Abdul One Mohammed
|Governor of Borno State, Nigeria|
December 1987 –December 1989
|Preceded by||Abdulmumini Aminu|
|Succeeded by||Mohammed Maina|
Major-General Abdul One Mohammedwas military governor of Borno State, Nigeria, and later was leader of the ECOMOG peacekeeping force in Liberia and Sierra Leone.
Borno, also known as Borno State, is a state in north-eastern Nigeria. Its capital is Maiduguri. The state was formed in 1976 from the split of the North-Eastern State. Until 1991 it contained what is now Yobe State. It is the homeland of the Kanuri people in Nigeria.
The Federal Republic of Nigeria, commonly referred to as Nigeria, is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Niger in the north, Chad in the northeast, Cameroon in the east, and Benin in the west. Its coast in the south is located on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean. The federation comprises 36 states and 1 Federal Capital Territory, where the capital, Abuja is located. Nigeria is officially a democratic secular country.
Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West African coast. It is bordered by Sierra Leone to its northwest, Guinea to its north, Ivory Coast to its east, and the Atlantic Ocean to its south-southwest. It covers an area of 111,369 square kilometers (43,000 sq mi) and has a population of around 4,700,000 people. English is the official language and over 20 indigenous languages are spoken, representing the numerous ethnic groups who make up more than 95% of the population. The country's capital and largest city is Monrovia.
General Ibrahim Babangida appointed Colonel Abdul One Mohammed military governor of Borno State from December 1987 to December 1989.In 1997 Abdul One Mohammed was posted to the Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group (ECOMOG) as Deputy ECOMOG commander and Chief of Staff, heading operation in Liberia and Sierra Leone.
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The Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group (ECOMOG) was a West African multilateral armed force established by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). ECOMOG was a formal arrangement for separate armies to work together. It was largely supported by personnel and resources of the Nigerian Armed Forces, with sub-battalion strength units contributed by other ECOWAS members — Ghana, Guinea, Sierra Leone, The Gambia, Liberia, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, and others.
Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, informally Salone, is a country on the southwest coast of West Africa. It has a tropical climate, with a diverse environment ranging from savanna to rainforests. The country has a total area of 71,740 km2 (27,699 sq mi) and a population of 7,075,641 as of the 2015 census. Sierra Leone is a constitutional republic with a directly elected president and a unicameral legislature. Sierra Leone has a dominant unitary central government. The president is the head of state and the head of government. The country's capital and largest city is Freetown. Sierra Leone is made up of five administrative regions: the Northern Province, North West Province, Eastern Province, Southern Province and the Western Area. These regions are subdivided into sixteen districts.
In November 1997 Abdul Mohammed denied ECOMOG's fighter jets had violated a ceasefire agreement in an incident where fighters had intervened against ships trying the break the UN embargo against the junta in Sierra Leone. He said "Our aircraft were shot at so we returned fire".On 9 February 1998 the ECOMOG troops launched an all-out offensive to regain control of Freetown, capital of Sierra Leone. Abdul One Mohammed said his troops were near the Freetown city centre and would continue their advance.
Freetown is the capital and largest city of Sierra Leone. It is a major port city on the Atlantic Ocean and is located in the Western Area of the country. Freetown is Sierra Leone's major urban, economic, financial, cultural, educational and political centre, as it is the seat of the Government of Sierra Leone. The population of Freetown was 1,055,964 at the 2015 census.
On 24 February 1998 Abdul One Mohammed said that commercial and humanitarian cargoes could now enter the harbour of Freetown and that the airport was also open. The embargo on arms remained in force.He said he planned to soon deploy troops to gain better control of the hinterland and expected all roads in the Bo area to be reopened soon. On 25 February 1998 One Mohammed said his troops had moved in from Kenema and had taken over Bo from RUF rebels after heavy fighting. ECOMOG units held key positions in the city, backed up by Kamajor militiamen.
Bo, also commonly referred to as Bo Town, is the third largest city in Sierra Leone by population and the largest city in the Southern Province. Bo is the capital and administrative center of Bo District. The city of Bo had a population of 149,957 in the 2004 census and had population of about 175,000, based on the 2015 national census. Bo is an urban center, and lies approximately 160 miles east south-east of Freetown, and about 44 miles (71 km) to Kenema. Bo is the leading financial, educational and economic center of Southern Sierra Leone. Bo was previously the second largest city in Sierra Leone by population, However, Kenema over took Bo in population after the 2015 Sierra Leone national census.
Kenema is the second largest city in Sierra Leone, and the largest city in the country's Eastern Province. It is the capital of Kenema District and a major economic center of the Eastern Province. Previously Sierra Leone's third-largest city, it surpassed Bo as the country's second-largest after the 2015 national census. Its 2015 population was 200,354. By road, it is approximately 300 kilometres (185 mi) southeast of Freetown and about 60 kilometres (40 mi) south of Bo.
Liberians held a parade for ECOMOG peacekeepers in January 1998, who were due to leave the country on 2 February. Abdul One Mohammed called on Liberians to "put hands together and consolidate the peace we have put together".Earlier that month, he had expressed concern that trends could lead to renewal of conflict in Liberia, including the "re-enlistment of soldiers who have been identified with the seven-year fratricidal war.
In July 1998 Abdul One Mohammed said he regretted that Liberia's security forces were not retrained at the end of the civil war. He also said that ECOMOG had failed to establish a gun-free society in Liberia because "former warlords" had told their fighters to keep their weapons.In August 1998 he denied an accusation by Liberian President Charles Taylor that ECOMOG was planning to send more troops to distabilize the Liberian government. He said this was ridiculous since ECOMOG had been trying to restore peace since 1990, and Nigeria alone had spent millions of dollars for that purpose.
Abdul One Mohammed was replaced as ECOMOG Chief of Staff in July 1998 by Brigadier-General G. Kwabe.During hearings of the Special Tribunal on Sierre Leone in 2004, a witness said that Hinga Norman, a former Sierra Leone People's Party (SLPP) Interior minister and Civil Defence Forces leader had said he received arms and ammunition from Abdul One Mohammed. In 2006 Abdul One Mohammed was unable to appear at the trial of Hinga Norman since he had been receiving medical attention in Germany and was too ill to travel to Freetown.
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Sierra Leone first became inhabited by indigenous African peoples at least 2,500 years ago. The dense tropical rainforest partially isolated the region from other West African cultures, and it became a refuge for peoples escaping violence and jihads. Sierra Leone was named by Portuguese explorer Pedro de Sintra, who mapped the region in 1462. The Freetown estuary provided a good natural harbour for ships to shelter and replenish drinking water, and gained more international attention as coastal and trans-Atlantic trade supplanted trans-Saharan trade.
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