List of colonial governors of New York

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A drawing by Johannes Vingboons of the city of New Amsterdam in 1664--the year the Dutch authorities surrendered the New Netherland colony to the English under Richard Nicholls and renamed New York GezichtOpNieuwAmsterdam.jpg
A drawing by Johannes Vingboons of the city of New Amsterdam in 1664—the year the Dutch authorities surrendered the New Netherland colony to the English under Richard Nicholls and renamed New York

The territory which would later become the state of New York was settled by European colonists as part of the New Netherland colony (parts of present-day New York, New Jersey, Connecticut and Delaware) under the command of the Dutch West India Company in the Seventeenth Century. These colonists were largely of Dutch, Flemish, Walloon, and German stock, but the colony soon became a "melting pot." In 1664, at the onset of the Second Anglo-Dutch War, English forces under Richard Nicolls ousted the Dutch from control of New Netherland, and the territory became part of several different English colonies. Despite one brief year when the Dutch retook the colony (1673–1674), New York would remain an English possession until the American colonies declared independence in 1776.

New York (state) State of the United States of America

New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies that formed the United States. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State.

European colonization of the Americas settlement and establishment of control of the continents of the Americas by most of the naval powers of Europe

The European colonization of the Americas describes the history of the settlement and establishment of control of the continents of the Americas by most of the naval powers of Western Europe.

New Netherland 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic that was located on the East Coast of North America

New Netherland was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic that was located on the east coast of America. The claimed territories extended from the Delmarva Peninsula to southwestern Cape Cod, while the more limited settled areas are now part of New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Connecticut, with small outposts in Pennsylvania and Rhode Island.

Contents

With the unification of the two proprietary colonies of East Jersey and West Jersey in 1702, the provinces of New York and the neighboring colony New Jersey shared a royal governor. This arrangement began with the appointment of Queen Anne's cousin, Edward Hyde, Lord Cornbury as Royal Governor of New York and New Jersey in 1702, and ended when New Jersey was granted its own royal governor in 1738.

East Jersey English possession in North America between 1674 and 1702

The Province of East Jersey, along with the Province of West Jersey, between 1674 and 1702 in accordance with the Quintipartite Deed were two distinct political divisions of the Province of New Jersey, which became the U.S. state of New Jersey. The two provinces were amalgamated in 1702. East Jersey's capital was located at Perth Amboy. Determination of an exact location for a border between West Jersey and East Jersey was often a matter of dispute.

West Jersey English possession in North America between 1674 and 1702

West Jersey and East Jersey were two distinct parts of the Province of New Jersey. The political division existed for 28 years, between 1674 and 1702. Determination of an exact location for a border between West Jersey and East Jersey was often a matter of dispute.

Province of New York English, from 1707, British, possession in North America between 1664 and 1776

The Province of New York (1664–1776) was a British proprietary colony and later royal colony on the northeast coast of North America. As one of the Thirteen Colonies, New York achieved independence and worked with the others to found the United States.

Directors (or governors) of New Netherland (16241664)

A 1685 reprint of the 1650 map Novi Belgii Novaeque Angliae showing Virginia, New Netherland, and New England. Map-Novi Belgii Novaeque Angliae (Amsterdam, 1685).jpg
A 1685 reprint of the 1650 map Novi Belgii Novæque Angliæ showing Virginia, New Netherland, and New England.

New Netherland (Dutch: Nieuw-Nederland) was the 17th-century colonial province of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands and the Dutch West India Company. It claimed territories along the eastern coast of North America from the Delmarva Peninsula to southwestern Cape Cod. Settled areas of New Netherland are now constitute the states of New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Connecticut, and parts of Pennsylvania and Rhode Island. [1] [2] The provincial capital New Amsterdam was located at the southern tip of the island of Manhattan at Upper New York Bay. [3]

Dutch West India Company Dutch trading company

Dutch West India Company was a chartered company of Dutch merchants as well as foreign investors. Among its founders was Willem Usselincx (1567–1647). On June 3, 1621, it was granted a charter for a trade monopoly in the Dutch West Indies by the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands and given jurisdiction over Dutch participation in the Atlantic slave trade, Brazil, the Caribbean, and North America. The area where the company could operate consisted of West Africa and the Americas, which included the Pacific Ocean and the eastern part of New Guinea. The intended purpose of the charter was to eliminate competition, particularly Spanish or Portuguese, between the various trading posts established by the merchants. The company became instrumental in the largely ephemeral Dutch colonization of the Americas in the seventeenth century. From 1624 to 1654, in the context of the Dutch-Portuguese War, the WIC held Portuguese territory in northeast Brazil, but they were ousted from Dutch Brazil following fierce resistance.

Delmarva Peninsula peninsula

The Delmarva Peninsula, or simply Delmarva, is a large peninsula on the East Coast of the United States, occupied by Delaware and parts of the Eastern Shores of Maryland and Virginia. The peninsula is 170 miles (274 km) long. In width, it ranges from 70 miles (113 km) near its center, to 12 miles (19 km) at the isthmus on its northern edge, to less near its southern tip of Cape Charles. It is bordered by the Chesapeake Bay on the west, the Delaware River, Delaware Bay, and the Atlantic Ocean on the east, and the Elk River and its isthmus on the north.

Cape Cod Cape in the northeastern United States

Cape Cod is a geographic cape extending into the Atlantic Ocean from the southeastern corner of mainland Massachusetts, in the northeastern United States. Its historic, maritime character and ample beaches attract heavy tourism during the summer months.

New Netherland was conceived as a private business venture to exploit the North American fur trade. [4] By the 1650s, the colony experienced dramatic growth and became a major port for trade in the North Atlantic. The leader of the Dutch colony was known by the title Director or Director-General. On August 27, 1664, four English frigates commanded by Richard Nicolls sailed into New Amsterdam's harbor and demanded the surrender of New Netherland. [5] [6] This event sparked the Second Anglo-Dutch War, which led to the transfer of the territory to England per the Treaty of Breda. [7] [8]

North American fur trade

The North American fur trade was the industry and activities related to the acquisition, trade, exchange, and sale of animal furs in North America. Aboriginal peoples in Canada and Native Americans in the United States of different regions traded among themselves in the pre–Columbian Era, but Europeans participated in the trade beginning from the time of their arrival in the New World and extended its reach to Europe. The French started trading in the 16th century, the English established trading posts on Hudson Bay in present-day Canada in the 17th century, and the Dutch had trade by the same time in New Netherland. The 19th-century North American fur trade, when the industry was at its peak of economic importance, involved the development of elaborate trade networks.

Frigate Type of warship

A frigate is a type of warship, having various sizes and roles over the last few centuries.

Richard Nicholls was the first English colonial governor of New York province.

#PortraitDirector or
Director-General
Took officeLeft officeNotes
1 Cornelius Jacobsen May
(fl. 1600s)
16241625
2 Willem Verhulst
(or van der Hulst)
(fl. 1600s)
16251626
3 Peter Minuit portrait New Amsterdam 1600s light.jpg Peter Minuit
(1580–1638)
16261631
  • Purchased the island of Manhattan from Native Americans on May 24, 1626 for 60 Dutch guilders worth of goods. [9]
4 Sebastiaen Jansen Krol
(1595–1674)
16321633
5 Wouter van Twiller.jpg Wouter van Twiller
(1606–1654)
16331638
  • Previously a Dutch West India Company warehouse clerk, used family connections to the Rensselaer family to gain appointment
  • Purchased Nut Island (Noten Eylant), later called Governor's Island from Canarsee tribe for two axeheads, a string of beads and iron nails
  • Lost the colony's claim of the Connecticut River valley to New England settlers
  • Pushed back encroaching Virginia settlers who tried to settle Delaware River valley
6 Willem Kieft
(1597–1647)
16381647
7 Peter Stuyvesant.jpg Peter Stuyvesant
(c.1612-1672)
16471664

Under English control (1664–1783)

Apart from a short period between May 1688 and April 1689, during which New York was part of the Dominion of New England, the territory was known in this period as the Province of New York.

#PortraitGovernorTook officeLeft officeNotes
1 Richard Nicolls
(1624–1672)
16641668as military governor
2 FrancisLovelace.jpg Francis Lovelace
(1621–1675)
16681673
3 Anthony Colve 16731674 Dutch naval captain under restored Netherlands rule
4 Sir Edmund Andros.jpg Edmund Andros
(1637–1714)
16741683
5 Anthony Brockholls
(c. 1656)
16811683Commander-in-Chief of British Forces and acting governor
6 Thomas Dongan, 2nd Earl of Limerick.jpg Thomas Dongan, 2nd Earl of Limerick
(1634–1715)
16831688
7 Francis nicholson Dahl.jpg Francis Nicholson
(1655–1728)
16881691military governor and de facto only until June 1689
8 01 Jacob Leisler.JPG Jacob Leisler
(c. 1640–1691)
16881691Militia officer in rebellion
9 Henry Sloughter
(d. 1691)
16911691
10 Richard Ingoldesby
(d. 1719)
16911692Military officer as acting governor
11 Benjamin Fletcher
(1640–1703)
16921697
12 RichardCoote FirstEarlBellomont.jpg Richard Coote, 1st Earl of Bellomont
(c. 1636–1700/1)
16981700/1
13 John Nanfan
(1688–1702)
17011702as acting governor
14 Edward Hyde, 3rd Earl of Clarendon
(1661–1723)
17021708
15 John Lovelace, 4th Baron Lovelace
(1672–1709)
17081709
16 Pieter Schuyler.jpg Pieter Schuyler
(1657–1724)
17091709as acting governor
17 Richard Ingoldesby
(d. 1719)
17091709as acting governor
18 Gerardus Beekman
(1653–1723)
17091710as acting governor
19 Robert Hunter (governor).jpg Robert Hunter
(1664–1734)
17101719
20 Pieter Schuyler.jpg Pieter Schuyler
(1657–1724)
17191720as acting governor
21 WilliamBurnetByJohnWatson.jpg William Burnet
(1687/8–1729)
17201728
22 John Montgomerie
(d. 1731)
17281731
23 RipVanDam.jpg Rip Van Dam
(c.1660–1749)
17311732as acting governor
24 Wimbit-viceroyCosby.jpg William Cosby
(1690–1736)
17321736
25 George Clarke
(1676–1760)
17361743as acting governor
26 George Clinton
(c.1686–1761)
17431753
27 Danvers Osborn (1715-1753), by Christian Friedrich Zincke.jpg Sir Danvers Osborn, 3rd Baronet
(1715–1753)
17531753
28 James De Lancey
(1703–1760)
17531755as acting governor
29 Admiral Sir Charles Hardy, 1780.jpg Charles Hardy
(c. 1714–1780)
17551758
30 James De Lancey
(1703–1760)
17581760as acting governor
31 Cadwallader Colden.png Cadwallader Colden
(1688–1776)
17601762as acting governor
32 RobertMonckton.png Robert Monckton
(1726–1782)
17621763
33 Cadwallader Colden.png Cadwallader Colden
(1688–1776)
17631765as acting governor
34 Sir Henry Moore, 1st Baronet
(1713–1769)
17651769
35 Cadwallader Colden.png Cadwallader Colden
(1688–1776)
17691770as acting governor
36 Sir Joshua Reynolds - John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore - Google Art Project.jpg John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore
(1730–1809)
17701771
37 Tryon1767.jpg William Tryon
(1729–1788)
17711774
38 Cadwallader Colden.png Cadwallader Colden
(1688–1776)
17741775as acting governor
39 Tryon1767.jpg William Tryon
(1729–1788)
17751780
40 James Robertson
(1717–1788)
17801783as military governor
41 Andrew Elliot
(1728–1797)
17831783as military governor

See also

Related Research Articles

Peter Stuyvesant Dutch politician

Peter Stuyvesant ; in Dutch also Pieter and Petrus Stuyvesant); (1610–1672) served as the last Dutch director-general of the colony of New Netherland from 1647 until it was ceded provisionally to the English in 1664, after which it was renamed New York. He was a major figure in the early history of New York City and his name has been given to various landmarks and points of interest throughout the city.

Thirteen Colonies British American colonies which became the United States

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British colonization of the Americas American Colonies of England and then Great Britain and the United Kingdom

British colonisation of the Americas began in 1607 in Jamestown, Virginia, and reached its peak when colonies had been established throughout the Americas. The English, and later the British, were among the most important colonisers of the Americas, and their American empire came to surpass the Spanish American colonies in military and economic might.

This section of the timeline of United States history concerns events from before the lead up to the American Revolution.

Middle Colonies English, from 1707 British, possessions in North America up to 1773

The Middle Colonies were a subset of the thirteen colonies in British America, located between the New England Colonies and the Southern Colonies. Along with the Chesapeake Colonies, this area now roughly makes up the Mid-Atlantic states.

Province of New Jersey English, from 1707, British, possession in North America between 1664 and 1776

The Province of New Jersey was one of the Middle Colonies of Colonial America and became New Jersey, a state of United States in 1783. The province had originally been settled by Europeans as part of New Netherland, but came under English rule after the surrender of Fort Amsterdam in 1664, becoming a proprietary colony. The English then renamed the province after the Isle of Jersey in the English Channel. The Dutch Republic reasserted control for a brief period in 1673–1674. After that it consisted of two political divisions, East Jersey and West Jersey, until they were united as a royal colony in 1702. The original boundaries of the province were slightly larger than the current state, extending into a part of the present state of New York, until the border was finalized in 1773.

Delaware Colony English, from 1707, British, possession in North America between 1664 and 1776

Delaware Colony in the North American Middle Colonies consisted of land on the west bank of the Delaware River Bay. In the early 17th century the area was inhabited by Lenape and possibly the Assateague tribes of Native Americans. The first European settlers were the Swedes and the Dutch, but the land fell under English control in 1664. William Penn was given the deed to what was then called "the Lower Counties on the Delaware" by the Duke of York, in a deed separate from that which he held for the larger Province of Pennsylvania. Delaware was then governed as part of Pennsylvania from 1682 until 1701, when the Lower Counties petitioned for and were granted an independent colonial legislature, though the two colonies shared the same governor until 1776, when Delaware's assembly voted to break all ties with both Great Britain and Pennsylvania.

Treaty of Breda (1667) peace treaty which brought an end to the Second Anglo-Dutch War

The Treaty of Breda was signed at the Dutch city of Breda, 31 July, 1667, by England, the United Provinces (Netherlands), France, and Denmark–Norway. It brought a hasty end to the Second Anglo-Dutch War (1665–1667) in favour of the Dutch, as Louis XIV's forces began invading the Spanish Netherlands as part of the War of Devolution, but left many territorial disputes unresolved. It was thus a typical quick uti possidetis treaty. In the latter stages of the war, the Dutch had prevailed. Lieutenant-Admiral Michiel de Ruyter virtually controlled the seas around the south coast of England, following his successful Raid on the Medway, and his presence encouraged English commissioners to sue for peace quickly. Negotiations, which had been long protracted, and had actually begun in Breda before the raid, took only ten days to conclude after resumption of talks.

Willem Kieft was a Dutch merchant and the Director of New Netherland from 1638 to 1647.

This is a list of Directors, appointed by the Dutch West India Company, of the 17th century Dutch province of New Netherland in North America. Only the last, Peter Stuyvesant, held the title of Director General. As the colony grew, citizens advisory boards - known as the Twelve Men, Eight Men, and Nine Men - exerted more influence on the director and thus affairs of province.

The Shire of York (Yorkshire), was the first large governmental unit organized in the English Province of New York soon after English control of the area was established in 1664.

Beverwijck, often written using the pre-reform orthography Beverwyck, was a fur-trading community north of Fort Orange on the Hudson River in New Netherland that was renamed and developed as Albany, New York, after the English took control of the colony in 1664.

European colonization of New Jersey started soon after the 1609 exploration of its coast and bays by Sir Henry Hudson. Part of the state was settled by Dutch and Swedish as New Netherland and New Sweden. In 1664, the entire area was surrendered to the English, and given its name. With of the Treaty of Westminster in 1674, they formally gained control of the region until the American Revolution.

Kieft's War, also known as the Wappinger War, was a conflict (1643–1645) between settlers of the nascent colony of New Netherland and the native Lenape population in what would later become the New York metropolitan area of the United States. It is named for Director-General of New Netherland Willem Kieft, who had ordered an attack without approval of his advisory council and against the wishes of the colonists. Dutch soldiers attacked Lenape camps and massacred the native inhabitants, which encouraged unification among the regional Algonquian tribes against the Dutch, and precipitated waves of attacks on both sides. This was one of the earliest conflicts between Native Americans and European settlers in the region. Displeased with Kieft, the Dutch West India Company recalled him and he died in a shipwreck while returning to the Netherlands. Peter Stuyvesant succeeded him in New Netherland. Because of the continuing threat by the Algonquians, numerous Dutch settlers returned to the Netherlands, and growth of the colony slowed.

New Netherland settlements

New Netherland was the 17th century colonial province of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands on the northeastern coast of North America. The claimed territory was the land from the Delmarva Peninsula to southern Cape Cod. The settled areas are now part of the Mid-Atlantic states of New York, New Jersey, and Delaware, with small outposts in Connecticut and Pennsylvania. Its capital of New Amsterdam was located at the southern tip of the island of Manhattan on the Upper New York Bay.

New Netherlanders were residents of New Netherland, the seventeenth-century colonial province of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands on the northeastern coast of North America, centered on the Hudson River and New York Bay, and in the Delaware Valley.

Adriaen Jorissen Thienpoint or Tienpoint was a Dutch sea captain-explorer who commanded several ships to the newly developing colonies of New Netherland and New Sweden as well as other holdings of the Dutch Empire in North America in the early 17th century.

References

  1. "Grant of Exclusive Trade to New Netherland by the States-General of the United Netherlands; October 11, 1614" from Documentary History of the State of Maine (Portland: Maine Historical Society / Bailey and Noyes, 1869–1916). Published online at the Avalon Project: Documents in Law, History and Diplomacy, Yale Law School, Lillian Goldman Law Library. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
  2. Jacobs, Jaap. New Netherland: A Dutch Colony In Seventeenth-Century America. (Leiden: Brill, 2005), 35.
  3. van der Sijs, Nicoline. Cookies, Coleslaw and Stoops: The Influence of Dutch on the North American Languages. (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2009), 21.
  4. Dolin, Eric Jay. Fur, Fortune, and Empire: The Epic History of the Fur Trade in America. (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2011) passim.
  5. World Digital Library. Articles about the Transfer of New Netherland on the 27th of August, Old Style, Anno 1664 . Retrieved 21 March 2013
  6. Versteer, Dingman (editor). "New Amsterdam Becomes New York" in The New Netherland Register . Volume 1 No. 4 and 5 (April/May 1911): 49–64.
  7. Farnham, Mary Frances (compiler). "Farnham Papers (1603–1688)" in Volumes 7 and 8 of Documentary History of the State of Maine. (Portland, Maine: Collections of the Maine Historical Society, 2nd Series. 1901–1902), 7:311–314.
  8. Parry, Clive (editor). Consolidated Treaty Series 231 Volumes. (Dobbs Ferry, New York: Oceana Publications, 1969–1981), 10:231.
  9. Burrows, Edwin G., and Wallace, Mike. Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998), xivff.
  10. Merwick, Donna. The Shame and the Sorrow: Dutch-Amerindian Encounters in New Netherland Early American Series. (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006).
  11. "Journal of New Netherland 1647. Written in the Years 1641, 1642, 1643, 1644, 1645, and 1646". World Digital Library . 1641–1647. Retrieved 2013-08-01.
  12. 1 2 Shorto, Russell. The Island at the Center of the World: The Epic Story of Dutch Manhattan and the Forgotten Colony that Shaped America. (New York City: Vintage Books, 2004).
  13. Otto, Paul. The Dutch-Munsee Encounter in America: The Struggle for Sovereignty in the Hudson Valley. (Oxford/New York: Berghahn Books, 2006), 152; and Kraft, Herbert C. The Lenape: Archaeology, History, and Ethnography. (Newark, New Jersey: New Jersey Historical Society, 1986), 241.