Military Police (Brazil)

Last updated
Military Police
Polícia Militar
Brasao Nacional PPMMsvg.svg
Insignia of the Military Police used since 1957. [3]
AbbreviationPM
Agency overview
Formed1809
Employees450,000 active personnel [4]
Jurisdictional structure
Operations jurisdiction Brazil
General nature
Operational structure
Agency executive
  • Governors of the States, Commander
Parent agency Military Reserve Force
of Brazilian Army
Notables
Person
Significant operation
Anniversary
  • 21 April

Military Police (Portuguese : Polícia Militar, IPA:  [puˈlisjɐ miliˈtaʁ] , also known as PM, [peˈẽmi] ) are the preventive state police of the states and of the Federal District of Brazil. The Military Police units are the main ostensive police force at the state level and are responsible for policing and maintaining the public order. Their formations, rules and uniforms vary depending on the state. Investigative work and forensics are undertaken by the Civil Police of each state.

Contents

All state Military Police and Military Firefighters Corps are classed as reserve troops and ancillary forces of the Brazilian Army. [5] In time of war (or other emergencies) the military police forces can be pressed into federal service. But they remain distinct from the provosts belonging to the other services within the Brazilian Military: the corps Army Police (Portuguese : Polícia do Exército, PE) for the Army, Police Company of the Naval Battalion (Companhia de Polícia do Batalhão Naval) for the Navy, and Air Force Police (Portuguese : Polícia da Aeronáutica, PA) for the Air Force.

In 2004 the National Public Security Force (Portuguese : Força Nacional de Segurança Pública) was created to handle major security crisis. The unit, which is composed of the most qualified Military Police personnel from all federal states, can only be deployed through the express command of a state governor.

History

The first militarized police in Portugal (when Brazil was still a colony) was the Royal Police Guard of Lisbon (Portuguese : Guarda Real de Polícia de Lisboa), established in 1801; [6] which was followed by the model of the National Gendarmerie (French : Gendarmerie Nationale) of France, created in 1791.

When the Portuguese Royal Family was transferred to Brazil, the Royal Police Guard of Lisbon remained in Portugal, and another equivalent was created in Rio de Janeiro, under the name of Military Division of the Royal Guard Police of Rio de Janeiro, in 1809. [7]

With the abdication of Emperor Pedro I in 1831, the Regency held reformulations on the Brazilian Armed Forces. The Royal Guard Police of Rio de Janeiro was abolished, [8] and replaced by the Municipal Guard Corps of Volunteers; [9] a type of security force similar to the French National Guard. The same law allowed each province to establish its own Guard of Volunteers.

In 1834 Pedro I died in Portugal and this reduced the fear in Brazil of a reunification of the kingdoms. The Guard of Volunteers were then transformed into Province Police Corps, with professional troops. [10] The Police Corps were created with the same structure as the Army, and to serve as reserve troops when necessary.

With the Proclamation of the Republic, Brazil adopted a constitution based on the United States' one, where the federal states have a large amount of autonomy. The Corps of Police began to be administered by the states and became smaller regional armies, with infantry, cavalry, artillery, and later, even air forces. This danger to national security remained until the end of World War II, with the deposition of the dictatorial government of Getúlio Vargas.

After World War II, the Military Police assumed the roles of a more "traditional" police force, similar to a gendarmerie subject to the states. [11] It sought a rapprochement with the civil society, slowly developing the configuration it currently possesses.

Structure

Military Police of Parana - 1938. PMPR 1938.PNG
Military Police of Paraná - 1938.

Organization

The Secretariat for Public Security (Secretaria de Segurança Pública—SSP) supervises all state police activities. [12] The SSPs are subordinate to the National Council of Public Security (Conselho Nacional de Segurança Pública - CONASP). [12]

According to Article 144 of the federal constitution, the function of the Military Police "is to serve as a conspicuous police force and to preserve public order." [12] The Military Police of any state are organized as a military force and have a military-based rank structure. [12] Training is weighted more heavily toward police matters, but counterinsurgency training is also included. [12] Arms and equipment of state forces include machine guns and armored cars, in addition to other items generally associated with police. [12]

Article 144 of the constitution stipulates that: "The Military Police forces and the Military Firefighters Corps, ancillary forces and army reserve, are subordinate, along with the Civil Police forces, to the governors of the states, Federal District, and territories." [12] Between 1969 and 1985, the Ministry of Army has controlled the Military Police during periods of declared national emergency. [12] Before 1930 these forces were under individual state control, and known as "the governors' armies." They sometimes outnumbered regular troops in many states. [12] In 1932, after Constitutionalist Revolution in São Paulo, the Federal Army took steps to reverse this situation. In 1964 most Military Police members were on the side of the successful conspirators. [12]

Mounted Police officers of PMPR - 2010. RPMON - Esquadrao de Choque.png
Mounted Police officers of PMPR - 2010.

During military dictatorship, Military Police units were often commanded by active-duty army officers, but that has occurred less frequently as professional police officers have achieved higher ranks and positions. [12] The commandant of a state's Military Police is usually a Colonel. [12] The command is divided into police regions, which deploy police battalions and companies. [12] Firefighting is also a Military Police function [12] in some states, but they are organized in separate units called Corpo de Bombeiros Militar. [12] State traffic police are either the State Highway Police (Polícia Rodoviária Estadual), or the Traffic Police (Polícia de Trânsito) in the larger cities. [12] Both are part of the state Military Police. [12]

Field organization

The Military Police is organized into battalions (Portuguese : Batalhão de Polícia Militar), companies (Portuguese : Companhia de Polícia Militar), platoons (Portuguese : Pelotão de Polícia Militar), and subdivided into detachments (Portuguese : Destacamento de Polícia Militar). The battalions are based in major urban centers, and their companies and platoons are distributed according to population density in cities.
The mounted police is organized into regiments (Portuguese : Regimento de Polícia Montada), subdivided into squadrons (Portuguese : Esquadrão de Polícia Montada) and platoons of mounted police.

Nomenclature

Throughout Brazil the Military Police is known by the acronym PM (for Policia Militar), followed by the abbreviation of the State, except in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, where the unit is known as BM (for Brigada Militar, "Military Brigade").[ citation needed ]

Mapa do Brasil por regioes.PNG

These forces are distinct from the three provost forces that police the Brazilian armed forces:[ citation needed ]

Uniforms

Graduation of Lieutenants at the Barro Branco Military Academy, of the Military Police of the Sao Paulo State. Formacaodapmesp.jpg
Graduation of Lieutenants at the Barro Branco Military Academy, of the Military Police of the São Paulo State.

The Brazilian Armed Forces inherited Portuguese military traditions and during the period of the Empire and part of the Republic, with few exceptions, dark blue uniforms were used. In 1903 the Brazilian Army opted for khaki colored field uniforms, later copied by the Military Police. In 1934 the Ministry of War established khaki as the color khaki for all reserve forces.

Military Police officers from the state of Santa Catarina in operational uniform. Op Adsumus (2).jpg
Military Police officers from the state of Santa Catarina in operational uniform.

After the Second World War, the Military Police had the autonomy to adopt its own uniforms, but most stayed with the khaki. During the Military Government in 1976, the Army suggested that the Military Police adopt the blue color (color of the uniform of the Military Police of the Federal District). Since then, some units have changed their uniforms while others have not.

Currently the color khaki (with variations to beige) and blue (with variations of gray to dark blue) prevail in the colors of the uniforms of the Military Police.

BMRS, PMAC, PMAL, PMBA, PMCE, PMGO, PMMG, PMPB, PMPR, PMPE, PMPI, PMSC, PMPA and PMTO.
PMAP, PMAM, PMDF, PMES, PMMA, PMMS, PMERJ, PMRN, PMRO, PMRR, PMESP, PMMT and PMSE.

This applies only to service uniforms, not to the formal uniform, which has different variations.

Ranks

The Military Police of the Brazilian States have almost the same hierarchical ranking system [13] of the Brazilian Army, but with different insignias and with no rank of "general".

Officers
Rank groupGeneral/flag officersField/senior officersJunior officersOfficer cadet
Flag of Brazil.svg Brazilian Military Police [14]
Comandante Geral PM.png
Chefe do Estado Maior PM - platina.PNG
Barzil-MP-OF-5.svg Barzil-MP-OF-4.svg Barzil-MP-OF-3.svg Barzil-MP-OF-2.svg Barzil-MP-OF-1b.svg Barzil-MP-OF-1a.svg Barzil-MP-OF-(D).svg Aluno-3.jpg Aluno-2.jpg Aluno-1.jpg Aluno CSTAPM Public Domain Free of Copyrights.jpg
Comandante geralComandante adjuntoCoronelTenente-coronelMajorCapitãoPrimeiro tenenteSegundo tenenteAspirante à oficialAluno 3° anoAluno 2° anoAluno 1° anoAluno CSTAPM
Enlisted
Rank groupSenior NCOsJunior NCOsEnlisted
Flag of Brazil.svg Brazilian Military Police [14]
Insignia PM O8.PNG G05-PM Primeiro Sargento.svg G04-PM Segundo Sargento.svg G03-PM Terceiro Sargento.svg Aluno-sargento-pm.jpg G02-PM Cabo.svg G01-PM Soldado.svg G00-PM Soldado segunda classe.svg
SubtenentePrimeiro-sargentoSegundo-sargentoTerceiro-sargentoAluno sargentoCaboSoldado primeira classeSoldado segunda classe

Main types of policing

Police officers with motorcycles in the state of Sergipe. Policia Militar de Sergipe CPTRAN.jpg
Police officers with motorcycles in the state of Sergipe.
Sao Paulo police officers wearing riot gear. Policia Militar in Avenida Paulista 2.jpg
São Paulo police officers wearing riot gear.

Ratio of Military Police to Population

Analysis by the Federal Government of the ratio of resident population to the number of official Military Police in 2003 shows that the proportion is quite varied among the states. The states of Roraima, Amapá, Acre, Rondônia, Rio Grande do Norte and Rio de Janeiro, plus the Federal District have a higher proportion of Military Police. In the Federal District, for example, for each military police there are one hundred and thirty-seven inhabitants.

At the opposite extreme, the states with the lowest ratio of military police are Pará, Maranhão, Piauí, Ceará, Mato Grosso do Sul, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul. Maranhão has the lowest, with eight hundred and twenty-two people per Military Police.

Note that in the case of São Paulo and Paraná the numbers of the Military Firefighters Corps are included in the figures for Military Police. [15]

National Public Security Force

Brasao FNSP mini.PNG
FNSP in Rio de Janeiro - 2007. Fns.jpg
FNSP in Rio de Janeiro - 2007.

In situations of serious disturbance of public order that exceeds the capacity of the States, their Governors can request assistance from the Federal Government.

To work in such situations, the Ministry of Justice has the National Public Security Force (Portuguese : Força Nacional de Segurança Pública; FNSP), a national gendarmeire composed of selected MP personnel and constables from state military police commands.

The FNSP is composed of specially trained officers and other ranks of the Military Police of different States, in coordination between the Secretary of Public Safety of each State and the Ministry of Justice.

Inspectorate General of Military Police

Brasao IGPM.PNG

The Inspectorate General of Military Police (Portuguese : Inspetoria Geral das Polícias Militares) - IGPM is a command element of the Brazilian Army, responsible for coordinating and conducting activities of control over the Military Police and Military Firefighters Corps of States. [16]
It is part of the Land Operations Command (Portuguese : Comando de Operações Terrestres) - COTER and its mission is:

Weapons, ammunition, communications equipment, chemical agents, military equipment, vehicles, aircraft and boats.

Equipment

Armored vehicles

NameOriginTypeQuantityUsed byNotePhoto
Lenco BearCat Flag of the United States.svg  United States Law enforcement vehicle1 Brasao PMGO mini.PNG PMGO Ordered Nash Bearcat.jpg
Paramount Group Maverick Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa Armored security vehicle6 Brasao PMRJ.PNG PMERJ 6 Blindados2.jpg
Wolf Armoured Vehicle Flag of Israel.svg  Israel Armored security vehicle4 Logo PMESP.png PMESP In operation of the 4th BPChq Special Operations Zeev-jeep002.jpg
Ford Cargo 815 Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil Armored personnel carrier12 Brasao PMRJ.PNG PMERJ The most armored police vehicle in use in Brazil, "caveirão" (big skull) is extensively used on anti-narcotics operations in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Armored car transport values modified for police use. Blindado da CORE - Policia Civil - Rio de Janeiro (3215960775).jpg
Volkswagen Cargo 1722Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil Armored personnel carrier6 Brasao PMRJ.PNG PMERJ 9 vehicles were purchased, and three were designated to PCERJ. Armored car transport values modified for police use. Dubbed "caveirinha" (little skull), in a reference to "Caveirão". CORE (6556397179).jpg
Plasan Guarder Flag of Israel.svg  Israel Armored personnel carrier/Riot control vehicle6 Logo PMESP.png PMESP 6 Blindados PMSP.jpg
Massari CenturionFlag of Brazil.svg  Brazil Armored personnel carrier/Riot control vehicle4
2
Logo PMESP.png PMESP
Brasao PMDF.PNG PMDF
Being disabled Centurion (5540254231).jpg
Centigon CenturionFlag of Brazil.svg  Brazil Armored personnel carrier/Riot control vehicle2 Brasao PMDF.PNG PMDF In operation BPChoque (8780797653).jpg
Hatehof MAN TGM 18.34 FolderFlag of Israel.svg  Israel Riot control vehicle4 Logo PMESP.png PMESP Ordered Israel Border Guard with water cannon.jpg
Beit Alfa technologies "Model MAN RCU 6000 II"Flag of Israel.svg  Israel Riot control vehicle/Water Cannon1 Brasao PMRJ.PNG PMERJ
Mercedes-Benz Autolife TroiaFlag of Brazil.svg  Brazil Armored personnel carrier1
1
1
Brasao PMPR.PNG PMPR
Brasao PMSE.PNG PMSE
Brasao PMBA.PNG PMBA
Civil police of São Paulo State also uses a vehicle of this model. Armored car transport values modified for police use. Blindado BOPE PMPR 1.JPG
Amalcaburio AlcatrazFlag of Brazil.svg  Brazil Armored personnel carrier/Riot control vehicle2 Brasao PMMG.PNG PMMG
Steel ForceFlag of Brazil.svg  Brazil Armored personnel carrier/Riot control vehicle1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Brasao PMDF.PNG PMDF
Brasao PMAM.PNG PMAM
Brasao PMBA.PNG PMBA
Brasao PMCE.PNG PMCE
Brasao BMRS.PNG BMRS
Brasao PMPR.PNG PMPR
Brasao PMMT.PNG PMMT
Brasao PMMG.PNG PMMG
Brasao PMRN.jpg PMRN
Brasao PMPE.PNG PMPE
Brasao PMRJ.PNG PMERJ
Vehicles donated by the federal government BPChoque (14489202261).jpg

Helicopters

NameOriginTypeQuantity/Used byNotePhoto
Helibras Esquilo Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil Light utility helicopter21 - Logo PMESP.png PMESP
2 - Brasao PMGO mini.PNG PMGO
6 - Brasao PMRJ.PNG PMERJ
4 - Brasao PMES.PNG PMES
5 - Brasao PMBA.PNG PMBA
? - Brasao PMSC.PNG PMSC
1 - Brasao PMMS.PNG PMMS
? - Brasao PMMG.PNG PMMG
? - Brasao BMRS.PNG BMRS
2 - Brasao PMDF.PNG PMDF
5 - Brasao PMMA.PNG PMMA
? - Brasao PMPE.PNG PMPE
Airbus Helicopters H125 Ecureuil Aguia PMESP.jpg
AgustaWestland AW119 Koala Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Light utility helicopter1 - Brasao PMGO mini.PNG PMGO
2 - Brasao PMSC.PNG PMSC
Aguia PMSC (2).jpg
Eurocopter EC130 Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil/Flag of France.svg  France Light utility helicopter2 - Brasao PMPR.PNG PMPR Helicoptero do GRAER.jpg
Bell 206 Flag of the United States.svg  United States Light utility helicopter2 - Brasao PMPR.PNG PMPR Helicoptero STA.jpg
Sikorsky S-300 Flag of the United States.svg  United States trainer helicopter2 - Logo PMESP.png PMESP
1 - Brasao PMRJ.PNG PMERJ
1 - Brasao BMRS.PNG BMRS
Schweizer269C-G-BWAV.JPG
Bell Huey II Flag of the United States.svg  United States Armored helicopter/Multipurpose utility helicopter1 - Brasao PMRJ.PNG PMERJ Aguia3.JPG
Eurocopter EC145 Flag of Germany.svg  Germany Medium utility helicopter1 - Brasao PMMA.PNG PMMA
3 - Brasao PMBA.PNG PMBA
? - Brasao PMCE.PNG PMCE
2 - Brasao PMRJ.PNG PMERJ
EC145 gam.jpg
AgustaWestland AW109 Flag of Italy.svg  Italy SAR/utility helicopter1 - Logo PMESP.png PMESP AW109-Power-Agusta-Westland.jpg

See also

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References

  1. Emblem adopted at the First National Convention of the Military Police in 1957.
  2. Emblem adopted at the First National Convention of the Military Police in 1957.
  3. Emblem adopted at the First National Convention of the Military Police in 1957.
  4. Inspectorate General of Military Police (In Portuguese) Archived 2014-02-13 at the Wayback Machine
  5. Article 144 of Constitution of Brazil.
  6. Decree of December 10, 1801.
  7. Decree of May 13, 1809.
  8. Law of July 17, 1831.
  9. Law of October 10, 1931.
  10. Constitutional Reform of 1834, Article 15, § 11.
  11. Decree Law 8.660, January 14, 1946.
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Hudson, Rex A., ed. (1998). Brazil: a country study (5th ed.). Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. pp. 401–403. ISBN   0-8444-0854-9. OCLC   37588455. PD-icon.svgThis article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.CS1 maint: postscript (link)
  13. Ordinance of the Ministry of the Army 340, October 4, 1971.
  14. 1 2 "Insígnias". Polícia Militar do Estado de São Paulo (in Portuguese). Retrieved 6 February 2021.
  15. National Secretariat of Public Safety. (in Portuguese)[ dead link ]
  16. Article 22 of Constitution of Brazil.

Sources