Newspaper of record

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The New York Times Building in Midtown Manhattan; some meanings of the term "newspaper of record" originated in reference to The New York Times. NYTimesBldgByLuigiNovi2.jpg
The New York Times Building in Midtown Manhattan; some meanings of the term "newspaper of record" originated in reference to The New York Times .

A newspaper of record is a major national newspaper with large circulation whose editorial and news-gathering functions are considered authoritative and independent; they are thus "newspapers of record by reputation" and include some of the oldest and most widely respected newspapers in the world. The level and trend in the number of "newspapers of record by reputation" is regarded as being related to the state of press freedom and political freedom in a country. [1] [2]

Contents

It may also be a newspaper that has been authorized to publish public or legal notices, thus serving as a newspaper of public record. Newspapers whose editorial content is largely directed by the state can be referred to as an official newspaper of record, but the lack of editorial independence means that they are not "newspapers of record by reputation". Newspapers of record by reputation that focus on business can also be called newspapers of financial record. [1] [2]

Newspapers of public record

Paris headquarters of Le Figaro, France's centre-right newspaper of record (public record and by reputation) Le Figaro, boulevard Haussmann.JPG
Paris headquarters of Le Figaro , France's centre-right newspaper of record (public record and by reputation)

A "newspaper of public record", or government gazette, refers to a publicly available newspaper that is authorized by a government to publish public or legal notices. [3] It is often established by statute or official action and publication of notices within it, whether by the government or a private party, is usually considered sufficient to comply with legal requirements for public notice. [4] Such gazettes often have little editorial content (i.e. opinion articles), and are focused on transmission of information to the public regarding state services and state decisions; an example is Latvia's Latvijas Vēstnesis . [5]

In some jurisdictions, privately owned newspapers may register with the public authorities to publish public and legal notices, or be otherwise eligible to publish said notices (terms used may include "newspaper of general circulation" among others). [6] [7] [8] Likewise, a private newspaper may be designated by the courts for publication of legal notices, such as notices of fictitious business names, if certain judicial and statutory standards are met. [9] [10] These are sometimes called "legally adjudicated newspapers". [11]

Official newspaper of record

In more extreme cases, some newspapers of public record are owned and operated by a Government that directs their entire editorial content (not just the legal and public notice content). Such newspapers, while pejoratively termed "state mouthpieces", can also be called "official newspapers of record", as their entire editorial copy represents the official view and doctrine of the State. Inclusion of the word "official" can be used to separate them from "newspapers of record by reputation". Notable examples include Russia's Rossiyskaya Gazeta , [12] North Korea's Rodong Sinmun , [13] and China's People's Daily . [14]

Newspapers of record by reputation

First edition of Neue Zurcher Zeitung (1780), world's oldest newspaper of record by reputation. NZZ Erstausgabe Titelseite.jpg
First edition of Neue Zürcher Zeitung (1780), world's oldest newspaper of record by reputation.

The second type of "newspaper of record" (also known as a "journal of record", or by the French term presse de référence) is not defined by any formal criteria and their characteristics can vary. The category typically consists of those newspapers that are considered to meet higher standards of journalism than most print media, including editorial independence (particularly from the ruling government and from its owners), accountability (mistakes are acknowledged), attention to detail and accuracy, and comprehensiveness and balance of coverage; [15] they are often renowned internationally, and regarded as sources in their country and/or region by other global outlets. [16] [17]

Some newspapers of record by reputation, while respected for the accuracy and quality of their reporting, can still be recognized as ideologically conservative (e.g. The Wall Street Journal and The Telegraph ) or liberal (e.g. The Washington Post and The Guardian ). [18]

While many countries are proud of their newspapers of record by reputation, in some countries, they face an openly hostile state or political system that tries to suppress their press freedoms. Examples include Turkey's Cumhuriyet , where many of the staff have been imprisoned, [19] Panama's La Prensa , where staff have been shot and the owners forced into exile, [20] and Venezuela's El Nacional , [21] which was effectively forced out of print by the state who seized all their assets. [22]

Despite changes in society, newspapers of record by reputation have historically tended to maintain a similar tone, coverage, style, and traditions; many newspapers of record are over a century old, with some close to, or over, two centuries old (e.g. Neue Zürcher Zeitung , The Times , The Guardian, Le Figaro , and The Sydney Morning Herald ). [16]

Etymology

The term is believed to have originated among librarians who began referring to The New York Times as the "newspaper of record" when it became the first U.S. newspaper in 1913 to publish an index of the subjects covered in its pages. [18] [23] In recognition of the usage, The New York Times held an essay contest in 1927 in which entrants had to demonstrate "The Value of The New York Times Index and Files as a Newspaper of Record". The New York Times, and other newspapers of its type, then sought to be chroniclers of events, acting as a record of the day's announcements, schedules, directories, proceedings, transcripts and appointments. The New York Times no longer considers itself a newspaper of record in the original, literal sense. [24]

Over time, historians began to rely on The New York Times and similar titles as a reliable archival and historical record of significant past events, and a gauge of societal opinions at the time of printing. The term "newspaper of record" evolved from its original literal sense to its currently understood meaning. [23]

The derived term "financial (or business) newspaper of record" is attributed to the Wall Street Journal , [25] [26] the Financial Times , [27] and to the Nihon Keizai Shimbun (Nikkei) . [28]

Fallen newspapers

The former headquarters of El Nacional, Venezuela's long-standing newspaper of record, which was seized by the state in 2018, and the paper forced out of newsprint production. El Nacional building.jpg
The former headquarters of El Nacional , Venezuela's long-standing newspaper of record, which was seized by the state in 2018, and the paper forced out of newsprint production.

Over time, some established newspapers of record by reputation have lost their status due to various factors including financial collapse, take-over or merger by another entity that did not have the same standards or allowed continued independence, and/or increased government control and suppression of the paper's editorial independence. The existence of newspapers of record by reputation is an aspect of the level of press freedom and political freedom in a country, with major first-world democracies having several such newspapers (e.g. United States, United Kingdom, Germany, France, Canada, Italy and Japan); in contrast, countries that have seen a decline in their newspapers of record by reputation can represent a decline in levels of personal and political freedom (e.g. Zimbabwe, Venezuela, and Cambodia). [1]

Examples include:

Selected existing newspapers

CountryRegionNewspaperCity of publicationFoundedLanguageRefs.
Flag of Argentina.svg ArgentinaSouth America La-Nacion-Logo.svg La Nación Buenos Aires 1870Spanish [21] [37] [38]
Flag of Australia (converted).svg AustraliaOceania The Age Melbourne 1854English [15] [18]
Sydney Morning Herald logo.svg The Sydney Morning Herald Sydney 1831 [39] [15] [18]
Flag of Austria.svg AustriaEurope Die Presse logo.svg Die Presse Vienna 1848 [lower-alpha 1] [40] German [41]
DER STANDARD schwarz.png Der Standard 1988 [42]
Flag of the Bahamas.svg BahamasCaribbean The Nassau Guardian Nassau 1844English [43]
Flag of Bangladesh.svg BangladeshSouth Asia The Daily Star Dhaka 1991English [44] [45]
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg BelgiumEurope Logo du journal Le Soir.svg Le Soir Brussels 1887French [46]
De Standaard logo.svg De Standaard Groot-Bijgaarden 1918Dutch [47]
Bandera de Bolivia (Estado).svg BoliviaSouth America El Diario La Paz 1904Spanish [48]
Flag of Brazil.svg BrazilSouth America O Estado de S. Paulo Logo.svg O Estado de S. Paulo São Paulo 1875Portuguese [49] [50] [51]
Folha de S. Paulo.svg Folha de S.Paulo 1921 [52]
O Globo.svg O Globo Rio de Janeiro 1925 [21]
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg CanadaNorthern America Logo Le Devoir.svg Le Devoir Montreal 1910French [53]
The Globe and Mail (2019-10-31).svg The Globe and Mail Toronto 1844 [lower-alpha 2] English [54] [55] [56] [57] [18]
La Presse Canadian newspaper.svg La Presse Montreal 1884French [58] [59]
Flag of Chile.svg ChileSouth America El Mercurio.svg El Mercurio Santiago 1900 [lower-alpha 3] Spanish [21] [60]
Flag of Colombia.svg ColombiaSouth America NUEVO LOGO DE EL TIEMPO HD.jpg El Tiempo Bogotá 1911Spanish [21] [61] [62]
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Czech RepublicEurope Logo lidove noviny.jpg Lidové noviny Prague 1893Czech [63]
Flag of Denmark.svg DenmarkEurope Berlingske-logo.png Berlingske Copenhagen 1749 [lower-alpha 4] Danish [64] [65]
Flag of Egypt.svg EgyptAfrica Al-Ahram Cairo 1875Arabic [66] [67] [68]
Flag of Finland.svg FinlandEurope Helsingin Sanomat wordmark.svg Helsingin Sanomat Helsinki 1889Finnish [69]
Flag of France.svg FranceEurope Le Figaro.svg Le Figaro Paris 1826 [lower-alpha 5] French [71] [72] [73]
Logo liberation.svg Libération 1973 [74]
Le Monde.svg Le Monde 1944 [lower-alpha 6] [75] [76] [77] [73]
Flag of Germany.svg GermanyEurope Frankfurter Allgemeine logo.svg Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung Frankfurt 1949 [lower-alpha 7] German [78] [60]
Logo-der spiegel.svg Der Spiegel Hamburg 1947 [79]
[80] [81]
Suddeutsche Zeitung Logo.svg Süddeutsche Zeitung Munich 1945 [82]
Die Zeit-Logo-Bremen.svg Die Zeit Hamburg 1946
[82] [73]
Flag of Greece.svg GreeceEurope Kathimerini Athens 1919Greek [83] [84]
Flag of Hong Kong.svg Hong KongEast Asia SCMP logo.svg South China Morning Post Hong Kong 1903English [85] [86]
Flag of India.svg IndiaSouth Asia The Hindu Chennai 1878English [87] [88]
The times of india.svg The Times of India Mumbai 1838 [lower-alpha 8] [18] [89] [15]
Flag of Indonesia.svg IndonesiaSoutheast Asia Kompas.svg Kompas Jakarta 1965Indonesian [90] [91]
Flag of Iran.svg IranWest Asia Ettelaat.svg Ettela'at Tehran 1926Persian [92] [93]
Flag of Ireland.svg IrelandEurope The Irish Times logo.svg The Irish Times Dublin 1859English [15] [94]
Flag of Israel.svg IsraelWest Asia Haaretz logo.svg Haaretz Tel Aviv 1919Hebrew and English [95] [96] [97] [98] [18]
Flag of Italy.svg ItalyEurope Corriere della Sera.svg Corriere della Sera Milan 1876Italian [99] [100] [101] [73]
La Stampa.svg La Stampa Turin 1867 [102] [103] [73]
La Repubblica.svg la Repubblica Rome 1976 [101]
Flag of Jamaica.svg JamaicaCaribbean The Gleaner Kingston 1834English [104] [105]
Flag of Japan.svg JapanEast Asia The Asahi Shimbun logo.svg The Asahi Shimbun Osaka 1879Japanese [106] [107] [108]
Mainichi Shimbun logo.svg Mainichi Shimbun Tokyo 1872 [109]
Nikkei logo ja.svg Nihon Keizai Shimbun (Nikkei) 1876 [28]
Yomiuri-Shimbun-Logo.svg Yomiuri Shimbun 1874 [110] [111]
Flag of Kenya.svg KenyaAfrica Daily Nation Nairobi 1960 [lower-alpha 9] English [112] [113]
Flag of Latvia.svg LatviaEurope Ir (magazine) logo 2017.png Ir Riga 2010Latvian [114]
Flag of Lebanon.svg LebanonWest Asia An-Nahar Beirut 1933Arabic [115] [116]
Flag of Malaysia.svg MalaysiaSoutheast Asia New Straits Times.png New Straits Times [lower-alpha 10] Kuala Lumpur 1965 [lower-alpha 11] English [117] [118]
Flag of Mexico.svg MexicoNorthern America Reforma Mexico City 1993Spanish [21]
Flag of the Netherlands.svg NetherlandsEurope NRC Amsterdam 1970 [lower-alpha 12] Dutch [119]
Flag of New Zealand.svg New ZealandOceania The New Zealand Herald logo.webp The New Zealand Herald Auckland 1863English [15]
Flag of Norway.svg NorwayEurope Aftenposten logo.svg Aftenposten Oslo 1860Norwegian
(Riksmål)
[120]
Flag of Pakistan.svg PakistanSouth Asia Dawn Newspaper logo.png Dawn Karachi 1941English [121] [122] [123]
Flag of Panama.svg PanamaCentral America La Prensa (Panama City) logo.svg La Prensa Panama City 1980Spanish [124] [125] [20]
Flag of Peru.svg PeruSouth America El comerciovector.svg El Comercio Lima 1839Spanish [21]
Flag of the Philippines.svg PhilippinesSoutheast Asia PDI logo.svg Philippine Daily Inquirer Makati 1985English [126] [127] [128]
Flag of Poland.svg PolandEurope Gazeta Wyborcza Warsaw 1989Polish [129] [130]
Rzeczpospolita 1920 [lower-alpha 13] [129] [131]
Flag of Portugal.svg PortugalEurope Diario de Noticias.svg Diário de Notícias Lisbon 1864Portuguese [132] [133]
Logo publico.svg Público Porto 1990 [134] [135] [136]
Flag of Serbia.svg SerbiaEurope LogoDanas.png Danas Belgrade 1997Serbian [137]
Flag of Singapore.svg SingaporeSoutheast Asia The Straits Times Logo.svg The Straits Times [lower-alpha 10] Singapore 1845English [117] [118]
Flag of South Africa.svg South AfricaAfrica Mail & Guardian logo.jpg Mail & Guardian Johannesburg 1985English [138] [139]
Flag of South Korea.svg South KoreaEast Asia Chosun IIbo Logo.svg The Chosun Ilbo Seoul 1920Korean [140]
Dong-a Ilbo logo.svg The Dong-a Ilbo 1920 [140]
jungangilboCI.png JoongAng Ilbo 1965 [140]
Flag of Spain.svg SpainEurope Diario ABC logo.svg ABC Madrid 1903Spanish [141] [142] [143]
El Mundo logo.svg El Mundo 1989 [144] [73]
El Pais logo 2007.svg El País 1976 [145] [146] [73]
Flag of Sweden.svg SwedenEurope Dagens Nyheter.svg Dagens Nyheter Stockholm 1864Swedish [147]
Flag of Switzerland (Pantone).svg SwitzerlandEurope Neue Zurcher Zeitung.svg Neue Zürcher Zeitung Zurich 1780German [148] [149] [73]
Logo Le Temps (Schweiz).svg Le Temps Geneva 1998 [lower-alpha 14] French [149] [150]
Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg Trinidad and TobagoCaribbean Trinidad and Tobago Guardian Port of Spain 1917English [151] [152]
Flag of Turkey.svg TurkeyWest Asia Cumhuriyet-logo.png Cumhuriyet Istanbul 1924Turkish [19]
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United KingdomEurope The Telegraph.svg The Daily Telegraph London 1855English [15] [153] [18]
Financial Times masthead.svg The Financial Times 1888 [15] [18] [27] [73]
The Guardian 2018.svg The Guardian 1821 [lower-alpha 15] [18] [73] [89]
The Times 1785 [lower-alpha 16] [153] [15] [18] [154]
Flag of the United States.svg United StatesNorthern America Los Angeles Times.svg Los Angeles Times Los Angeles 1881English [15] [18]
NewYorkTimes.svg The New York Times New York City 1851 [15] [18] [155] [156]
WSJ Logo.svg The Wall Street Journal 1889 [15] [18] [73] [157]
The Logo of The Washington Post Newspaper.svg The Washington Post Washington, D.C. 1877 [15] [18] [73] [157]

See also

Notes

  1. Staff split in 1864 to form Neue Freie Presse, aryanized by the Nazis in 1938 and closed in 1939, reestablished as Die Presse in 1946.
  2. Successor to The Globe (founded 1844), The Toronto Mail (1872) and Toronto Empire (1887); papers merged in 1895 and 1936.
  3. Spun off from El Mercurio de Valparaíso (founded 1827).
  4. Named Berlingske Tidende until 2011.
  5. Le Figaro is France's oldest national newspaper still operating to this date. [70]
  6. Founded as a successor to the discredited collaborationist Le Temps (founded 1861).
  7. Considered a successor to the Frankfurter Zeitung (founded 1856), banned in 1943 by the Nazis.
  8. Named The Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce until mergers in 1860–1.
  9. Originated as the Swahili Taifa in 1958.
  10. 1 2 The Straits Times and New Straits Times were qualified as "semi-official newspapers of record" in the Encyclopedia of Journalism (2009) as "each is tightly connected to the dominant political party of their respective countries". [117]
  11. Spun off from The Straits Times (founded 1845) upon Singapore's independence.
  12. Merger of Algemeen Handelsblad (founded 1828) and Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant (1844).
  13. Dissolved in 1931 and revived in 1944, second dissolution in 1951, revived again in 1982.
  14. Merger of Journal de Genève (founded 1826), Gazette de Lausanne (1798), and Nouveau Quotidien (1991).
  15. Founded as The Manchester Guardian, adopted its present name in 1959.
  16. Named The Daily Universal Register until 1788.

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<i>Le Figaro</i> French daily newspaper

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<i>Le Monde</i> French daily newspaper

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<i>Dagens Nyheter</i> Swedish newspaper

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<i>The Asahi Shimbun</i> Japanese newspaper

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<i>El País</i> Spanish newspaper

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<i>El Mundo</i> (Spain) Spanish daily newspaper

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<i>Público</i> (Portugal) Portuguese daily newspaper

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<i>JoongAng Ilbo</i> South Korean newspaper

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