City of Preston wards of Ashton, Brookfield, Cadley, City Centre, Deepdale, Fishwick & Frenchwood, Garrison, Ingol & Cottam, Lea & Larches, Plungington, Ribbleton, and St Matthew's.

History

In the late 19th Century the boundaries of the two-member Preston constituency were described as comprising: [5]

...[T]he old Borough of Preston, the township of Fishwick, so much of the Municipal Borough as is not included in the Parliamentary Borough, the Local Government District of Fulwood, and so much of the parishes of Lea, Ashton, Ingol, and Cotham {sic}, and Penwortham, as will be added to the Municipal Borough of Preston on June 1st, 1889

In the Representation of the People Act, 1918 the boundaries of the two-member constituency were described as the:

County borough of Preston and urban district of Fulwood: [6]

The single seat of Preston formed from 1918 until 1949 was created by the County Borough of Preston and Urban District of Fulwood. From the general election of 1950 to the 1983 Preston was divided into the constituencies of Preston North and Preston South. In time for the 1983 general election, the boundaries on which the current seat is drawn were confirmed. The northern, Fulwood area, was divided between Fylde and Ribble Valley.

Changes for 2010

The ward of Lea is within the constituency of Fylde.

The wards of Preston Rural North, Preston Rural East and the Fulwood wards (Cadley, College, Garrison, Greyfriars and Sharoe Green) are within the constituency of Wyre and Preston North. By the end of the review, the newly recommended Preston constituency had the smallest number of voters of an English constituency based on 2006 electorates. [7]

Modifications in 2018

The Local Government Boundary Commission for England modified Preston City Council's ward boundaries in 2018, which in some minor cases altered which wards crossed the Parliamentary boundary of Preston. Due to the changes, the constituency of Preston, as of 2018, is made from:

In full: Ashton, Brookfield, City Centre, Deepdale, Fishwick and Frenchwood, Plungington, Ribbleton, St Matthews. In part: Cadley (shared with Wyre and Preston North), Ingol and Cottam (shared with Fylde), Lea and Larches (shared with Fylde).

From 2024

Following the 2023 Periodic Review of Westminster constituencies, enacted by the Parliamentary Constituencies Order 2023, from the 2024 United Kingdom general election, the constituency will be composed of the following wards of the City of Preston (as they existed on 1 December 2020):

The constituency will be expanded to bring the electorate within the permitted range by transferring in the part wards currently in the Fylde constituency. together with the remainder of the Cadley ward and the Garrison ward from Wyre and Preston North (to be abolished).

Members of Parliament

MPs 1295–1640

ParliamentFirst memberSecond member
1295 Willielmus fil' (filius) Pauli Adam Russel
1298 Adam fil' Radulfi Adam de Biri
1300/1 Willielmus fil' Paulini
1304/5 Robertus fil' Willelmi de Preston Hernricus fil' Willelmi del Tounhende
1306/7 Robertus fil' Rogeri Ricardus Banastre
1307 Henricus del Krykestyle Ricardus Banastre
1326/7 Laurencius Travers Willelmus de Graistok
1327 (Nov) John Stakky Henry Banastre
1328/9 (Feb) Willielmus fil' Paulini Nicholaus de Preston
1330 (Nov) William fitz Paul Henry de Haydock
1331 (Sep) Johannes fil' Galfridi Willielmus fil' Johannis
1331–1529No returns
1529 Cristoferus Heydock James Walton [9]
1536–1545No returns
1545 Sir Ralph Sadler John Bourne [9]
1547 George Frevil John Hales [9]
1552/3 (Mar) Anthony Browne Thomas Fleetwood [9]
1553 (Oct) William Gerard Anthony Browne [9]
1554 (Apr) Thomas Ruthall Willielmus Berners [9]
1554 (Nov) Richard Shyrburne John Sylyard [9]
1555 John Arundell John Herle [9]
1557/8 Richard Sherbourne Robert Southwell [9]
1559 (Jan) Robert Aalford Francis Goldsmith, sat for Helston,
repl, by
Richard Cooke [10]
1562/3 Gilbert Moreton James Hodgkinson [10]
1571 Edward Baeshe Reginald Williams [10]
1572 James Hodgkinson George Horsey [10]
1584 (Nov) William Fleetwood Thomas Cromwell [10]
1586 John Brograve Sir Thomas Hesketh [10]
1588 (Oct)Sir Thomas Hesketh Michael Doughty [10]
1593 James Dalton Thomas Bulbeck [10]
1597 (Oct) John Brograve Sir John Stanhope [10]
1601 (Oct) John Brograve William Waad [10]
1604-1611 Sir Vincent Skinner William Holte
1614 Sir Edward Mosley Henry Banister
1621-1622 Sir Edward Mosley Sir William Pooley
1624 Sir Edward Mosley Sir William Pooley, sat for Sudbury,
repl. by
Sir William Hervey
1625 Sir William Hervey Henry Banister
1626 George Garrard Thomas Fanshawe
1628 Robert Carre George Garrard
1629-1640No Parliaments summoned

MPs 1640–1950

YearFirst member [11] First partySecond member [11] Second party
April 1640 Richard Shuttleworth Parliamentarian Thomas Standish Parliamentarian
November 1640
November 1642Standish died November 1642 - seat vacant
1645 William Langton
December 1648Shuttleworth excluded in Pride's Purge - seat vacantLangton not recorded as sitting after Pride's Purge
1653Preston was unrepresented in the Barebones Parliament
1654 Colonel Richard Shuttleworth Preston had only one seat in the First and
Second Parliaments of the Protectorate
1656
January 1659 Colonel Richard Standish
May 1659 Not represented in the restored Rump
April 1660 Alexander Rigby Richard Standish
August 1660 Edward Rigby Edward Fleetwood
1661 Geoffrey Rishton
1667 John Otway
February 1679 Sir Robert Carr
April 1679 Sir John Otway
1681 Sir Robert Carr Sir Gervase Elwes
April 1685 Sir Thomas Chicheley [12] Edward Fleetwood
June 1685 Hon. Andrew Newport Tory
1689 James Stanley Thomas Patten
March 1690 Lord Willoughby de Eresby Christopher Greenfield
December 1690 Sir Edward Chisenhall
1695 Sir Thomas Stanley Thomas Molyneux
1698 Henry Ashhurst
January 1701 Edward Rigby
December 1701Thomas Molyneux
1702 Charles Zedenno Stanley Sir Cyril Wyche
1705 Francis Annesley Edward Rigby
1706 Arthur Maynwaring
1708 Henry Fleetwood
1710 Sir Henry Hoghton
1713 Edward Southwell
1715 Sir Henry Hoghton
1722 Daniel Pulteney Thomas Hesketh
1727 Sir Henry Hoghton
1732 Nicholas Fazackerley
1741 James Shuttleworth
1754 Edmund Starkie
1767 Sir Peter Leicester
April 1768 [13] Sir Frank Standish
November 1768 Brigadier John Burgoyne [14] Whig Sir Henry Hoghton Tory [15]
1792 William Shawe Non-partisan [15]
1795 Sir Henry Hoghton Whig [15]
1796 Edward Smith-Stanley Whig [15]
1802 John Horrocks Tory [15]
1804 Samuel Horrocks Tory [15]
1812 Edmund Hornby Whig [15]
1826 Hon. Edward Smith-Stanley Whig [15] John Wood Whig [15]
December 1830 Henry Hunt Radical [15]
1832 (Sir) Peter Hesketh-Fleetwood Conservative [15] Hon. Henry Smith-Stanley Whig [15]
1837 Whig [15] [16] [17] Robert Townley Parker Conservative [15]
1841 Sir George Strickland Whig [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20]
1847 Charles Grenfell Whig [21] [22] [23]
1852 Robert Townley Parker Conservative [15]
1857 Charles Grenfell Whig [21] [22] [23] R. A. Cross Conservative
1859 Liberal
1862 by-election Sir Thomas Hesketh [24] Conservative
1865 Hon. Frederick Stanley Conservative
1868 Edward Hermon Conservative
1872 by-election (Sir) John Holker Conservative
1881 by-election William Farrer Ecroyd Conservative
February 1882 by-election Henry Cecil Raikes Conservative
November 1882 by-election (Sir) William Tomlinson [25] Conservative
1885 Robert William Hanbury Conservative
1903 by-election John Kerr Conservative
1906 John Thomas Macpherson Labour Harold Cox Liberal
January 1910 Major the Hon. George Stanley Conservative Alfred Tobin Conservative
1915 by-election Urban H. Broughton Conservative
1918 Thomas Shaw Labour
1922 James Hodge Liberal
1924 Alfred Ravenscroft Kennedy Conservative
1929 Sir William Jowitt Liberal
1929 by-election Labour
1931 Adrian Moreing Conservative William Kirkpatrick Conservative
1936 by-election Edward Cobb Conservative
1940 by-election Randolph Churchill Conservative
1945 John William Sunderland Labour Samuel Segal Labour
1946 by-election Edward Shackleton Labour

MPs since 1983

ElectionMember [11] PartyNotes
1983 Stan Thorne Labour Previously MP for Preston South 1974-1983
1987 Audrey Wise Labour Previously MP for Coventry South West 1974–1979. Died September 2000
2000 by-election Sir Mark Hendrick Labour and Co-operative Became a Knight Bachelor in 2018 New Year Honours

Overview

Representatives have sat in Parliament for Preston for nearly 800 years, the first recorded names being Willielmus fil' Pauli and Adam Russel. Prior to being reformed as "Preston" in 1983, the former Preston North and Preston South seats were amongst the most marginal in the country - in 1979, Conservative Robert Atkins won Preston North by 29 votes.

With the suburban, middle class former Fulwood Urban District area within Ribble Valley (and from 2010 Wyre and Preston North), the southern portion has awarded MPs with much healthier and secure majorities. Almost all of Preston's representatives from 1915 to 1950, and since its recreation as a single constituency in 1983, have been Labour candidates.

Between 1918 and 1949, the two-seat constituency of Preston was formed by the County Borough of Preston and the Urban District of Fulwood. In 1997, Audrey Wise secured a majority of over 18,000. The collapse of the Conservative vote - 10 percentage points down from 1992 - was firmly with the pattern of the Tory fortunes in that year.

The death of Audrey Wise in 2000 triggered a by-election. At that Preston by-election, Mark Hendrick, former Member of the European Parliament (MEP) for the Lancashire Central constituency with Preston at its heart, secured a victory with a 4,400 majority. The surprise of the night was the result of the fledgling Socialist Alliance, for whom Terry Cartright saved his deposit.

Less than a year later, the 2001 general election returned Mark Hendrick with a much healthier 12,200 majority, up against South Ribble councillor Graham O'Hare for the Conservatives and the then local Liberal Democrat leader Bill Chadwick. In real terms, all three main parties lost support from 1997 - Labour down by over 8,000 votes, Conservatives reduced by over 2,200 and Lib Dems 2,300 lower. One notable candidate in 2001 was David Braid, also a candidate in a number of other seats that year, who had been the "Battle for Britain" candidate in the previous year's by-election.

The 2005 general election was notable for the changes in share of the vote of the minor parties. The first ever Respect candidate, local councillor Michael Lavalette, firmly saved his deposit with nearly 7% of the vote. The Liberal Democrats had chosen former Conservative County Councillor William Parkinson, and had their best result since 1997. Fiona Bryce for the Conservatives, remained in second place seeing her share of the vote remain stable despite the United Kingdom Independence Party (UKIP) polling over 1,000 votes. Mark Hendrick secured another term as MP, although his vote total was 3,000 less than 2001 and 12,000 less than Audrey Wise in 1997.

Labour continued to represent Preston at the elections of 2010, 2015, and 2017. Whilst Mark Hendrick secured less than 50% of the votes cast in 2010, the first time this has occurred at a Preston election since 1983, subsequent results had much stronger Labour majorities. Second place went back to the Conservative Party, regaining from the Liberal Democrats who took second place for the first time in 2010.

Elections

Elections in the 2020s

General election 2024: Preston
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Independent Yousuf Bhailok
Alliance for Democracy and FreedomDavid Brooks
Liberal Democrats Neil Darby [26]
Reform UK James Elliot [27]
Conservative Trevor Hart
Labour Mark Hendrick [28]
UKIP Derek Kileen
Independent Michael Lavalette [29]
Green Isabella Metcalf-Riener [30]
Rejoin EUJoseph O'Meachair
Majority
Turnout

Elections in the 2010s

General election 2019: Preston [31]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Co-op Mark Hendrick 20,870 61.8 ―6.2
Conservative Michele Scott8,72425.8+2.0
Brexit Party Rob Sherratt1,7995.3New
Liberal Democrats Neil Darby1,7375.1+1.7
Green Michael Welton6602.0+1.0
Majority12,14636.0―8.2
Turnout 33,79056.6-5.0
Labour Co-op hold Swing ―4.1
General election 2017: Preston [32]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Co-op Mark Hendrick 24,210 68.0 +12.0
Conservative Kevin Beaty8,48723.8+3.8
UKIP Simon Platt1,3483.8―11.6
Liberal Democrats Neil Darby1,2043.4―0.3
Green Anne Power3481.0―3.9
Majority15,72344.2+8.2
Turnout 35,59761.6+5.8
Labour Co-op hold Swing +4.0
General election 2015: Preston [33] [34]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Co-op Mark Hendrick 18,755 56.0 +7.8
Conservative Richard Holden 6,68820.0―1.7
UKIP James Barker5,13915.4+10.9
Green Gemma Christie1,6434.9New
Liberal Democrats Jo Barton1,2443.7―20.7
Majority12,06736.0+12.2
Turnout 33,46955.8+3.8
Labour Co-op hold Swing +4.8
General election 2010: Preston [35]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Co-op Mark Hendrick 15,668 48.2 ―2.3
Liberal Democrats Mark Jewell7,93524.4+7.7
Conservative Nerissa Warner-O'Neill7,06021.7―1.2
UKIP Richard Muirhead1,4624.5+1.4
Christian George Ambroze2720.8New
Independent Krishna Tayya1080.3New
Majority7,73323.8―3.8
Turnout 32,50552.0―1.8
Labour Co-op hold Swing ―5.0

Elections in the 2000s

General election 2005: Preston [36]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Co-op Mark Hendrick 17,210 50.5 ―6.5
Conservative Fiona Bryce7,80322.9―0.1
Liberal Democrats William Parkinson5,70116.7+3.5
Respect Michael Lavalette 2,3186.8New
UKIP Ellen Boardman1,0493.1New
Majority9,40727.6-5.6
Turnout 34,08153.8+4.6
Labour Co-op hold Swing ―3.2
General election 2001: Preston [37]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Co-op Mark Hendrick 20,540 57.0 ―3.8
Conservative Graham O'Hare8,27223.0+1.1
Liberal Democrats William Chadwick4,74613.2―1.5
Independent Bilal Patel1,2413.4New
Green Richard Merrick1,0192.8N/A
Independent David Franklin-Braid2230.6N/A
Majority12,26834.0―4.9
Turnout 36,04149.2―16.6
Labour Co-op hold Swing ―2.5
Preston by-election, 2000 [38]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Co-op Mark Hendrick 9,765 45.7 ―15.1
Conservative Graham O'Hare5,33925.0+3.1
Liberal Democrats Bill Chadwick3,45416.2+1.5
Socialist Alliance Terry Cartwright1,2105.7New
UKIP Gregg Beaman4582.1New
Green Richard Merrick4412.1New
CPA Peter Garrett4162.0New
BNP Chris Jackson2291.1New
Independent David Franklin-Braid510.2New
Majority4,42620.7―18.2
Turnout 21,36329.4―36.4
Labour Co-op hold Swing ―9.1

Elections in the 1990s

General election 1997: Preston [39]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Audrey Wise 29,220 60.8 +6.5
Conservative Paul S. Gray10,54021.9―5.9
Liberal Democrats William Chadwick7,04514.7―2.5
Referendum John C. Porter9241.9New
Natural Law John Ashforth3450.70.0
Majority18,68038.9+12.4
Turnout 48,07465.8―5.9
Labour hold Swing +6.2
General election 1992: Preston [40] [41]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Audrey Wise 24,983 54.3 +1.8
Conservative Simon G. O'Toole12,80827.8―0.7
Liberal Democrats William Chadwick7,89717.2―1.8
Natural Law Janet Aycliffe3410.7New
Majority12,17526.5+2.5
Turnout 46,02971.7+0.7
Labour hold Swing +1.3

Elections of the 1980s

General election 1987: Preston [42]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Audrey Wise 23,341 52.5 +5.8
Conservative Raj Chandran12,69628.5―3.3
Liberal John Wright8,45219.0―2.5
Majority10,64524.0+9.1
Turnout 44,48971.0―0.8
Labour hold Swing +4.6
General election 1983: Preston [43]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Stan Thorne 21,810 46.7
Conservative Tom N. Huntley14,83231.8
SDP Michael Connolly10,03921.5
Majority6,97814.9
Turnout 46,68171.8
Labour win (new seat)

Elections in the 1940s

1946 Preston by-election
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Edward Shackleton 32,189 55.6 +7.3
Conservative Harmar Nicholls 25,71844.4+2.6
Majority6,47111.2+8.4
Turnout 57,907
Labour hold Swing
General election 1945: Preston (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Samuel Segal 33,053 24.2
Labour John William Sunderland 32,889 24.1
Conservative Randolph Churchill 29,12921.4
Conservative Julian Amery 27,88520.4
Liberal J Maurice Toulmin8,2516.1New
Communist P.J. Devine5,1683.8New
Majority3,7602.8N/A
Turnout 136,37577.0-2.0
Labour hold Swing
Preston by-election September 1940
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative Randolph Churchill Unopposed N/AN/A
Conservative hold Swing

For the general election expected to take place in 1939/1940, the following candidates had been selected;

Elections in the 1930s

1936 Preston by-election
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative Edward Cobb 32,575 48.8 -4.8
Labour Frank Bowles 30,97046.40.0
Independent F. White3,2214.8New
Majority1,6052.4-1.0
Turnout 63,74679.0-2.9
Conservative hold Swing
General election 1935: Preston (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative Adrian Moreing 37,219 26.9 -5.3
Conservative William Kirkpatrick 36,797 26.7 -5.8
Labour Robert Arthur Lyster32,22523.3+5.3
Labour Richard Reiss 31,82723.1+5.8
Majority4,5723.4-8.8
Turnout 138,06881.9-2.7
Conservative hold Swing
General election 1931: Preston (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative William Kirkpatrick 46,276 32.5
Conservative Adrian Moreing 45,843 32.2
Labour Tom Shaw 25,71018.0
Labour Edward Porter 24,66017.3
Majority20,13314.2N/A
Turnout 142,48984.6+6.4
Conservative gain from Labour Swing

Elections in the 1920s

1929 Preston by-election
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour William Jowitt 35,608 54.6 +25.1
Unionist Alfred Howitt 29,16844.8-0.7
Independent Labour S. M. Holden 4100.6-1.0
Majority6,4409.8+2.0
Turnout 65,18679.6+1.4
Labour hold Swing
General election 1929: Preston (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Tom Shaw 37,705 29.5 +3.2
Liberal William Jowitt 31,277 24.4 -0.2
Unionist Alfred Howitt 29,11622.8-2.4
Unionist Charles Emmott 27,75421.7-2.2
Independent Labour S. M. Holden 2,1111.6New
Majority8,5891.6N/A
Turnout 127,96378.2
Labour hold Swing
Liberal gain from Unionist Swing
General election 1924: Preston
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Tom Shaw 27,009 26.3 -8.1
Unionist Alfred Ravenscroft Kennedy 25,887 25.2
Liberal James Hodge 25,32724.6-9.0
Unionist G Barnes24,55723.9
Majority5600.6N/A
Turnout 102,780
Labour hold Swing
Unionist gain from Liberal Swing
General election 1923: Preston (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Tom Shaw 25,816 34.4 +6.5
Liberal James Hodge 25,155 33.6 +7.2
Unionist William Kirkpatrick 23,95332.0-13.7
Majority1,8542.4-1.5
Majority1,1931.6-0.8
Turnout 74,92487.2+6.1
Labour hold Swing
Liberal hold Swing
General election 1922: Preston (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Tom Shaw 26,259 27.9 +2.1
Liberal James Hodge 24,798 26.4 +1.6
Unionist George Stanley 22,57424.01.4
Unionist Alfred Robert MacLean Camm20,41021.72.3
Majority3,6853.9+2.9
Labour hold Swing
Majority2,2242.4N/A
Liberal gain from Unionist Swing
Turnout 94,04181.1+16.6
Registered electors 57,953

Elections in the 1910s

Stanley George F Stanley.jpg
Stanley
General election 1918: Preston (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Green check.svgY Tom Shaw 19,213 25.8 +2.8
C Unionist Green check.svgY George Stanley 18,97025.41.4
Liberal John O'Neill 18,48524.8+0.9
C Unionist Warwick Brookes 17,92824.02.3
Majority1,2851.8N/A
Labour gain from Unionist Swing +2.1
Majority4850.61.8
Unionist hold Swing N/A
Turnout 74,59664.524.4
Registered electors 57,795
Cindicates candidate endorsed by the coalition government.
By-election, 1915: Preston [44]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Unionist Urban H. Broughton Unopposed
Unionist hold

General Election 1914/15:

Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915. The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the July 1914, the following candidates had been selected;

Young Edward Hilton Young.jpg
Young
General election December 1910: Preston (2 seats) [45] [46]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative George Stanley 9,184 26.8 0.3
Conservative Alfred Tobin 8,993 26.3 +0.3
Liberal Hilton Young 8,19323.9+6.1
Labour William Henry Carr 7,85523.0+1.6
Majority8002.42.2
Turnout 34,22588.95.5
Registered electors 19,521
Conservative hold Swing 3.2
Conservative hold Swing 0.7
General election January 1910: Preston (2 seats) [45] [46]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative George Stanley 9,526 27.1 +4.9
Conservative Alfred Tobin 9,160 26.0 +5.1
Labour John Thomas Macpherson 7,53921.49.5
Liberal John Eldon Gorst 6,28117.88.2
Free Trader Harold Cox *2,7047.7New
Majority1,6214.6N/A
Turnout 32,50694.41.8
Registered electors 19,521
Conservative gain from Labour Swing +7.2
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +6.7

* Cox was replaced as Liberal candidate by Gorst - due to his frequent criticism of Liberal social policy - but chose to run independently.

Elections in the 1900s

Cox Harold Cox.jpg
Cox
General election 1906: Preston (2 seats) [45] [47]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Repr. Cmte. John Thomas Macpherson 10,181 30.9 +8.8
Liberal Harold Cox 8,538 26.0 New
Conservative John Kerr 7,30322.218.8
Conservative William Tomlinson 6,85620.916.0
Turnout 32,87896.2+19.8
Registered electors 18,626
Majority2,8788.7N/A
Labour Repr. Cmte. gain from Conservative Swing +13.8
Majority1,6825.1N/A
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing N/A
Hodge John Hodge.JPG
Hodge
1903 Preston by-election [45] [47] [48]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative John Kerr 8,639 57.1 20.8
Labour Repr. Cmte. John Hodge 6,49042.9+20.8
Majority2,14914.20.6
Turnout 15,12984.2+7.8
Registered electors 17,973
Conservative hold Swing 20.8
By-election, 1900: Preston [45]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative Robert William Hanbury Unopposed
Conservative hold
Hardie Hardie elect.jpg
Hardie
General election 1900: Preston (2 seats) [45] [47] [48]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative Robert William Hanbury 8,944 41.0 0.9
Conservative William Tomlinson 8,067 36.9 +1.2
Labour Repr. Cmte. Keir Hardie 4,83422.1New
Majority3,23314.8+1.5
Turnout 21,84576.4+0.1
Registered electors 16,867
Conservative hold Swing N/A
Conservative hold Swing N/A

Elections in the 1890s

Tomlinson William Tomlinson.jpg
Tomlinson
General election 1895: Preston (2 seats) [45] [47] [48]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative Robert William Hanbury 8,928 41.9 +5.3
Conservative William Tomlinson 7,622 35.7 +0.4
Ind. Labour Party James Tattersall 4,78122.4New
Majority2,84113.3+6.1
Turnout 12,50876.311.4
Registered electors 16,395
Conservative hold Swing N/A
Conservative hold Swing N/A
General election 1892: Preston (2 seats) [45] [47]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative Robert William Hanbury 8,070 36.6 +6.9
Conservative William Tomlinson 7,764 35.3 +4.7
Liberal Charles Weld-Blundell 6,18228.111.6
Majority1,5827.22.2
Turnout 14,00387.7+3.8
Registered electors 15,959
Conservative hold Swing +6.4
Conservative hold Swing +5.3

Elections in the 1880s

General election 1886: Preston (2 seats) [45] [47]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative William Tomlinson 7,497 30.6 -7.9
Conservative Robert William Hanbury 7,296 29.7 -6.7
Liberal John Ormerod Pilkington4,98220.34.8
Lib-Lab George Potter 4,77119.4N/A
Majority2,3149.41.9
Turnout 12,473 (est)83.9-7.2
Registered electors 14,876
Conservative hold Swing 2.8
Conservative hold Swing 1.7
Russell Thomas W Russell.jpg
Russell
General election 1885: Preston (2 seats) [45] [47] [49]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative William Tomlinson 8,459 38.5 +5.8
Conservative Robert William Hanbury 7,971 36.4 +0.2
Liberal Thomas Russell 5,49125.16.0
Majority2,48011.3+9.7
Turnout 13,550 (est)91.14.7 (est)
Registered electors 14,876
Conservative hold Swing +4.4
Conservative hold Swing +1.6
By-election, 25 Nov 1882: Preston (1 seat) [50]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative William Tomlinson 6,351 60.4 N/A
Conservative Robert William Hanbury 4,16739.6N/A
Majority2,18420.8N/A
Turnout 10,51881.014.8 (est)
Registered electors 12,978
Conservative hold Swing N/A
By-election, 4 Feb 1882: Preston (1 seat) [50]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative Henry Cecil Raikes 6,045 58.9 10.0
Lib-Lab William Simpson [51] 4,21241.1+10.0
Majority1,83317.8+16.2
Turnout 10,25779.0-16.8 (est)
Registered electors 12,978
Conservative hold Swing 10.0
1881 Preston by-election (1 seat) [50]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative William Farrer Ecroyd 6,004 58.0 -10.9
Liberal Henry Yates Thompson [52] 4,34042.0+10.9
Majority1,66416.0+14.4
Turnout 10,34488.0-7.8 (est)
Registered electors 11,748
Conservative hold Swing -10.9
General election 1880: Preston (2 seats) [50]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative Edward Hermon 6,239 36.2 5.9
Conservative John Holker 5,641 32.7 1.0
Liberal George William Bahr [53] 5,35531.1+6.8
Majority2861.6-7.8
Turnout 11,594 (est)95.8 (est)+16.1
Registered electors 12,108
Conservative hold Swing -4.7
Conservative hold Swing -2.2

Elections in the 1870s

By-election, 24 Apr 1874: Preston (1 seat) [50]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative John Holker Unopposed
Conservative hold
General election 1874: Preston (2 seats) [50]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative Edward Hermon 6,512 42.1 +14.3
Conservative John Holker 5,211 33.7 +6.4
Lib-Lab Thomas Mottershead 3,75624.320.7
Majority1,4559.4+4.8
Turnout 9,618 (est)79.7 (est)17.4
Registered electors 12,073
Conservative hold Swing +12.3
Conservative hold Swing +8.4
By-election, 16 Sep 1872: Preston (1 seat) [50]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative John Holker 4,542 54.3 0.8
Liberal James German [54] 3,82445.7+0.7
Majority7188.6+4.0
Turnout 8,36681.915.2
Registered electors 10,214
Conservative hold Swing 0.8

Elections in the 1860s

General election 1868: Preston (2 seats) [50]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative Edward Hermon 5,803 27.8 N/A
Conservative Thomas Fermor-Hesketh 5,700 27.3 N/A
Liberal Joseph Leese 4,74122.7New
Liberal Edward Fitzalan-Howard 4,66322.3New
Majority9594.6N/A
Turnout 10,454 (est)97.1 (est)N/A
Registered electors 10,763
Conservative hold Swing N/A
Conservative hold Swing N/A
General election 1865: Preston (2 seats) [50]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative Thomas Hesketh Unopposed
Conservative Frederick Stanley Unopposed
Registered electors 2,562
Conservative hold
Conservative gain from Liberal
By-election, 4 April 1862: Preston [50]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative Thomas Hesketh 1,527 60.1 9.1
Liberal George Melly 1,01439.9+9.1
Majority51320.2+11.6
Turnout 2,54191.6+17.9
Registered electors 2,773
Conservative hold Swing 9.1

Elections in the 1850s

General election 1859: Preston (2 seats) [50]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative R. A. Cross 1,542 39.4 +3.8
Liberal Charles Grenfell 1,208 30.8 6.5
Conservative John Talbot Clifton [55] 1,16829.8+2.7
Turnout 1,959 (est)73.7 (est)+1.6
Registered electors 2,657
Majority3348.6+0.1
Conservative hold Swing +3.5
Majority401.00.7
Liberal hold Swing 6.5
General election 1857: Preston (2 seats) [50]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Whig Charles Grenfell 1,503 37.3 +11.7
Conservative R. A. Cross 1,433 35.6 +5.3
Whig George Strickland 1,09427.11.3
Turnout 2,015 (est)72.1 (est)5.1
Registered electors 2,793
Majority701.711.0
Whig hold Swing +4.5
Majority3398.5+3.8
Conservative hold Swing +0.1
General election 1852: Preston (2 seats) [50]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative Robert Townley Parker 1,335 30.3 2.6
Whig George Strickland 1,253 28.4 5.5
Whig Charles Grenfell 1,12725.67.7
Radical James German [56] 69215.7N/A
Turnout 2,204 (est)77.2 (est)13.2
Registered electors 2,854
Majority2084.7N/A
Conservative gain from Whig Swing +5.3
Majority56112.7+12.3
Whig hold Swing 2.1

Elections in the 1840s

General election 1847: Preston (2 seats) [50]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Whig George Strickland 1,404 33.9 +5.9
Whig Charles Grenfell 1,378 33.3 +4.8
Conservative Robert Townley Parker 1,36132.910.6
Majority170.45.7
Turnout 2,752 (est)90.4 (est)+4.2
Registered electors 3,044
Whig hold Swing +5.6
Whig hold Swing +5.1
General election 1841: Preston (2 seats) [15] [50]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Whig Peter Hesketh-Fleetwood 1,655 28.5 16.1
Whig George Strickland 1,629 28.0 +2.5
Conservative Robert Townley Parker 1,27021.9+7.0
Conservative Charles Swainson1,25521.6+6.7
Majority3596.18.7
Turnout 2,905 (est)86.2 (est)c.3.1
Registered electors 3,371
Whig hold Swing 11.5
Whig hold Swing 2.2

Elections in the 1830s

General election 1837: Preston (2 seats) [15] [50]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Whig Peter Hesketh-Fleetwood 2,726 44.6 +28.4
Conservative Robert Townley Parker 1,821 29.8 3.9
Whig John Crawfurd 1,56225.5+9.3
Radical Feargus O'Connor 50.133.7
Turnout 3,26489.30.4
Registered electors 3,656
Majority90514.8+3.8
Whig hold Swing +15.2
Majority2594.3+3.1
Conservative hold Swing 11.4
General election 1835: Preston (2 seats) [15] [50]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative Peter Hesketh-Fleetwood 2,165 33.7 +2.3
Whig Henry Smith-Stanley 2,092 32.5 +2.0
Radical Thomas Perronet Thompson 1,38521.5+2.5
Radical Thomas Smith78912.36.8
Turnout 3,35089.7+2.5
Registered electors 3,734
Majority731.2-11.1
Conservative hold Swing +2.3
Majority70711.00.4
Whig hold Swing +2.1
General election 1832: Preston (2 seats) [15] [50]
PartyCandidateVotes%
Tory Peter Hesketh-Fleetwood 3,372 31.4
Whig Henry Smith-Stanley 3,273 30.5
Radical Henry Hunt 2,05419.1
Radical John Forbes1,92617.9
Radical Charles John Crompton [57] 1181.1
Turnout 5,53887.2
Registered electors 6,352
Majority1,31812.3
Tory gain from Radical
Majority1,21911.4
Whig hold
General election 1831: Preston (2 seats) [15] [58]
PartyCandidateVotes%
Whig John Wood Unopposed
Radical Henry Hunt Unopposed
Whig hold
Radical gain from Whig
By-election, 17 December 1830: Preston [15] [58]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Radical Henry Hunt 3,730 52.4 +32.9
Whig Edward Smith-Stanley 3,39247.632.9
Majority3384.8N/A
Turnout 7,122
Radical gain from Whig Swing +32.9
General election 1830: Preston [15] [58]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Whig Edward Smith-Stanley 2,996 44.8
Whig John Wood 2,389 35.7
Radical Henry Hunt 1,30819.5
Majority1,08116.2
Turnout c.3,347
Whig hold Swing
Whig hold Swing

Elections in the 1810s

General election 1818: Preston (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Tory Samuel Horrocks 1,694 37.3 -2.4
Whig Edmund Hornby 1,598 35.2 -4.2
Reformer Peter Crompton 1,24527.4New
Majority4499.9-8.9
Turnout 4,537
Tory hold Swing
Whig hold Swing
General election 1812: Preston (2 seats)
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Tory Samuel Horrocks 1,379 39.7
Whig Edmund Hornby 1,368 39.4
IndependentEdward Hanson72720.9
Majority65218.8
Turnout 3,474

See also

Notes

  1. A borough constituency (for the purposes of election expenses and type of returning officer)
  2. As with all constituencies, the constituency elects one Member of Parliament (MP) by the first past the post system of election at least every five years.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sheffield Hallam (UK Parliament constituency)</span> Parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom, 1885 onwards

Sheffield Hallam is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2019 by Olivia Blake of the Labour Party.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chorley (UK Parliament constituency)</span> Parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom, 1885 onwards

Chorley is a constituency in Lancashire represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 1997 by Lindsay Hoyle. Hoyle was originally elected for the Labour Party, but in 2019 became the Speaker, making him unaffiliated.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fylde (UK Parliament constituency)</span> Parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom, 1983 onwards

Fylde is a constituency in Lancashire which was represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament from 2010 by Mark Menzies, formerly of the Conservative Party, but later an Independent after the whip was withdrawn in April 2024, with allegations he misused campaign funds.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ribble Valley (UK Parliament constituency)</span> Parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom, 1983 onwards

Ribble Valley is a constituency in Lancashire represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 1992 by Nigel Evans, a Conservative. Evans has served as a Deputy Speaker of the House of Commons and Second Deputy Chairman of Ways and Means since January 2020; he previously served as First Deputy Chairman of Ways and Means from 2010 to 2013.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">South Ribble (UK Parliament constituency)</span> Parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom, 1983 onwards

South Ribble is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2019 by Katherine Fletcher, a Conservative.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Southport (UK Parliament constituency)</span> Parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom

Southport is a constituency in Merseyside which has been represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2017 by Damien Moore of the Conservative Party.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Middlesbrough (UK Parliament constituency)</span> Parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom, 1974 onwards

Middlesbrough was a parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom, recreated in 1974, and represented since 2012 in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament. An earlier version of the seat existed between 1868 and 1918.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wyre and Preston North (UK Parliament constituency)</span> Parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom, 2010 onwards

Wyre and Preston North was a county constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Created in 2010, it elected one Member of Parliament (MP) by the first past the post voting system.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fulwood, Lancashire</span> Human settlement in England

Fulwood is a suburb of Preston, Lancashire, England, in the northern half of the City of Preston district. It had a population of 28,535 in 2011 and is made up of five wards.

Preston was a rural district in Lancashire, England from 1894 to 1974. It surrounded Preston to the north, west and east.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Preston North (UK Parliament constituency)</span> Parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom, 1950–1983

Preston North was a parliamentary constituency in Lancashire, which returned one Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The constituency was created by the House of Commons Act 1949 for the 1950 general election by division of the former two-seat Preston constituency, and abolished for the 1983 general election. Some of the constituency's former territory was then incorporated within a new single-seat Preston constituency, and parts of Preston North became elements within Fylde and Ribble Valley.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2006 Preston City Council election</span> 2006 UK local government election

The City Council elections for the City of Preston, Lancashire were held on 4 May 2006 on the same day as other 2006 United Kingdom local elections. Nineteen electoral wards were fought. The only change was that Labour gained one seat from the Liberal Democrats, continuing to be the largest party, but the Council remained under no overall control

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2007 Preston City Council election</span> 2007 UK local government election

Elections to the Preston City Council took place on 3 May 2007.

Elections to Preston Borough Council were held on 6 May 1999. One third of the council was up for election and the Labour party kept overall control of the council after a Liberal Democrat councillor defected to them on the night of the counting of the votes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">City of Preston, Lancashire</span> City and non-metropolitan district in Lancashire, England

The City of Preston, or simply Preston, is a local government district with city status in Lancashire, England. It lies on the north bank of the River Ribble and has a population of 151,582 (2022). The neighbouring districts are Ribble Valley, South Ribble, Fylde and Wyre.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2011 Preston City Council election</span>

Elections to the Preston City Council took place on 5 May 2011, the same day as other 2011 United Kingdom local elections. This was also the date of the 2011 United Kingdom Alternative Vote referendum. At this election, The Labour Party regained majority control of the council.

Elections to Preston City Council took place on 3 May 2012, the same day as other 2012 United Kingdom local elections.

References

  1. England Parliamentary electorates Boundary Commission for England
  2. "The statutes of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. 2 & 3 William IV. Cap. LXIV: An Act to settle and describe the Divisions of Counties, and the Limits of Cities and Boroughs, in England and Wales, in so far as respects the Election of Members to serve in Parliament". London: His Majesty's statute and law printers. 1832. pp. 300–383.
  3. "A Collection of the Public General Statutes: 1867/68. Cap. XLVI. An Act to settle and describe the Limits of certain Boroughs and the Divisions of certain Counties in England and Wales, in so far as respects the Election of Members to serve in Parliament". London: Eyre and Spottiswoode. 1868. pp. 119–166.
  4. "Chap. 23. Redistribution of Seats Act, 1885". The Public General Acts of the United Kingdom passed in the forty-eighth and forty-ninth years of the reign of Queen Victoria. London: Eyre and Spottiswoode. 1885. pp.  111–198.
  5. Debretts House of Commons 1886 Debretts House of Commons 1886, Page 222, "Counties, Divisions, Boroughs, etc
  6. RotPA 1918 Archive.org
  7. "Boundary Commission for England, fifth periodic review, p195" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 July 2011.
  8. "The Parliamentary Constituencies Order 2023". Schedule 1 Part 5 North West region.
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 "History of Parliament" . Retrieved 25 September 2011.
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 "History of Parliament" . Retrieved 25 September 2011.
  11. 1 2 3 Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "P" (part 2)
  12. Chicheley was also elected for Cambridge, which he chose to represent, and never sat for Preston
  13. On petition, Leicester and Standish were adjudged not to have been duly elected and their opponents, Burgoyne and Hoghton, were declared to have been duly elected in their place
  14. Major-General from 1772, Lieutenant-General from 1777
  15. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Stooks Smith, Henry. (1973) [1844-1850]. Craig, F. W. S. (ed.). The Parliaments of England (2nd ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. pp.  185–187. ISBN   0-900178-13-2.
  16. 1 2 Churton, Edward (1838). The Assembled Commons or Parliamentary Biographer: 1838. pp. 92–93, 216–217. Retrieved 29 November 2018 via Google Books.
  17. 1 2 Mosse, Richard Bartholomew (1838). The Parliamentary Guide: a concise history of the Members of both Houses, etc. pp. 164–165, 220. Retrieved 29 November 2018 via Google Books.
  18. Casey, Martin (2009). "STRICKLAND, George (1782–1874), of Hildenley and Boyton, Yorks. and Parliament Street, Mdx". The History of Parliament. Retrieved 30 June 2018.
  19. Ward, J. T. (1962). The Factory Movement, 1830-1855 (eBook). London: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 225. ISBN   978-1-349-81759-7 . Retrieved 30 June 2018.
  20. "Seats Gained by the Whigs" . Bell's Weekly Messenger . 5 July 1841. p. 5. Retrieved 30 June 2018 via British Newspaper Archive.
  21. 1 2 Taylor, H. A. (15 September 1955). "Politics in Famine-Stricken Preston: An Examination of Liberal Party Management, 1861–65" (PDF). The Historic Society of Lancashire & Cheshire. p. 121. Retrieved 30 June 2018.
  22. 1 2 Aspinall, A.; Smith, E. Anthony, eds. (1996) [1959]. English Historical Documents 1783–1832 (eBook). London: Routledge. p. 34. ISBN   0-203-19915-4 . Retrieved 30 June 2018.
  23. 1 2 Rothbard, Murray N. (2006) [1995]. Economic Thought Before Adam Smith: An Austrian Perspective on the History of Economic Thought, Volume I. Edward Elgar Publishing. p.  223. ISBN   0-945466-48-X . Retrieved 30 June 2018.
  24. Later adopted the surname Fermor-Hesketh
  25. Created a baronet, 1902
  26. "Liberal Democrat Prospective Parliamentary Candidates". Mark Pack . Retrieved 31 January 2024.
  27. "Preston Constituency". Reform UK . Retrieved 31 January 2024.
  28. Ashley Dalton [@AshleyDalton_MP] (8 June 2022). "I worked to help @MpHendrick get reselected for Preston and I'm pleased to say he was overwhelmingly reselected by @prestonlabour to continue being the City's Labour MP" (Tweet) via Twitter.{{Cite tweet}}: |date= / |number= mismatch (help)
  29. Walker, Ed. "Former Preston councillor to stand as pro-Palestinian candidate in general election". Blog Preston. Retrieved 29 March 2024.
  30. "our gefndiroedd 8". Green Party of England and Wales . Retrieved 25 May 2024.
  31. "Statement of persons nominated 2019" (PDF).
  32. General Election Preston City Council
  33. "Election Data 2015". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
  34. "Preston". BBC News Online . Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  35. "Election Data 2010". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
  36. "Election Data 2005". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  37. "Election Data 2001". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  38. Boothroyd, David. "Results of Byelections in the 1997-2002 Parliament". United Kingdom Election Results. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
  39. "Election Data 1997". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  40. "Election Data 1992". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  41. "UK General Election results April 1992". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Politics Resources. 9 April 1992. Archived from the original on 8 May 2015. Retrieved 6 December 2010.
  42. "Election Data 1987". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  43. "Election Data 1983". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  44. Craig, FWS, ed. (1974). British Parliamentary Election Results: 1885-1918. London: Macmillan Press. ISBN   9781349022984.
  45. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 British Parliamentary Election Results 1885-1918, FWS Craig
  46. 1 2 Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1916
  47. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 The Liberal Year Book, 1907
  48. 1 2 3 Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1901
  49. Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1886
  50. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Craig, F. W. S., ed. (1977). British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885 (e-book) (1st ed.). London: Macmillan Press. ISBN   978-1-349-02349-3.
  51. "Preston Election- A Liberal Candidate" . Dundee Evening Telegraph . 28 January 1882. p. 4. Retrieved 10 December 2017 via British Newspaper Archive.
  52. "Preston Liberals" . Western Daily Press . 12 May 1881. p. 8. Retrieved 10 December 2017 via British Newspaper Archive.
  53. "George William Bahr" . The Illustrated London News . 29 May 1880. p. 22. Retrieved 10 December 2017 via British Newspaper Archive.
  54. "The Representation of Preston" . Manchester Evening News . 30 August 1872. p. 3. Retrieved 17 January 2018 via British Newspaper Archive.
  55. "Mr. Clifton's Candidature" . Preston Chronicle. 23 April 1859. pp. 4–5. Retrieved 30 June 2018 via British Newspaper Archive.
  56. "The Elections" . Preston Chronicle. 10 July 1852. pp. 2–3. Retrieved 30 June 2018 via British Newspaper Archive.
  57. "The Election" . Preston Chronicle. 15 December 1832. p. 2. Retrieved 21 April 2020 via British Newspaper Archive.
  58. 1 2 3 Escott, Margaret. "Preston". The History of Parliament. Retrieved 21 April 2020.

Sources