Atlantic slave trade to Brazil

Last updated

"Market of slaves in Recife" by Zacharias Wagenaer, painted around 1637. During this time African slaves were sold to Dutch and Portuguese Jewish merchants. Zacharias Wagner - Mercado de escravos no Recife.jpg
"Market of slaves in Recife" by Zacharias Wagenaer, painted around 1637. During this time African slaves were sold to Dutch and Portuguese Jewish merchants.

The Atlantic slave trade to Brazil refers to the period of history in which there was a forced migration of Africans to Brazil for the purpose of slavery. [2] It lasted from the mid-sixteenth century until the mid-nineteenth century. During the trade, more than three million Africans were transported across the Atlantic and sold into slavery. [3] It was divided into four phases: The Cycle of Guinea (16th century); the Cycle of Angola (17th century) which trafficked people from Bakongo, Mbundu, Benguela and Ovambo; Cycle of Costa da Mina, now renamed Cycle of Benin and Dahomey (18th century - 1815), which trafficked people from Yoruba, Ewe, Minas, Hausa, Nupe and Borno; and the Illegal trafficking period, which was suppressed by the United Kingdom (1815-1851). [4] During this period, to escape the supervision of British ships enforcing an anti-slavery blockade, Brazilian slave traders began to seek alternative routes to the routes of the West African coast, turning to Mozambique. [5]

Contents

Early History

The slave trade had already a strong presence in Africa for thousands of years, at the time of the European Age of Discoveries. The Portuguese began contact with the African slave markets to rescue civilians and military captives since the time of the Reconquista. At this time, the Alfaqueque was the one who had the mission to negotiate captives rescue. When Catherine of Austria authorized the slave trade to Brazil, the slave trade from Africa, which was previously dominated by Africans, started also to be dominated by Europeans.

Francisco Felix de Souza (1754-1849), the most famous Brazilian slave trader Francisco Felix de Souza.jpg
Francisco Félix de Souza (1754-1849), the most famous Brazilian slave trader

The lists of enslaved captives for ransom and freed during the reign of John V of Portugal reveal that even Brazilians were captured and sold in African markets.

The slave trade to Brazil was not exclusive to European and Brazilian white traders, but it was an activity in which pumbeiros, who were mestizos, free blacks and also former slaves, not only dedicated to the slave trade as controlled trade coastal - in the case of Angola, also part of domestic trade - also played the role of cultural mediators in the Atlantic slave trade of Africa. See Francisco Félix de Sousa, freed at age 17, the largest Brazilian slaves trader.

The motive of trafficking - the sugar economy

From 1530, with the knowledge gained in the manufacture of sugar in the islands of Madeira and São Tomé, and then with the creation in 1549 of the General Government to Brazil, the Portuguese Crown sought to encourage the construction of sugar mills in Brazil. But the settlers found great difficulties in recruitment of manpower and lack of capital to finance the installation of sugar mills. [6] The various epidemics that, from 1560, decimated the Indian slaves at an alarming rate, caused that the Portuguese Crown to create laws that prohibit, partially, the slavery of Indians, that is, "forbade the enslavement of converted Indians and only allowed the capture of slaves only through war against the Indians that they fight or devour the Portuguese, or Allied Indians or slaves; this war should be enacted by the sovereign or the Governor General." Other adaptations of this law came later.

The subsequent lack of a forced and free manpower for colonial exploitation meant that colonists began looking for ways to introduce labor from other sources.

Rugendas - Negres a fond de cale Navio negreiro - Rugendas 1830.jpg
Rugendas - Nègres a fond de cale

As for the Dutch, from 1630, they began to occupy the sugar producing regions in Brazil, and to address the lack of slave labor, in 1638 embarked on the conquest of Portuguese warehouse of São Jorge da Mina , and 1641, organized the take over of Luanda and Benguela in Angola.

It is argued that the survival of the first gadgets, the planting of sugarcane, cotton, coffee and tobacco were the decisive elements in the metropolis sent to the Brazil the first African slaves, coming from different parts of Africa, bringing their habits, customs, music, dance, cuisine, language, myths, rites and religion, which has infiltrated the people, forming, next to the Catholic religion, the two largest religions in Brazil.

The first slaves and the legalization of slavery

The Portuguese crown authorized the slavery with papal blessing, documented in the inserts of Nicolau V Dum diversos e Divino Amorecommuniti, both of 1452, which authorized the Portuguese to reduce Africans to the condition of slaves with the intention of Christianizing. The regulation of slavery was legislated in Manueline ordinances: [7] the adoption of slavery had been thus try to overcome the serious lack of manpower, that there was also all over Europe due to the recurrence of epidemics, many of them from Africa and the East. Until the first half of the fifteenth century, the Portuguese population was constant. [8]

As for African governments, whether they were of religious Muslim [9] or other native religions, as practiced slavery long before the Europeans engage in trafficking. Several African nations had their dependent economies of the slave trade and saw the slave trade with the Europeans as another business opportunity. [10] [11]

The earliest record of sending African slaves to Brazil dates from 1533 when Pero de Gois, Captain-Mor da Costa of Brazil, requested the King, the shipment of 17 black for his captaincy of São Tomé (Paraíba do Sul / Macaé).

a slave market in Rio de Janeiro by Edward Francis Finden in 1824 The Slave market at Rio.jpg
a slave market in Rio de Janeiro by Edward Francis Finden in 1824


Then, by Charter of March 29, 1559, Mrs. Catherine of Austria, regent of Portugal, authorized each plantation owner of Brazil, with a statement by the Governor General, to import up to 120 slaves.

How Africans became slaves

When the Portuguese arrived in Africa, they found an African market widely implemented and quite extensive slaves.

Africans were enslaved for various reasons before being acquired:[ citation needed ]

Even when they were in Africa, it is estimated that the African death rate in the path that made from the place where they were captured by the merchants of local slaves to the coast where they were sold to Europeans was greater than that which occurred during the Atlantic crossing . [13] During the crossing, the mortality rate, although lower than on land, until the late eighteenth century remained daunting, with greater or lesser effect depending on the epidemics of riots and suicides carried out by the enslaved, the conditions prevailing on board, as well as the mood of the captain and crew of each slave ship. [14]

British pressure to abolish the slave trade

As a condition of its support for the Empire of Brazil's independence from Portugal, the United Kingdom demanded that Brazil agree to abolish the importation of slaves from Africa; as a result the British-Brazilian Treaty of 1826 was agreed, by which Brazil promised to ban all Brazilian subjects from engaging in the trans-Atlantic slave trade, commencing in the year 1830. However, Brazil largely failed to enforce this treaty; in response, the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed the Aberdeen Act of 1845, authorising British warships to board all Brazilian flagged vessels and detain those found to be carrying slaves. This British action was highly unpopular in Brazil, and was widely viewed as a violation of Brazil's sovereignty; however, the Brazilian government concluded that they could not afford a war with Britain over the issue, hence in September 1850, new legislation outlawing the slave trade was enacted, and the Brazilian government began to enforce it.

Resistance

Some enslaved Africans were able to escape and establish settlements, known as quilombo. One of these was the Mola quilombo which consisted of approximately 300 formerly enslaved people and had a high degree of political, social and military organization. [15] Felipa Maria Aranha was the first leader of the community. [16] The group was also led by Maria Luiza Piriá. [17] It was organised as a republic, with democratic voting in place. [18] Over the course of the Mola quilombo's life, it expanded to include four other similar settlements in the region and was known as the Confederação do Itapocu. [19] [17] Historians, such as Benedita Pinto and Flávio Gomes, interpret the organisation of the group as an ideal model of resistance to slavery. [20] [21]

See also

Related Research Articles

Atlantic slave trade Slave trade across the Atlantic Ocean from the 16th to the 19th centuries

The Atlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, or Euro-American slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of various enslaved African people, mainly to the Americas. The slave trade regularly used the triangular trade route and its Middle Passage, and existed from the 16th to the 19th centuries. The vast majority of those who were enslaved and transported in the transatlantic slave trade were people from Central and West Africa, who had been sold by other West Africans, or by half-European "merchant princes" to Western European slave traders, who brought them to the Americas. Except for the Portuguese, European slave traders generally did not participate in the raids because life expectancy for Europeans in sub-Saharan Africa was less than one year during the period of the slave trade. The South Atlantic and Caribbean economies were particularly dependent on labour for the production of sugarcane and other commodities. This was viewed as crucial by those Western European states that, in the late 17th and 18th centuries, were vying with each other to create overseas empires.

São Paulo (state) State of Brazil

São Paulo is one of the 26 states of the Federative Republic of Brazil and is named after Saint Paul of Tarsus. A major industrial complex, the state has 21.9% of the Brazilian population and is responsible for 33.9% of Brazil's GDP. São Paulo also has the second-highest Human Development Index (HDI) and GDP per capita, the fourth-lowest infant mortality rate, the third-highest life expectancy, and the third-lowest rate of illiteracy among the federative units of Brazil. São Paulo alone is wealthier than Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Bolivia combined. São Paulo is also the world's twenty-eighth-most populous sub-national entity and the most populous sub-national entity in the Americas.

Colonial Brazil Portuguese 1500-1822/1825 possession in South America

Colonial Brazil comprises the period from 1500, with the arrival of the Portuguese, until 1815, when Brazil was elevated to a kingdom in union with Portugal as the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. During the early 300 years of Brazilian colonial history, the economic exploitation of the territory was based first on brazilwood extraction, which gave the territory its name; sugar production ; and finally on gold and diamond mining. Slaves, especially those brought from Africa, provided most of the work force of the Brazilian export economy after a brief period of Indian slavery to cut brazilwood.

Quilombo Type of Brazilian settlement

A quilombo is a Brazilian hinterland settlement founded by people of African origin, and others sometimes called Carabali. Most of the inhabitants of quilombos, called quilombolas, were maroons, a term for escaped slaves.

Bandeirantes Explorers, slavers, and fortune hunters in colonial Brazil (15th-18th centuries)

The Bandeirantes, literally "flag-carriers", were slavers, explorers, adventurers, and fortune hunters in early Colonial Brazil. They are largely responsible for Brazil's great expansion westward, far beyond the Tordesillas Line of 1494, by which Pope Julius II divided the new continent into a western, Castilian section, and an eastern, Portuguese section.

Afro-Brazilians are Brazilians who have predominantly or partial African ancestry. Most members of another group of people, multiracial Brazilians or pardos, may also have a range of degree of African ancestry. Depending on the circumstances, the ones whose African features are more evident are always or frequently seen by others as "africans" - consequently identifying themselves as such, while the ones whom this evidence is lesser may not be seen as such so regularly. It is important to note that the term pardo, such as preto, is rarely used outside the census spectrum. Brazilian society has a range of words, including negro itself, to describe multiracial people.

Zumbi King of Quilombo dos Palmares

Zumbi, also known as Zumbi dos Palmares, was a Brazilian of Kongo origin and a quilombola leader, being one of the pioneers of resistance to slavery of Africans by the Portuguese in Brazil. He was also the last of the kings of the Quilombo dos Palmares, a settlement of Afro-Brazilian people who had liberated themselves from enslavement in that same settlement, in the present-day state of Alagoas, Brazil. Zumbi today is revered in Afro-Brazilian culture as a powerful symbol of resistance against the enslavement of Africans in the colony of Brazil. He was married to the queen and also great warrior Dandara.

Palmares (quilombo) Community of escaped slaves in eastern colonial-era Brazil (1605-1694)

Palmares, or Quilombo dos Palmares, was a quilombo, a community of escaped slaves and others, in colonial Brazil that developed from 1605 until its suppression in 1694. It was located in the captaincy of Pernambuco, in what is today the Brazilian state of Alagoas. The quilombo was located in what is now the municipality of União dos Palmares.

Slavery in colonial Spanish America Economic and social institution central to the operation of the Spanish Empire

Slavery in the Spanish American colonies was an economic and social institution which existed throughout the Spanish Empire including Spain itself. In its American territories, Spain displayed an early abolitionist stance towards indigenous people although Native American slavery continued to be practiced, particularly until the New Laws of 1543. The Spanish empire, however was involved in the enslavement people of African origin. Although the Spanish themselves played a very minor role in the Atlantic slave trade compared to other European empires, in absolute terms, the Spanish Empire was a major recipient of African slaves, with around 22% of the Africans delivered to American shores ending up in the Spanish Empire.

União dos Palmares Municipality in Alagoas, Brazil

União dos Palmares is a municipality located in the Brazilian state of Alagoas. Its population was 65,790 (2020) and its area is 428 km². Surrounding agricultural land is largely dedicated to sugar cane and cattle. At one time, when the city was an active rail stop with regular passenger service, it was named simply União due to its rail junction joining Alagoas and Pernambuco. The name was changed in 1944 to reflect its historic significance. The city is increasingly seeing domestic and foreign tourist drawn by historical and natural features that are now protected in Parque Nacional Serra da Barriga and Parque Memorial Quilombo dos Palmares.

Quilombola

A quilombola is an Afro-Brazilian resident of quilombo settlements first established by escaped slaves in Brazil. They are the descendants of Afro-Brazilian slaves who escaped from slave plantations that existed in Brazil until abolition in 1888. The most famous quilombola was Zumbi and the most famous quilombo was Palmares.

Slavery in Brazil

Slavery in Brazil began long before the first Portuguese settlement was established in 1516, with members of one tribe enslaving captured members of another. Later, colonists were heavily dependent on indigenous labor during the initial phases of settlement to maintain the subsistence economy, and natives were often captured by expeditions called bandeiras. The importation of African slaves began midway through the 16th century, but the enslavement of indigenous peoples continued well into the 17th and 18th centuries.

History of Brazil Aspect of history

The history of Brazil begins with indigenous people in Brazil. Europeans arrived in Brazil at the opening of the 16th century. The first European to claim sovereignty over Indigenous lands part of what is now the territory of the Federative Republic of Brazil on the continent of South America was Pedro Álvares Cabral on April 22, 1500 under the sponsorship of the Kingdom of Portugal. From the 16th to the early 19th century, Brazil was a colony and a part of the Portuguese Empire. The country expanded south along the coast and west along the Amazon and other inland rivers from the original 15 donatary captaincy colonies established on the northeast Atlantic coast east of the Tordesillas Line of 1494 that divided the Portuguese domain to the east from the Spanish domain to the west, although Brazil was at one time a colony of Spain. The country's borders were only finalized in the early 20th century.

São Tomé and Príncipe Country in the Gulf of Guinea

São Tomé and Príncipe, officially the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe, is an island country in the Gulf of Guinea, off the western equatorial coast of Central Africa. It consists of two archipelagos around the two main islands of São Tomé and Príncipe, about 140 km (87 mi) apart and about 250 and 225 km off the northwestern coast of Gabon.

Transfer of the Portuguese court to Brazil 1807 escape of the Portuguese royal family and court from invading French forces

The transfer of the Portuguese court to Brazil occurred with the strategic retreat of Queen Maria I of Portugal, Prince Regent John, and the Braganza royal family and its court of nearly 15,000 people from Lisbon on November 29, 1807. The Braganza royal family departed for the Portuguese colony of Brazil just days before Napoleonic forces invaded Lisbon on December 1. The Portuguese crown remained in Brazil from 1808 until the Liberal Revolution of 1820 led to the return of John VI of Portugal on April 26, 1821. For thirteen years, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, functioned as the capital of the Kingdom of Portugal in what some historians call a metropolitan reversal. The period in which the court was located in Rio brought significant changes to the city and its residents, and can be interpreted through several perspectives. It had profound impacts on Brazilian society, economics, infrastructure, and politics. The transfer of the king and the royal court "represented the first step toward Brazilian independence, since the king immediately opened the ports of Brazil to foreign shipping and turned the colonial capital into the seat of government."

Economy of the Empire of Brazil

The Economy of the Empire of Brazil was centered on export of raw materials when the country became independent in 1822. The domestic market was small, due to lack of credit and the almost complete self-sustainability of the cities, villages and farms that dedicated themselves to food production and cattle herding. During the first half of the 19th century, the Imperial Government invested heavily in the improvement of roads while retaining an excellent system of ports. The former facilitated better commercial exchange and communication between the country's distant regions; the latter did the same for foreign trade.

The history of Afro-Brazilian people spans over five centuries of racial interaction between Africans imported, involved or descended from the effects of the Atlantic slave trade.

Slavery in Portugal

Slavery in Portugal occurred since before the country's formation. During the pre-independence period, inhabitants of the current Portuguese territory were often enslaved and enslaved others. After independence, during the existence of the Kingdom of Portugal, the country played a leading role in the Atlantic Slave Trade, which involved the mass trade and transportation of slaves from Africa and other parts of the world to the American continent. Slavery was abolished in Portugal in 1761 by the Marquês de Pombal. After the abolishment of slavery in Portugal, the Portuguese slave traders turned to clients in other countries where slavery was not yet abolished, predominantly to Brazil. However, Slavery within the African Portuguese colonies was only abolished in 1869 and Portuguese involvement in slavery in its colonies continued into the 20th century.

Cerca do Macaco Place in Brazil

Cerca do Macaco, also called "Cerca Real dos Macacos" or just "Macaco", was a historical settlement located on the peak of the Serra da Barriga in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. It was the main settlement of the Palmares, an established group of fugitives and escaped slaves.

Felipa Maria Aranha was a woman, who was enslaved in Guinea as a child, who escaped slavery and became the leader of the Mola quilombo in Pará, Brazil. Her leadership enabled the community to resist the incursions of slave-owners and Portuguese troops. She is remembered by the remaining quilombolas and the Brazilian black community as an inspirational figure in their history.

References

  1. Forward.com (10 September 2019). "History of Dutch Jews Role in Slavery Is Bluntly Depicted".
  2. "USI Home Page". www.understandingslavery.com. Retrieved 2015-11-30.
  3. tinashe. "The Atlantic slave trade". www.sahistory.org.za. Retrieved 2015-11-30.
  4. Bueno, Eduardo (2003-01-01). Brasil: uma história (in Portuguese). Ática. ISBN   9788508082131.
  5. "MultiRio — Educação sobre o consumo". MultiRio. Retrieved 2015-11-30.
  6. Marquese, Rafael de Bivar (2006). "A dinâmica da escravidão no Brasil: resistência, tráfico negreiro e alforrias, séculos XVII a XIX". Novos Estudos - CEBRAP (74): 107–123. doi: 10.1590/S0101-33002006000100007 . ISSN   0101-3300.
  7. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-01-07. Retrieved 2017-10-23.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  8. Sousa, Jorge Prata de; Costa, Ricardo da (1 December 2005). "Useful regime against the plague (ca. 1496): an introduction". História, Ciências, Saúde-Manguinhos. 12 (3): 841–851. doi: 10.1590/S0104-59702005000300015 . PMID   17500141.
  9. "Sautul Isslam". 16 July 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-07-16.
  10. "Digital History". 14 May 2012. Archived from the original on 2012-05-14.
  11. "Slavery in Africa". 31 March 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-03-31.
  12. Quaresma, Ruben de Azevedo (6 May 2018). Ética, direito e cidadania: Brasil sociopolítico e jurídico atual. Jurua Editora. ISBN   9788536220031 via Google Books.
  13. BoaHen, Albert Adu "História Geral da África; Vol. VII – África sob dominação colonial" UNESCO 2010 ISBN   9788576521297 Páginas 541-42 Visualização no Google Livros
  14. Rediker, Marcus "O Navio Negreiro" Ed. Companhia das Letras 2011 ISBN   9788535918052
  15. "Tucuruí - Informações, Imagens e Vídeos". Amazônia (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2021-01-02.
  16. Galeano, Eduardo. Children of the days : a calendar of human history. London. ISBN   1-56858-971-9. OCLC   895700030.
  17. 1 2 "Brasil de Fato". Brasil de Fato (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2021-01-02.
  18. "Quilombolas: quem são, origem, tradição, condições". Brasil Escola (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2021-01-02.
  19. Guimarães, José (2012). «Settlement in Southern Pará and Historical Origins of the Carajás Movement». Carajás Youth Debates (interview). Interview with Teixeira de Souza, M .. Teixeira de Souza, M. Belém.
  20. Pinto, Benedita Celeste de Moraes. «Rural Black Women: Resistance and Struggle for Survival in the Tocantins Region (PA)» (PDF) . XXVI National Symposium on History.
  21. Gomes, Flávio dos Santos. In the labyrinth of rivers, boreholes and streams: black peasants, memory and post-emancipation in the Amazon, c. XIX-XX. [Sl]: História Unisinos, 2006. p. 282.