Industry in Tianjin

Last updated
The Tianjin Museum of Modern Industry and The Tientsin Eye Tian Jin San Cha He Kou .jpg
The Tianjin Museum of Modern Industry and The Tientsin Eye

The city of Tianjin considers itself the original home or birthplace of Chinese industrial revolution. Modern industry started there with Tianjin Machine Factory which was established by the Qing government during the Self-Strengthening Movement. Afterwards, Yuan Shikai promoted new policies in Tianjin. Numerous modern industrial enterprises mushroomed in Hebei  New District in the northern bank of the Hai River. Including Zhou Xuexi, many industrialists established large enterprise groups that were managed by merchant and supervised by the government. By the beginning of the 20th century, Chinese private enterprises were booming. Among them is the most representative Yongli Alkali Factory which won the gold award and certificate in Philadelphia, the U.S. in 1926 by the sodium carbonate it produced. The factory was praised as "the symbol of developing important chemical industry of the Republic China". The development of Tianjin's modern industrial and the establishment of the Concessions in Tianjin contributed to the rapid expansion of modern Tianjin to become the biggest city and center of industry and commerce in northern China, as well as the second biggest city of industry, finance and trade in China. [1]  The development of Tianjin modern industry mainly went through four stages: initial period, evolution period, booming period and occupied period.  [2] Because of the industrial boom of Tianjin modern industry, the government of Tianjin built The Tianjin Museum of Modern Industry in Divergence estuary for commemoration.

Contents

Initial Period

One of the core leading figures in Tianjin Self-Strengthening Movement: Li Hongzhang Li Hung Chang in 1896.jpg
One of the core leading figures in Tianjin Self-Strengthening Movement: Li Hongzhang

The initial period of Tianjin modern industry refers to the Self-Strengthening Movement after its port opening.  Under the influence of Self-Strengthening Movement, from 1866, the Qing government gradually established a wide range of military industries in Tianjin and its surrounding areas. In order to deal with foreign trade, the QIing government also set a position of   Sankou Trading Minster (changed into North Trading Minster in 1870, post held by Viceroy of Zhili ). Tianjin then became the core area of Li Hongzhang's northern base, and this period is the initial period of Tianjin modern industry development. 

The military industries established by Westernization Group

Full view of Haiguang temple and the western department of Tianjin Machine Factory 1890Nian Dai Pai She De Ling Yi Ge Jiao Du De Hai Guang Si He Ji Qi Ju Quan Jing .jpg
Full view of Haiguang temple and the western department of Tianjin Machine Factory

After the Second Opium War, the Self-Strengthening Movement in Qing Dynasty began to flourish, and the "Westernization Group" started to establish government-sponsored industries leading by military industry. In 1867, a North Trading Minster called Chong Hou gained a land of 22 hectares near to Jiajia Gu Dao where is located in the area that is 18 kilometers from the   old town of Tianjin. He entrenched and constructed a 4950-meter-long wall to build the eastern department of Tianjin Machine Factory. This gunpowder plant of the factory, often been called  "Dong Ju Zi", was the earliest and biggest military industry of China at that time. This department provided northern provinces with guns and cartridges for military use, and also  offered military materials for the Northern Fleet after the establishment of Beiyang Fleet. After Chong Hou, Viceroy of Zhili and North Trading Minster Li Hongzhang took over Tianjin Machine Factory, made it develop rapidly and become a large-scale military industrial factory covering machine manufacturing, metal refining, casting, hot working, basic chemistry, ship repair, etc. The eastern department of Tianjin Machine Factory gained the reputation of "One of the biggest machine factories in the world" at that time.  [3]

In order to enhance coastal defense, the Qing government assigned Li Hongzhang to establish Beiyang Fleet Dagu shipyard in Tianjin i 1880. Dagu shipyard is the first shipyard in the North of modern China, and is called "the three major bases of Beiyang Fleet" with Lüshun Military Harbor and Weihai Liugong Island. It was for repairing the warships of Beiyang Fleets, and started producing munitions from 1890. 

The establishment of "government-supervised and merchant-managed" enterprises

One of representatives of Self-Strengthening Movement: Tong King-sing Tang Ting Shu.jpg
One of representatives of Self-Strengthening Movement: Tong King-sing

In order to cooperate with the development of military industry, in Tianjin, the Qing government built the earliest telegraph circuit, China's first  autonomous standard railway, Kaiping Railway Company and Chinese Engineering and Ming Company. Chinese  Engineering and Ming Company is the earliest large-scale mechanized coal-mining factory which offered military industries energies and materials.  In 1878, Li Hongzhang was assigned to purchase Chinese Engineering and Ming Company that was established by Tong King-sing. At first, it was assumed to be government-managed, but later on because of the lack of fund, the Qing government converted it into government-supervised and merchant-managed.  [4]  In the year of 1879, the telegraph circuit starting from Zhili Supervising Bureau, crossing the eastern department of Tianjin Machine Factory, Zizhulin concession, Chinese Merchants Steamship Company, to Taku Forts and Beitang military camp, is the earliest telegraph circuit in China. After that, the Tianjin-Shanghai telegraph circuit was constructed. [5] [6] Then the government established Tianjin Telegraph Headquarters in Tianjin, accompanied by the east subsidiary, the north subsidiary and the south subsidiary three subsidiaries. Although Tianjin Telegraph Group was "government-supervised and merchant-managed", all the "top official telegraphs" about foreign and military affairs would be sent in an order of "government first".

The former site of Kailuan Mining Headquarters Kai Luan Kuang Wu Ju Da Lou .jpg
The former site of Kailuan Mining Headquarters

Established in 1880, the Tangshan-Xuegezhuang railway was suggested by Li Hongzhang to extend to Dagu and Tianjin for transporting Kaiping coals and munitions by Beiyang military forces. In 1887, Li Hongzhang changed the name of Kaiping Railway Company  into Tianjin Railway Company (also Jingu Railway Company). After the construction of Jintang railway was completed, concerning about the defense of Beiyang, Li Hongzhang initiated the construction of railway from Tianjin to Shanhai Pass which was centered in Tianjin. Besides, in order to boost the trade contacts between the North and the South, Li Hongzhang established China Merchants Steamship Navigation Company as early as 1872. Its headquarter was in Shanghai, and Tianjin branch company was located in South Zizhuulin in Tianjin.

Early Foreign-funded enterprises

The earliest foreign-run modern enterprise was Dagu Barge Company, a British company in 1874. This company, however, was later than the China Merchants Steamship Navigation Company that established by Li Hongzhang. Foreign capital was permitted to input in Tianjin for barge transport, and the time limit was settled by the Qing government. In May 1874, the British-invested Dagu Barge Company was established, with total capital of 33,000 dollars. [7] In September 1889, Dagu Barge Company reshuffled into a limited liability company, and the total capital was 500,000 Liang. [8]  By 1900, there were totally 19 foreign-funded enterprises in Tianjin, among which 16 were run by Britain and Germany. These enterprises were mostly foreign trade companies, among then there were 11 packaging companies. Besides, other early foreign-capitalized companies were mostly small-scale civil industries.

The establishment of private capital enterprises

Compared to foreign capital enterprises, private capital enterprises in Tianjin was lagged behind. Yilaimu Machine Mill, established by Zhu Qi'ang in 1878, symbolized the beginning of private capital enterprises in Tianjin.before 1900, the annual income of Yilaimu Machine Mill was 6,000 to 7,000 liang. Thereafter, private capital was continuously invested in and few mills were established, which could still sustain an income of 6,000 to 7,000 liang per mill per year. This proved that Yilaimu was in a rapidly expanding market. [9]  Although there is lack of historical record, it has been proved that among these newly established machine mills during 1990's were three that had been recorded: Dalaisheng Machine Mill, Tianlihe Machine Mill and South Gate Ruichenghe Machine Mill. [10] [11]

Daide Machine Factory, established by a Cantonese merchant Luo Sanyou in 1884, was the first private capital ironworks in Tianjin. In the aspects of machine manufacturing, Tianjin also had Wanshun Ironworks which was established in the British concession in Tientsin in 1886. Besides, Taide and Wanshun were all located in Taku Road area (also Dagu Road today) that is near the concessions in Tianjin. In the beginning of the 20th century, there is also an ironworks named Zhichang. Therefore, this had been keeping its pace with the development of concessions in Tianjin, and the Taku Road was the birthplace of Tianjin early private capital machine manufacturing. In addition to above, early private capital machine processing industries include Jinjucheng Ironworks which was built in 1897 in Santiaoshi Road. Other industries, such as Tianjin Water Supply Company in 1886, Beiyang Cashmere Factory in 1897, and Beiyang Tannery in 1898, were all sponsored by a famous comprador Wu Kuiding. These companies were the earliest in the peer companies in Tianjin and even in the Northern part of China.

There were over 30 enterprises in the initial stage of Tianjin modern industry among them were 19 foreign enterprises. In other 17 private industries, 6 of them were government-supervised or government-supervised and merchant-managed. These 6 enterprises were mostly related to military services, although they were government-supervised and merchant-managed in nature, they were controlled by the government. Private enterprises had later investment, smaller scale and fewer types. In Tianjin, early modern industries were specialized in military industry, and were large-scale, and they ranked top in China in many fields and were equipped with pioneering value. For instance, the first modern powder mill in China-- the eastern department of Tianjin Machine Factory; China's first industrial technology school--Beiyang Telegraph School;First autonomous standard railway and first telegraph circuit--“Beitang—Taku—Tianjin”military telegraph circuit;the first shipyard in North China, etc. All these are closely related to Tianjin. [12]

Evolution period

The advocate of Hebei New District: Yuan Shikai Yuan shikai.jpg
The advocate of Hebei New District: Yuan Shikai
A map of Tianjin showing the construction of Hebei New District (North) Tianjin 20051107 concessions coloured.jpg
A map of Tianjin showing the construction of Hebei New District (North)

The evolution period of Tianjin modern industry began with the "New Policy" promoted within Tianjin by Yuan Shikai, until the establishment of Republic of China. In around 1902, the Viceroy of Zhili and Beiyang Commerce Minister Yuan Shikai, promoted his "New Policy" in Tianjin. The initial period of the establishment of Republic of China represents the evolution period of Tianjin modern industry, which concentrated on the constructing Hebei New District, thriving education on modern industry, and developing private capital enterprises.

The development of "government-supervised and merchant-managed" industries 

The "New Policy" which was promoted by Yuan Shikai in the 20th century had brought about new opportunities for Tianjin modern industry. In 1902, Zhou Xuexi was assigned by Yuan Shikai to establish Beiyang Silver Dollar Company. By this success, in 1906, Zhou established some important government-supervised and merchant-managed companies like Beiyang Quanye Iron Factory, which made Hebei New District a significant industrial zone. Meanwhile, Hebei New District also established Zhili College of Industry, Craftmanship Factory, Apprentice Factory and other educational institutions, which made it an important educational base.

Zhou Xuexi took over Qixin Cement Company in Tangshan which had been closed down due to poor-quality products. Before its bankrupt, the company was Tangshan Fine Cotton Soil Company that was established by Tang Tingshu in 1889 and capitalized by private capital by Li Hongzhang. After taking over this company, Zhou Xuexi introduced contemporary most advanced cement production equipment—dry-process rotary cement kiln from Smith Company in Denmark—to produce high-quality products, which was a remarkable pioneering in China's cement production industry.  [13]

The transformation of military industry

Russian warship on the shore of Dagu shipyard Bobr1887-1904Taku.jpg
Russian warship on the shore of Dagu shipyard

In 1900, after Eight-Nation Alliance invaded China, large-scale government-managed industries in Tianjin were severely disrupted. The eastern department of Tianjin Machine Factory was occupied by the Eight-Nation Alliance and was then used as French military camp, while the western department, Haiguang Temple Machine Factory, was completely destroyed. In 1907 it was occupied by Japanese army, and then functioned as Japanese military camp. Beiyang Fleet Dagu Shipyard had been suffering a two-year occupation by Russia during 1900 and 1902. In 1906, Dagu shipyard came into service as a branch of Beiyang Quanye Iron Factory, and its powder factory was using as a school of military policemen. Since then, Dagu shipyard had been becoming a government-sponsored and merchant-managed enterprise. [14]

The development of merchant-managed industries

Tianjin Bazaar which was displaying industrial crafts of Tianjin Quan Ye Hui Chang .jpg
Tianjin Bazaar which was displaying industrial crafts of Tianjin

The private capital in Tianjin was accumulated in the ear of "New Policy", the construction of Hebei New District, Tianjin Currency Production Company, Zhili Craft Headquarter, and Beiyang Quanye Iron Factory were completed successively. In addition, the machine industry in Tianjin had already had its own merits and advantages, Santiaoshi Road area gradually formed the center of machine manufacturing industry. At the same time, the scope of this industrial zone expended from Hebei New District towards the west end of the Old Town of Tianjin. From 1902 to 1911, there were 139 industrial companies that had emerged in this city, covering mining industry, cement production, machine manufacturing, textile industry, food industry, etc. Among them, textile industry ranked top with the amount of 41, chemical industry (including the manufacture of matchsticks, leather, cosmetics and oil) ranked second with the amount of 31, food industry (including tobacco) ranked third with the amount of 20. Owing to these, Tianjin's pillar industries began to form. [15]  Many outstanding companies had been emerging at that time. For example, there are Tianjin Soap Factory which was established in 1905 near the Big Red Bridge, and tobacco company which was established by Ji Jufen in 1908. The steady development paved the way for afterward industrial prosperity of private capital enterprises in the period of Xinhai Revolution.

Related Research Articles

Tianjin City and province-level municipality of China

Tianjin, alternately romanized as Tientsin, is a municipality and a coastal metropolis in Northern China on the shore of the Bohai Sea. It is one of the nine national central cities in Mainland China, with a total population estimated at 15,621,200 in 2016. Its built-up area, made up of 12 central districts, was home to 12,491,300 inhabitants in 2016 and is also the world's 29th-largest agglomeration and 11th-most populous city proper.

Li Hongzhang

Li Hongzhang, Marquess Suyi was a Chinese politician, general and diplomat of the late Qing dynasty. He quelled several major rebellions and served in important positions in the Qing imperial court, including the Viceroy of Zhili, Huguang and Liangguang.

The Self-Strengthening Movement, also known as the Westernization or Western Affairs Movement, was a period of institutional reforms initiated in China during the late Qing dynasty following the military disasters of the Opium Wars.

Beiyang Army Military faction dominating much of Republic of China and Warlord Era politics, originally established to modernize the Qing dynasty army

The Beiyang Army, named after the Beiyang region, was a powerful, Western-style Imperial Chinese Army established by the Qing Dynasty government in the late 19th century. It was the centerpiece of a general reconstruction of Qing China's military system. The Beiyang Army played a major role in Chinese politics for at least three decades and arguably right up to 1949. It made the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 possible, and, by dividing into warlord factions known as the Beiyang Clique, ushered in a period of regional division.

Viceroy of Zhili

The Viceroy of Zhili, fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of Zhili and Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Affairs and Food Production, Manager of Waterways, Director of Civil Affairs, was one of eight regional Viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty. The Viceroy of Zhili was an important post because the province of Zhili, which literally means "directly ruled", was the area surrounding the imperial capital, Beijing. The administrative centre was in Tianjin even though the provincial capital was in Baoding. The Viceroy's duties as well as responsibilities have never been defined entirely. Generally speaking, the Viceroy oversaw the military and civil affairs of Zhili, Shandong and Henan provinces. The Viceroy of Zhili was also highly influential in imperial court politics.

The Anhui clique was a military and political organization, one of several mutually hostile cliques or factions that split from the Beiyang clique in the Republic of China's Warlord Era. It was named after Anhui province because several of its generals–including its founder, Duan Qirui–were born in Anhui. It could be considered a legacy of Anhui native Li Hongzhang, who created and built a network of officers during and after the Taiping Rebellion. Because the Anhui clique organized itself very early, it was more politically sophisticated than its warlord rivals.

Port of Tianjin

The Port of Tianjin, formerly known as the Port of Tanggu, is the largest port in Northern China and the main maritime gateway to Beijing. The name "Tianjin Xingang", which strictly speaking refers only to the main seaport area, is sometimes used to refer to the whole port. The port is on the western shore of the Bohai Bay, centred on the estuary of the Haihe River, 170 km southeast of Beijing and 60 km east of Tianjin city. It is the largest man-made port in mainland China, and one of the largest in the world. It covers 121 square kilometers of land surface, with over 31.9 km of quay shoreline and 151 production berths at the end of 2010.

Baoding Military Academy

Baoding Military Academy or Paoting Military Academy was a military academy based in Baoding, Republican China, in the first two decades of the 20th century. For a time, it was the most important military academy in China, and its cadets played prominent roles in the political and military history of the Republic of China. The Baoding Military Academy closed in 1923, but served as a model for the Whampoa Military Academy, which was founded in Guangzhou in 1924. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, half of 300 divisions in China's armed forces were commanded by Whampoa graduates and one-third were Baoding cadets.

Tianjin railway station

The Tianjin railway station is the principal railway station in Tianjin, China. It was established in 1888, rebuilt in 1987-1988, and restructured in 2007-2008. Its Chinese big title was written by Deng Xiaoping in 1988, for celebrating 100th anniversary of its founding.

Fuxingmen station (Tianjin Metro)

Fuxingmen Station is an elevated rapid transit station located in Hexi District, Tianjin, China. It is a station on the Line 1 of the Tianjin Metro.

Wen Shizhen

Wen Shizhen, also known as S. T. Wen, was a politician and diplomat in the Republic of China. He was Mayor of Tianjin during the Provisional Government of the Republic of China and the Wang Jingwei regime. His courtesy name was Peishan (佩珊). He was born in Tianjin.

Duan Qirui

Duan Qirui was a Chinese warlord and politician, a commander of the Beiyang Army and the acting Chief Executive of the Republic of China from 1924 to 1926. He was also the Premier of the Republic of China on four occasions between 1913 and 1918. He was arguably the most powerful man in China from 1916 to 1920.

The Port of Tianjin, formerly known as the Port of Tanggu, is the largest port in Northern China and the main maritime gateway to Beijing. The name "Tianjin Xingang"(Chinese: 天津新港; pinyin: tiānjīn xīngǎng; lit. 'Tianjin New Port'), which strictly speaking refers only to the main seaport area, is sometimes used to refer to the whole port. The Port is located on the western shore of the Bohai Bay, centered on the estuary of the Haihe River, 170 km south east of Beijing and 60 km east of Tianjin city. It is the largest man-made port in mainland China, and one of the largest in the world. It covers 121 square kilometers of land surface, with over 31.9 km of quay shoreline and 151 production berths at the end of 2010.

The Port of Tianjin, formerly known as the Port of Tanggu, is the largest port in Northern China and the main maritime gateway to Beijing. The name "Tianjin Xingang"(Chinese: 天津新港; pinyin: tiānjīn xīngǎng; lit. 'Tianjin New Port'), which strictly speaking refers only to the main seaport area, is sometimes used to refer to the whole port. The Port is located on the western shore of the Bohai Bay, centered on the estuary of the Haihe River, 170 km south east of Beijing and 60 km east of Tianjin city. It is the largest man-made port in mainland China, and one of the largest in the world. It covers 121 square kilometers of land surface, with over 31.9 km of quay shoreline and 151 production berths at the end of 2010.

1923 Chinese presidential election

The 1923 Chinese presidential election was the election held on 5 October 1923 in Beijing for the third term of the President of China. Zhili warlord Cao Kun won the election through bribery.

Tianjin Pipe Corporation Chinese state-owned pipe producting company

Tianjin Pipe (Group) Corporation Limited known as Tianjin Pipe or its aberration TPCO, is the largest stemless steel pipe maker of China as well as one of the largest in the world.

Chinese cruiser <i>Hai Tien</i>

Hai Tien was the second ship of the Hai Chi class of protected cruisers and one of the last built for the Manchu Qing Dynasty.

Yan Xiu

Yan Xiu, also known as Yan Fansun, was a Chinese educator who, with Zhang Boling, founded Nankai University and the Nankai system of schools.

Yangshupu Waterworks

The Yangshupu Waterworks is a waterworks built in 1883, and located at 830 Yangshupu Road (杨树浦路830号) in the district of Yangpu, Shanghai, China. The waterworks was the first of its kind to be built in China and provided running water for the first time to some of the cities' residents. It belongs to the Shanghai Water Company and occupies a site of 32 acres and has four major lines of tap water allowing for a maximum capacity of around 1.5 million cubic metres a day. In 2009 it supplied 400 million cubic metres of water, about 20% of the total water supply of Shanghai.

Cantonese nationalism refers to the movements for independence of Guangdong from the People's Republic of China. These movements wanted to establish an independent and autonomous political entity. In modern China, this idea has been put forward by others including Kang Youwei's followers and Ou Jiajia. Kang Youwei's followers later opposed the claim. In his book "New Guangdong", Ou Shi put forward the idea of establishing "Guangdong of Guangdong". In 1911, there was a revolution. At the end of October 1911, members of the Guangdong Alliance Chen Jiongming, Deng Jun and Peng Ruihai organized civil army uprisings throughout Guangdong. On November 9, Chen Jiongming led his troops to restore Huizhou. On the same day, Guangdong announced independence and established the Guangdong Military Government of the Republic of China. On January 1, 1912, the Republic of China was established, and Guangdong Province became a province in the Republic of China. In the early years of the Republic of China Guangdong Province drafted the "Guangdong Provincial Draft". This is inspired by the idea of autonomous provinces. The draft passed by the Guangdong Provincial Assembly on December 19, 1921. However, this proposal for the future planning of Guangdong Province did not receive sufficient support, and it was aborted as the Soviet forces intervened in the Far East and the KMT and the Communist Party went northward.

References

  1. 天津城市规划志编纂委员会 (1994). 天津市城市规划志. 天津: 天津科学技术出版社.
  2. 季宏、徐苏斌、青木信夫. "天津近代工业发展概略及工业遗存分类". 北京规划建设. 北京: 31.
  3. "地名:东局子". 天津市规划局,转自《天津日报》. Archived from the original on 2015-06-01. Retrieved 2011-09-25.
  4. 来新夏. 天津近代史. 天津: 南开大学出版社. pp. P113.
  5. 王守恂. 天津政俗沿革记(卷四). 天津. p. 1.
  6. 来新夏. 天津近代史. 天津: 南开大学出版社. pp. P116.
  7. 丹尼莱. 《大沽驳船公司与海河》.
  8. 万新平. "天津早期近代工业初探". 天津人民出版社:纪念天津建城600周年文集. 天津.
  9. 汪敬虞. 中国近代工业史资料(第2辑). pp. P705.
  10. 胡光明 (1985). "论天津近代史的基本线索". 天津史研究. 天津. 1: 23.
  11. 宋美云. 北洋军阀时期天津民族工业概况. 天津: 义和团第2册. p. 8.
  12. "近代中国看天津——百项中国第一". 天津日报. Archived from the original on 2011-09-16. Retrieved 2011-09-28.
  13. "华北第一家股份有限公司:启新洋灰公司". 网易转自《城市快报》. Archived from the original on 2017-03-30. Retrieved 2011-09-26.
  14. "第二篇 第一章 第一节 官营企业收入". 天津财政地税政务网. Archived from the original on 2012-08-05. Retrieved 2011-09-27.
  15. 宋美云、张环 (2005). 近代天津工业与企业制度. 天津: 天津社会科学院出版社. pp. 第3页.