Tianjin Natural History Museum

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Tianjin Museum of Natural History
Tianjin museum 2(small)(2008-08).JPG
Former name Tianjin Natural Museum
Established 1953
Location No.206 Machang Avenue, Hexi District, Tianjin, China
Coordinates 39°05′03″N117°12′10″E / 39.0842°N 117.2028°E / 39.0842; 117.2028 Coordinates: 39°05′03″N117°12′10″E / 39.0842°N 117.2028°E / 39.0842; 117.2028
Type Natural History Museum

Tianjin Natural History Museum is in Tianjin, China, and is located in No. 206 Machang Avenue, in the Hexi District. It was founded in 1914 as the Hoangho Paiho Museum. The museum has three floors and spans an area of 12,000 square meters. Over 380,000 geological and biological specimens are currently held at the museum. [1]

Natural history museum institution that displays exhibits of natural historical significance

A natural history museum or museum of natural history is a scientific institution with natural history collections that include current and historical records of animals, plants, fungi, ecosystems, geology, paleontology, climatology, and more.

Tianjin Municipality in Peoples Republic of China

Tianjin, formerly romanized as Tientsin, is a coastal metropolis in northern China and one of the nine national central cities of the People's Republic of China (PRC), with a total population of 15,621,200 as of 2016 estimation. Its built-up area, made up of 12 central districts, was home to 12,491,300 inhabitants in 2016 and is also the world's 29th-largest agglomeration and 11th municipality-most populous city proper.

China State in East Asia

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.

Contents

History

The museum was founded in 1914 by Émile Licent, and was called the Hoangho Paiho Museum. [2] For 25 years since the museum's founding, Licent conducted explorations in the Yellow River Basin and the Haihe River Basin, with the full length of the exploration stretching 50,000 kilometers. During these explorations, Licent collected over 200,000 paleontology, animal, plant, ancient human, and rock specimens. The Hoangho Paiho Museum was eventually renamed the Northern Border Museum. After the People's Republic of China was founded, the Northern Border Museum was hosted by Tianjin University, one of the largest multidisciplinary engineering universities in China. In June 1952, after the establishment of the Tianjin People's Science Museum Preparatory Committee, the Tianjin People's Science Museum was established, and was renamed to the Tianjin Nature Museum in 1957. In 1959, the museum's exhibit's were relocated to 272 Machang Road in the Hexi District. In August of 1968, the Tianjin Museum of History, the Tianjin Museum of Art, and the Tianjin Museum of Nature merged to form the Tianjin Museum. In January 1974, the Tianjin Museum was renamed the Tianjin Natural Museum. In 1997, the Tianjin Municipal Party Committee and government invested 100 million yuan to renovate the museum, with the renovation being completed in 1998. In 2013, the museum once again was renovated, and opened in 2014, at a new site in the Tianjin Cultural Center.

Émile Licent French naturalist

Émile Licent was a French Jesuit trained as a natural historian. He spent more than twenty-five years researching in Tianjin. His expeditions spread across various parts of Northern and Central China.

Tianjin University university in Tianjin, China

Tianjin University is the first modern higher education institution in China, and now a national university under the direct administration of the Ministry of Education of China. It is a Chinese Ministry of Education Class A Double First Class University. It was established in 1895 as Tientsin University/Imperial Tientsin University and later Peiyang University. In 1951, after restructuring, it was renamed Tianjin University, and became one of the largest multidisciplinary engineering universities in China. The university was one of the first 16 universities accredited by the nation in 1959. It is also among the first group of institutions of higher learning in the national "211-Project" to which priority is given in construction. In order to carry out the "21st Century Education Revitalizing Action Plan", in late 2000 the Ministry of Education and Tianjin Municipality signed an agreement which aims to build Tianjin University into a 1st-class university in the world in the 21st century.

Major specimens and exhibitions

The lobby of the museum. Tianjin Natural History Museum Lobby.jpg
The lobby of the museum.

The lobby of the museum displays several dinosaurs, including a cast of a Tyrannosaurus Rex and skeletal mounts of Mamenchisaurus, Omeisaurus, and Bellusaurus.

Dinosaur Superorder of reptiles (fossil)

Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria. They first appeared during the Triassic period, between 243 and 233.23 million years ago, although the exact origin and timing of the evolution of dinosaurs is the subject of active research. They became the dominant terrestrial vertebrates after the Triassic–Jurassic extinction event 201 million years ago; their dominance continued through the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. Reverse genetic engineering and the fossil record both demonstrate that birds are modern feathered dinosaurs, having evolved from earlier theropods during the late Jurassic Period. As such, birds were the only dinosaur lineage to survive the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event 66 million years ago. Dinosaurs can therefore be divided into avian dinosaurs, or birds; and non-avian dinosaurs, which are all dinosaurs other than birds. This article deals primarily with non-avian dinosaurs.

<i>Tyrannosaurus</i> Large predatory Cretaceous dinosaur

Tyrannosaurus is a genus of coelurosaurian theropod dinosaur. The species Tyrannosaurus rex, often called T. rex or colloquially T-Rex, is one of the most well-represented of the large theropods. Tyrannosaurus lived throughout what is now western North America, on what was then an island continent known as Laramidia. Tyrannosaurus had a much wider range than other tyrannosaurids. Fossils are found in a variety of rock formations dating to the Maastrichtian age of the upper Cretaceous Period, 68 to 66 million years ago. It was the last known member of the tyrannosaurids, and among the last non-avian dinosaurs to exist before the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event.

<i>Mamenchisaurus</i> genus of reptiles (fossil)

Mamenchisaurus is a sauropod dinosaur genus including several species, known for their remarkably long necks which made up half the total body length. It is known from numerous species which ranged in time from 160 to 145 million years ago, from the Oxfordian to Tithonian ages of the late Jurassic Period of China, and the largest species may have reached 35 m (115 ft) in length and possibly weighed 50 to 75 tons.

The Ancient Earth and the Modern Earth [3]

The displays on the second floor are divided into two parts: The Ancient Homeland, and the Modern Homeland. The exhibit is organized into eight sections: The Birth of Life, The Cambrian Explosion, Competition for the Ocean, The Transition onto Land, Diversity of Evolution, The Flight of Birds, Mammalian Radiation, and Human Origins and Biological Intelligence. The Birth of Life deals with the beginning of life, 3.8 billion years ago, and features fossils of ammonties and other invertebrates. The Cambrian Explosion deals with the sudden diversity of life in the Cambrian period, Competition for the Ocean deals with life in the ocean, and features modern and prehistoric sea life, such as icthyosaurs, sharks, placoderms, and octopodes, as well as many modern and prehistoric examples of underwater plant life. The Transition onto Land deals with life moving onto land, and features giant sculptures of modern bugs, synapsids like Lystrosaurus , and petrified wood. Diversity of Evolution deals with the appearance of dinosaurs and other archosaurs, in which many large mounts of dinosaurs like Omeisaurus, Triceratops , and Lambeosaurus are featured, as well as a collection of fossilized dinosaur eggs. There are also pterosaur displays, in which a large Dsungaripterus skeleton is laid out. The Flight of Birds deals with the evolution of birds from dinosaurs, and features several filamented non-avian dinosaurs such as Dilong , and several fossils of early birds, such as Confuciusornis . Many modern birds are also exhibited. Mammalian Radiation deals with the rise of mammals as dominant land animals, and has a central display of proboscidean evolution, featuring Platybelodon , Stegodon , and a woolly mammoth. It also features cats like Homotherium , and a display of whale evolution. A modern moose is also displayed. Human Origins and Biological Intelligence deals with the evolution of hominids, and features a bust and several casts of the Peking Man, an example of Homo erectus .

The Cambrian Period was the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, and of the Phanerozoic Eon. The Cambrian lasted 55.6 million years from the end of the preceding Ediacaran Period 541 million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Ordovician Period 485.4 mya. Its subdivisions, and its base, are somewhat in flux. The period was established by Adam Sedgwick, who named it after Cambria, the Latin name of Wales, where Britain's Cambrian rocks are best exposed. The Cambrian is unique in its unusually high proportion of lagerstätte sedimentary deposits, sites of exceptional preservation where "soft" parts of organisms are preserved as well as their more resistant shells. As a result, our understanding of the Cambrian biology surpasses that of some later periods.

Ichthyosaur order of reptiles (fossil)

Ichthyosaurs are large marine reptiles. Ichthyosaurs belong to the order known as Ichthyosauria or Ichthyopterygia.

Placodermi class of fishes (fossil)

Placodermi is a class of armoured prehistoric fish, known from fossils, which lived from the Silurian to the end of the Devonian period. Their head and thorax were covered by articulated armoured plates and the rest of the body was scaled or naked, depending on the species. Placoderms were among the first jawed fish; their jaws likely evolved from the first of their gill arches. Placoderms are paraphyletic, and consist of several distinct outgroups or sister taxa to all living jawed vertebrates, which originated among their ranks. This is illustrated by a 419-million-year-old fossil, Entelognathus, from China, which is the only known placoderm with a type of bony jaw like that found in modern bony fishes. This includes a dentary bone, which is found in humans and other tetrapods. A recent analyses shows placodermi to be likely monophyletic. The jaws in other placoderms were simplified and consisted of a single bone. Placoderms were also the first fish to develop pelvic fins, the precursor to hindlimbs in tetrapods, as well as true teeth. Paraphyletic groupings are problematic, as one can not talk precisely about their phylogenic relationships, their characteristic traits and literal extinction. 380-million-year-old fossils of three other genera, Incisoscutum, Materpiscis and Austroptyctodus, represent the oldest known examples of live birth.

Earth's Ecology [4]

This exhibit spans an area of 3400 square meters, on the third floor of the museum. Tianjin honorary citizen Kenneth Behring donated over 200 rare specimens of wild animals, which are displayed along with the museum's own collection. The exhibit highlights the design of ecosystems, and the vast diversity of different ecosystems around the world. The exhibit is divided into seven sections: Australia: Continent of Living Fossils, South America: The Magical Rainforest, North America: The Wild New World, Antarctica: Snow and Ice, Arctic: Melting Glaciers, Africa: The Original Wild and Dead, and Eurasia: The Symphony of Life.

Ken Behring American real estate developer, former owner of the Seattle Seahawks, and philanthropist

Kenneth Eugene Behring is an American real estate developer, animal poacher, and former owner of the National Football League's Seattle Seahawks.

<i>Yixianornis</i> genus of birds (fossil)

Yixianornis is a bird genus from the early Cretaceous period. Its remains have been found in the Jiufotang Formation at Chaoyang dated to the early Aptian age, around 120 million years ago. Only one species, Yixianornis grabaui, is known at present. The specific name, grabaui, is named after American paleontologist Amadeus William Grabau, who surveyed China in the early 20th Century.

<i>Shantungosaurus</i> genus of reptiles (fossil)

Shantungosaurus, meaning "Shandong Lizard", is a genus of saurolophine hadrosaurid dinosaurs found in the Late Cretaceous Wangshi Group of the Shandong Peninsula in China. The stratigraphic interval of Shantungosaurus ranges from the top of the Xingezhuang Formation to the middle of the Hongtuya Formation, middle to late Campanian in age. Shantungosaurus is so far the largest hadrosauroid taxon in the world: the greatest length of its femur is about 1.7 m, and the greatest length of its humerus is about 0.97 m.

<i>Monolophosaurus</i> genus of reptiles (fossil)

Monolophosaurus is a genus of tetanuran theropod dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic Shishugou Formation in what is now Xinjiang, China. It was named for the single crest on top of its skull. Monolophosaurus was a mid sized theropod at about 5 metres long.

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National Museum of Natural History natural history museum in Washington, D.C.

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References

  1. "Tianjin Natural History Museum Tianjin, Tianjin Attraction". www.visitourchina.com. Retrieved 2017-10-01.
  2. "天津自然博物馆". www.tjnhm.com. Retrieved 2018-03-13.
  3. "天津自然博物馆". www.tjnhm.com. Retrieved 2018-03-13.
  4. "天津自然博物馆". www.tjnhm.com. Retrieved 2018-03-13.