Borno State

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Borno

YERWA
Flag of Borno State.png
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Nickname(s): 
Nigeria - Borno.svg
Location of Borno State in Nigeria
Coordinates: 11°30′N13°00′E / 11.500°N 13.000°E / 11.500; 13.000 Coordinates: 11°30′N13°00′E / 11.500°N 13.000°E / 11.500; 13.000
Country Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria
Date created 3 February 1976
Capital Maiduguri
Government
   Governor [1] Babagana Umara Zulum (APC)
   Senators
Area
  Total57,799 km2 (22,316 sq mi)
Area rank 2nd of 36
Population
 (2006)
  Total4,171,104
  Rank 12th of 36
  Density72/km2 (190/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)
  Year2007
  Total$5.18 billion [2]
  Per capita$1,214 [2]
Time zone UTC+01 (WAT)
ISO 3166 code NG-BO
HDI (2016)0.328 [3] · 32nd of 36

Borno, also known as Borno State, is a state in north-eastern Nigeria. Its capital is Maiduguri. The state was formed in 1976 from the split of the North-Eastern State. Until 1991 it contained what is now Yobe State. It is the homeland of the Kanuri people in Nigeria.

Nigeria Federal republic in West Africa

Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country in West Africa, bordering Niger in the north, Chad in the northeast, Cameroon in the east, and Benin in the west. Its coast in the south is located on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean. The federation comprises 36 states and 1 Federal Capital Territory, where the capital, Abuja, is located. The constitution defines Nigeria as a democratic secular state.

Maiduguri Place in Borno, Nigeria

Maiduguri is the capital and the largest city of Borno State in north-eastern Nigeria. The city sits along the seasonal Ngadda River which disappears into the Firki swamps in the areas around Lake Chad. Maiduguri was founded in 1907 as a military outpost by the British and has since grown rapidly with a population exceeding a million by 2007.

North-Eastern State former state of Nigeria

North-Eastern State is a former administrative division of Nigeria. It was created on 27 May 1967 from parts of the Northern Region. Its capital was the city of Maiduguri. The North-Eastern is also full of agriculture and food.

Contents

History

Dancers in Borno state attire Borno state contingent.jpg
Dancers in Borno state attire

The state has a predominance of Kanuri people. Other ethnic groups such as Lamang, Babur/Bura and Marghi are also found in the southern part of the state. Shuwa Arabs are mainly the descendants of Arab people [4] and is an example of the endurance of traditional political institutions in some areas of Africa, where the emirs of the former Kanem-Bornu Empire have played a part in the politics of this area for nearly 1,000 years. [5] The current Kanemi dynasty gained control of the Borno Emirate in the early 19th century after the Fulani jihad of Usman dan Fodio. Conquered by Rabih in 1893, Borno was invaded by the British, French and Germans at the beginning of the 20th century. In 1902, the British officially incorporated Borno into the Northern Nigeria Protectorate [6] and established a new capital at Maiduguri or Yerwa in 1907, which remains the capital to this day. [7]

Kanuri people African ethnic group

The Kanuri people are an African ethnic group living largely in the lands of the former Kanem and Bornu Empires in Niger, Nigeria and Cameroon. Those generally termed Kanuri include several subgroups and dialect groups, some of whom identify as distinct from the Kanuri. Most trace their origins to ruling lineages of the medieval Kanem-Bornu Empire, and its client states or provinces. In contrast to the neighboring Toubou or Zaghawa pastoralists, Kanuri groups have traditionally been sedentary, engaging in farming, fishing the Chad Basin, and engaged in trade and salt processing.

Africa The second largest and second most-populous continent, mostly in the Northern and Eastern Hemispheres

Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent. At about 30.3 million km2 including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The continent includes Madagascar and various archipelagos. It contains 54 fully recognised sovereign states (countries), nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition. The majority of the continent and its countries are in the Northern Hemisphere, with a substantial portion and number of countries in the Southern Hemisphere.

Borno Emirate Traditional state in Borno State, Nigeria

The Borno Emirate or Borno Sultanate is a traditional Nigerian state formed at the start of the 20th century. It is headed by descendants of the rulers of the Bornu Empire, founded before 1000. The rulers have the title Shehu of Borno. The traditional Emirate of Borno maintains a ceremonial rule of the Kanuri people, based in Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria, but acknowledged by the 4 million Kanuri in neighbouring countries.

After Nigerian independence in 1960, Borno remained fairly autonomous until the expansion of the number of states in Nigeria to 12 in 1967. Local government reform in 1976 further reduced the power of the emirs of the former dynasty, and by the time of Nigeria's return to civilian rule in 1979, the emirs' jurisdiction has been restricted solely to cultural and traditional affairs. The emirs still exist, and serve as advisers to the local government. Mala Kachallah was elected governor of Borno State in 1999 under the flagship of the then APP(All Peoples Party) later ANPP. Ali Modu Sheriff was elected governor of Borno State in Nigeria in April 2003. He is a member of the All Nigeria People's Party (ANPP). Ali Sheriff was the first governor in Borno state to win the seat two consecutive times. [8]

Ali Modu Sheriff Ismail Ibrahim Barma

Ali Modu Sheriff is a Nigerian politician. He is Borno State's first governor to serve two consecutive terms (2003–2011). Though Sheriff had held two elected offices as a member of All Nigeria People's Party, he would later join the All Progressives Congress becoming a founding member of that party. In 2014, Sheriff switched affiliation to the People's Democratic Party. He acted as the National Working Committee chair from 16 February 2016 until the National Convention, when he was removed and replaced by Ahmed Makarfi. On the 26th of April 2018 he defected back to All Progressive Congress

On 14 May 2013, President Goodluck Jonathan declared a state of emergency in Northeast Nigeria, [9] including Borno State along with the neighboring states of Adamawa and Yobe. [10] This happened after fighting between Boko Haram and the state armed forces killed as many as 200 people in the town of Baga. A spokesman for the Nigerian Armed Forces declared that the offensive would continue "as long as it takes to achieve our objective of getting rid of insurgents from every part of Nigeria." [11]

President of Nigeria Head of state and head of Nigerian government

The President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria is the head of state and head of government of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. The President of Nigeria is also the commander-in-chief of the Nigerian Armed Forces. The President is elected in national elections which take place every four years. The first President of Nigeria was Nnamdi Azikiwe, who took office on October 1, 1963. However, Shehu Shagari is the First Executive President of Nigeria elected Democratically in 1979. The current President, Muhammadu Buhari took office on May 29, 2015 as the 15th President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.

Goodluck Jonathan Nigerian politician and former president

Goodluck Ebele Azikiwe Jonathan is a Nigerian politician who served as the President of Nigeria from 2010 to 2015. Prior to that he served as Vice-President of Nigeria from 2007 to 2010 and as Governor of Bayelsa State from 2005 to 2007. Bayelsa State Governor, Seriake Dickson in August 2019, appointed former President Goodluck Jonathan as honorary Special Adviser on the Bayelsa Education Trust Fund Board. In June 2019, Goodluck Jonathan emerged as chairperson of the newly inaugurated International Summit Council for Peace (ISCP).

Adamawa State State of Nigeria

Adamawa is a state in northeastern Nigeria, with its capital at Yola. In 1991, when Taraba State was carved out from Gongola State, the geographical entity Gongola State was renamed Adamawa State, with four administrative divisions: Adamawa, Michika, Ganye, Mubi and Numan. It is the home of the American University of Nigeria in Yola and Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola. It is one of the thirty-six states that constitute the Federal Republic of Nigeria.

In July 2014, Borno state governor Kashim Shettima said that "176 teachers had been killed and 900 schools destroyed since 2011." [12] After the Chibok schoolgirls kidnapping in April 2014, most schools in Borno State were closed. They were scheduled to reopen in November 2014. [13]

Kashim Ibrahim Shettima was born on Friday, September 2, 1966 in the city of Maiduguri, the capital of Borno State, Nigeria.

Chibok schoolgirls kidnapping kidnapping of female students in Chibok in Borno State, Nigeria

On the night of 14–15 April 2014, 276 female students were kidnapped from the Government Secondary School in the town of Chibok in Borno State, Nigeria. Responsibility for the kidnappings was claimed by Boko Haram, an extremist terrorist organization based in northeastern Nigeria. 57 of the schoolgirls managed to escape over the next few months and some have described their capture in appearances at international human rights conferences. A child born to one of the girls and believed by medical personnel to be about 20 months old also was released, according to the Nigerian president's office.

In November 2014, UNICEF reported it has increased its Community Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) centres in Borno State "from 5 to 67 and is planning to increase this to 100." [14] In Borno State, the agricultural sector has suffered mostly because of the ongoing Boko Haram Insurgency since 2009 and many people experienced acute food insecurity. [15]

UNICEF development policy organization of the UN

The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), originally known as the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund, was created by the United Nations General Assembly on 11 December 1946, to provide emergency food and healthcare to children and mothers in countries that had been devastated by World War II. The Polish physician Ludwik Rajchman is widely regarded as the founder of UNICEF and observed as its first chairman from 1946 to 1950, when he had to flee the United States in the wake of McCarthyism. Rajcahman is to this day the only person that served as UNICEF's Chairman for longer than 2 years. On Rajchman's suggestion, the American Maurice Pate was appointed first executive director, serving from 1947 until his death in 1965. In 1950, UNICEF's mandate was extended to address the long-term needs of children and women in developing countries everywhere. In 1953 it became a permanent part of the United Nations System, and the words "international" and "emergency" were dropped from the organization's name, though it retained the original acronym, "UNICEF".

Boko Haram insurgency Conflict in Nigeria

The Boko Haram insurgency began in 2009, when the jihadist group Boko Haram started an armed rebellion against the government of Nigeria. The conflict takes place within the context of long-standing issues of religious violence between Nigeria's Muslim and Christian communities, and the insurgents' ultimate aim is to establish an Islamic state in the region.

Local Government Areas

Borno State consists of twenty-seven (27) Local Government Areas, grouped into three Senatorial Districts (shown below with their areas and 2006 Census population figures): [16]

Borno Central
Senatorial District
Area in
km2
1,666,541Borno South
Senatorial District
Area in
km2
1,245,962Borno North
Senatorial District
Area in
km2
1,238,390
Maiduguri 137.36540,016 Askira/Uba 2,431.83143,313 Abadam 4,172.27100,065
Ngala 1,519.82236,498 Bayo 985.7879,078 Gubio 2,575.09151,286
Kala/Balge 1,962.1360,834 Biu 3,423.86175,760 Guzamala 2,631.4495,991
Mafa 2,976.99103,600 Chibok 1,392.0066,333 Kaga 2,802.4689,996
Konduga 6,065.89157,322 Damboa 6,426.18233,200 Kukawa 5,124.41203,343
Bama 5,158.87270,119 Gwoza 2,973.15276,568 Magumeri 5,057.61140,257
Jere 900.72209,107 Hawul 2,160.99120,733 Marte 3,280.02129,409
Dikwa 1,836.89105,042 Kwaya Kusar 754.6956,704 Mobbar 3,280.02116,633
Shani 1,238.93100,989 Monguno 1,993.20109,834
Nganzai 2,572.3599,074

In addition, there are Eight Emirate Councils (Borno, Damboa, Dikwa, Biu, Askira, Gwoza, Shani and Uba Emirates), [17] which advise the local governments on cultural and traditional matters. [18]

Religion

Religion in Borno State of Nigeria is mainly Islam with few adherent of Christianity. The Sharia is valid in the entire state. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Maiduguri has its seat in the state. Ekklesiar Yan'Uwa A Nigeria (EYN) in Maiduguri were destroyed by Boko Haram [19] as a part of 2009 Nigerian sectarian violence.

See also

Related Research Articles

Yobe State State in Nigeria

Yobe is a state located in Northeast Nigeria. A mainly agricultural state, it was created on August 27, 1991. Yobe state was carved out of Borno State. The capital of Yobe state is Damaturu.

Alhaji Bukar Abba Ibrahim was governor of Yobe State in Nigeria from 29 May 1999 to 29 May 2007. He also served as governor of the state from January 1992 to November 1993. He is a member of the All Nigeria People's Party (ANPP).

Kaka Mallam Yale is a Nigerian senator who was elected to represent the All Nigeria Peoples Party (ANPP) in Borno State in April 2007.

Konduga Place in Borno State, Nigeria

Konduga is a community in Borno State, Nigeria and the center of a Local Government Area of the same name about 25 km to the southeast of Maiduguri, situated on the north bank of the Ngadda River. The population of the Konduga Local Government Area is about 13,400. It is one of the sixteen LGAs that constitute the Borno Emirate, a traditional state located in Borno State, Nigeria. The primary languages are Shuwa Arabic, Kanuri and Wandala / Malgwa.

Marte is a Local Government Area of Borno State, Nigeria, on the western coast of Lake Chad. Its headquarters are in the town of Marte

Bama is a Local Government Area of Borno State, Nigeria. Its headquarters are in the town of Bama.

Damboa LGA and town in Borno State, Nigeria

Damboa is a Local Government Area of Borno State, Nigeria. Its headquarters are in the town of Damboa. It has an area of 6,219 km² and had a population of 233,200 at the 2006 census.

Gwoza is a local government area of Borno State, Nigeria. Its headquarters are in the town of Gwoza, a border town "about 135 kilometres South-East of Maiduguri." The postal code of the area is 610.

Ibrahim Gaidam is a Nigerian politician and the incumbent Senator of Yobe State East District l, Nigeria since June 2019. He was the immediate past governor of Yobe State, succeeded by the Former APC National Secretary, Mai Mala Buni on 29 May 2019.

Mohammed Ali Ndume is a Nigerian politician who was a member of the Federal House of Representatives from 2003 to 2011. He was elected to the Senate for Borno South, Borno State, Nigeria in April 2011 running on the People's Democratic Party (PDP) ticket.

Damaturu Emirate Traditional state in Yobe State, Nigeria

The Damaturu Emirate is a Nigerian traditional state based in Damaturu, the capital of Yobe State, Nigeria. It is a first-class emirate.

Abubakar Ibn Umar Garba Shehu of the Borno Emirate in northeast Nigeria.

Abubakar Ibn Umar Garbai El-Kanemi of Borno is the Shehu, or traditional ruler, of the Borno Emirate in northeast Nigeria.

Timeline of the Boko Haram insurgency is the chronology of the Boko Haram insurgency, an ongoing armed conflict between Boko Haram and the Nigerian government.

Shehu Mustapha Idrissa Timta was a Nigeria traditional leader who served as the 3rd Emir of Gwoza from October 1981 until his death in May 2014. He was killed in an attack by Boko Haram terrorists on May 30, 2014.

The following lists events from 2014 in Nigeria.

September 2015 Borno State bombings a series of bombings that took place in Maiduguri and Monguno, Nigeria

On the evening of September 20, 2015, a series of bombings took place in Maiduguri and Monguno, Nigeria, killing at least 145 people and injuring at least 97 others. The majority of casualties occurred in Maiduguri where four explosions killed at least 117 people.

References

  1. See List of Governors of Borno State for a list of prior governors
  2. 1 2 "C-GIDD (Canback Global Income Distribution Database)". Canback Dangel. Retrieved 20 August 2008.
  3. "National Human Development Report 2018" (PDF).
  4. Scheinfeldt, L.B.; Soi, S.; Tischkoff, S.A. (2010). The SAGE Encyclopedia of African Cultural Heritage in North America. p. 96.
  5. Barkindo, Bawuro, and Dierk Lange, ‘The Chad Region as a Crossroads’, in General History of Africa, ed. by M Elfasi and I Hrbek (London: Unesco, Heinemann, 1988), III, 436–60.
  6. Ikime, Obaro, ‘The Fall of Borno’, in The Fall of Nigeria: The British Conquest (London: Heinemann Educational, 1977), pp. 178–84
  7. Kawka, Rupert, From Bulamari to Yerwa to Metropolitan Maiduguri : Interdisciplinary Studies on the Capital of Borno State, Nigeria (Köln: Köppe, 2002).
  8. "Governor Ali Modu Sheriff of Borno State". Nigeria Governors Forum. Archived from the original on 23 August 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2009.
  9. "Nigeria: State of Emergency Declared". The New York Times . 14 May 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
  10. "Army crackdown on Nigeria's Islamist militants". BBC News . 17 May 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
  11. "Nigeria army's offensive to continue 'as long as it takes'". BBC News . 18 May 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
  12. "Nigeria: Shettima Orders Investigation Into Mass Abduction of Women". allAfrica.com. 26 June 2014. Retrieved 1 July 2014.
  13. Michael Olugbode. Nigeria: Borno Public Schools to Reopen Soon, allAfrica.com, 27 August 2014.
  14. Nigeria: Humanitarian Update on the North East Nigeria, unicef.org, November 2014.
  15. http://www.actionagainsthunger.org/countries/africa/nigeria Actionagainsthunger. “Action Against Hunger Logo.” Nigeria. Actionagainsthunger, n.d. Web. 03 May 2016.
  16. 2006 Population Census, Federal Republic of Nigeria, National Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original Archived July 4, 2007, at the Wayback Machine on 25 March 2009.
  17. Borno State overview Archived July 15, 2012, at the Wayback Machine , Borno State Government
  18. Borno State information Archived October 21, 2012, at the Wayback Machine , Federal Republic of Nigeria, National Bureau of Statistics; accessed 28 September 2015.
  19. http://www.ekklesia.co.uk/node/10031

Sources