Nankai University

Last updated

Coordinates: 39°06′04″N117°09′53″E / 39.10111°N 117.16472°E / 39.10111; 117.16472


Nankai University
Nankai University logo.svg
Motto允公允能,日新月异 [1]
Motto in English
Dedication to Public Interests, Acquisition of All-round Capability, Aspiration for Progress with Each Passing Day [1]
Type National, Public
Established1919;103 years ago (1919)
President Cao Xuetao
Academic staff
Undergraduates 13,076
Postgraduates 11,458 graduates

Nankai University (NKU or Nankai; simplified Chinese :南开大学; traditional Chinese :南開大學; pinyin :Nánkāi Dàxué) is a national public research university located in Tianjin, China. It is a prestigious Chinese state Class A Double First Class University approved by the central government of China, and a member of the former project 985 and project 211 group of universities. [2] [3] It was founded in 1919, [4] by educators Yan Xiu and Zhang Boling.

During the Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), Nankai University, Peking University and Tsinghua University merged and formed the National Changsha Provisional University, which later moved to Kunming and was renamed the National Southwestern Associated University (西南联大). On 25 December 2000, the State Ministry of Education signed an agreement with Tianjin Municipal Government to jointly establish and develop Nankai University. Since then, Nankai has been listed among the universities to receive priority development investments from the Chinese government in the twenty-first century.

Nankai has long been recognized as one of the most prestigious universities in China, [5] constantly ranked among various top 10 lists of Chinese Universities. [2] As a comprehensive university with a wide range of disciplines, Nankai features a balance between the humanities and the sciences, a solid foundation and a combination of application and creativity. The university has 26 academic colleges, together with the Graduate School, the School for Continuing Education, the Advanced Vocational School, the Modern Distance Education School, and categories covering literature, history, philosophy, economics, management, law, science, engineering, agriculture, medicine, teaching and art. The university is especially well known for its economics, history, chemistry, and mathematics research and study. [6]

Nankai's alumni include the first Premier of the People's Republic of China Zhou Enlai, mathematician Shiing-Shen Chern and Nobel laureates Chen Ning Yang and Tsung-Dao Lee. [7] [8] [9] [10]


Students of Nankai University in 1919 Nan Kai Da Xue Kai Xue Ji Nian Zhao .jpg
Students of Nankai University in 1919
Main Building of Nankai University Main Building of Nankai University 2015-08-04.jpg
Main Building of Nankai University


The university was founded as a private institution in 1919. [11] Nankai's scale was relatively small at its inception partly because it received no funding from the government but instead was funded by foreign charitable funds and local entrepreneurs, with only 3 departments (liberal arts, science, and business) and 96 students. [12] It was noted particularly for its courses which were taught in English using foreign curricula and textbooks.[ citation needed ]

The well-known Nankai Institute of Economics was established in 1927 and soon became one of the most prominent in China being the first non-foreign entity to calculate a Chinese Consumer Price Index. [13]

By 1937, Nankai had expanded into a university of 3 colleges, 13 departments, and 2 research institutes, with 429 students and 110 faculty and staff members. [12]

It was compared to be "The North Star of Higher Learning". [14]


In July 1937, during the Sino-Japanese War, Nankai campus was severely damaged by Japanese bombings. [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] About two-thirds of the school buildings were destroyed including its library which was deliberately burnt down by the Japanese Imperial Army. A number of the school's artifacts, including the university bell, [23] [24] [25] were looted and remain in Japanese museums till this day.[ citation needed ]

In August 1937, still during the Sino-Japanese War, Nankai University, Peking University and Tsinghua University united together and formed the National Changsha Provisional University, which later moved to Kunming and was renamed the National Southwestern Associated University. [26] [27] [28] [29] On April 2, it was renamed "National Southwestern Associated University. [28] In 1946, after the war, Nankai returned to Tianjin and was reformed into a national university by the government. [30] At that time, Nankai had four schools (Liberal Arts, Science, Political Science and Economics, and Engineering) and 16 departments. [31]


After the establishment of the People's Republic of China, Nankai was readjusted and became a comprehensive university with emphasis on the arts and sciences, with 14 departments and 3 professional specialties in total. [12]


From 1966 to 1976 the School's normal life was out of order due to the Cultural Revolution. [12] In 1976 a catastrophic earthquake broke out in Tangshan, bordering Tianjin, causing damage of varying degrees to the School's buildings. [12]


Second Main Building of NKU Tian Jin Nan Kai Da Xue Di Er Zhu Jiao Xue Lou 3.jpg
Second Main Building of NKU

In February 1978, the State Council decided to resume and set up national key colleges, Nankai University is identified as the first national key college. [32]

After 1980, Nankai added a number of new specialities and institutes. In Arts, applied specialities on financing were set up and the School of Economics was reopened in 1983, while in Sciences, interdisciplinary, marginal and high and new technological specialities were added.

Nankai was amongst the first universities in China to open its doors for students from America in the 1980s. [33] In 1989 the university was ordered by the Tianjin public security bureau to send two Americans back home, following rising political tensions over pro-democracy demonstrations. [34]

By the late 1980s, Nankai University had grown to be a comprehensive university embracing Humanities, Natural Sciences, Applied Sciences, Life Sciences, Managements and Art.

In 1994 Tianjin Foreign Trade College was merged to Nankai university. In 1999 under the combined efforts of Nankai and TEDA, TEDA College was set up. In 2000 the State Ministry of Education signed an agreement with Tianjin Municipal Government on jointly establishing and developing Nankai University. Experimental cooperation between Nankai University and Tianjin University was initiated on the principle of independent school-running and close cooperation. In 2002 under the cooperative efforts of Nankai, Government of Shenzhen and UC Berkeley, the Financial Engineering College was established in Shenzhen.

In May 2006 Nankai's president Rao Zihe tendered 15 of the 21 university's college dean positions, restaffing key positions in an effort to further improve the university's educational programs. [35]

In February 2015, following Chinese media reports and statements from inside the Chinese Communist Party that universities would have to "be cleansed of liberal Western textbooks and other ideological heresies" , Nankai's president Gong Ke publicly stated: "Recently I've read people on the Internet saying that the ranks of academics must be cleansed, purified and rectified. I can't agree with this. This was the mentality of 1957 or 1966." and "We cannot re-enact this history of "leftist" errors against intellectuals." [36] [37]


Nankai university encompasses three campuses. Balitai, Jinnan and TEDA. [38] The total local campus area is 456.1 and the building area 136.8 hectare. [39]

Balitai campus

Balitai was the first campus to be established in 1919 and is located at Balitai in the Nankai district of Taijin. The campus hosts 10 colleges, namely the Business School, School of Economics, School of Literature, College of Chemistry, School of Mathematical Sciences, Institute of Physics, College of Foreign Languages, College of Life Sciences and Institute of Japan Studies.

Jinnan campus

Jinnan campus is the latest campus of Nankai university. It was opened in September 2015 and is located in the jinnan Area. The campus hosts 14 colleges, the Zhou Enlai School of Government, College of Tourism and Service Management, School of Medicine, College of Pharmacy, Law School, College of Chinese Language and Culture, Faculty of Philosophy, College of History, College of Computer and Control Engineering, College of Electronic Information and Optical Engineering, School of Material Science and Engineering, School of Finance and College of Software.

TEDA Campus

TEDA campus is also located in the Binhau New Area and hosts the TEDA Institute of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology and the TEDA Institute of Applied Physics.

Nan Kai Da Xue Zhu Lou Nan Yan Chang Quan Jing .png
Main Building of Nankai University


The Eastern Arts Building Nan Kai Da Xue Dong Fang Yi Zhu Da Lou .jpg
The Eastern Arts Building

Nankai is a multidisciplinary university under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education. [ citation needed ]

Teaching and Learning

The university has academic programs that cover the humanities, natural sciences, technology, life sciences, medical sciences and the arts, with an equal balance between the sciences and the liberal arts.

Nankai's academic programs operate on a semester calendar, with two terms. The first beginning in early September and ending in early January and the second beginning in early February and ending in early July. Subsequently, winter break usually ranges from early January to early February and summer break from early July to early September. [40]

Nankai, in 2013, had 22 colleges and schools, and offered 79 bachelor's degree programs, 231 master's degree programs, and 172 PhD programs. The total enrollment stood at approximately 12,000 undergraduate students and 11,000 graduate students. Of the total student population, 10% were international students from different countries around the world.

In 2018 the university offered a total of 80 undergraduate programs, 231 Master and 172 PhD programs and 28 post doctoral research stations. The total count of full-time students was 24,525. Academic staff consisted of 1,986 full-time teaching personnel, with 214 professors and 805 associate professors. [39]

Nankai offers different scholarships, among them the Chinese Government Scholarship for international students, [41] the CSC Scholarship for American Students, [42] the Tianjin Government Scholarship, [43] the Confucius Institute Scholarship [44] and the Nankai University Scholarship. [45]

Nankai also offers several scholarship programs to support international exchanges and hosts different international student exchange programs. [46] Nankai's broad international programs are organized through the International Office. The university has established cooperations with more than 300 international universities and academic institutions, including programs like an Elementary School Chinese Program with schools in the US, which was launched in 2009. [47] [48] [49] [50] In 2010 the US-China exchange program Study International was launched, with the plan to send 100,000 American students to china in a four-year time frame. The first students were send to Nankai university in the fall of 2010.

In 2012 Nankai was invited to become the 35th member of The Global University Leaders Forum (GULF), a global community of high-ranking universities, including renown members like Yale University, Harvard University and the University of Oxford. [51] [ additional citation(s) needed ]

Library of Nankai University New Campus Library of Nankai University New Campus.jpg
Library of Nankai University New Campus


The University has established broad international exchanges and collaborative relationships with more than 200 universities and academic institutions. Nobel Laureates Chen Ning Yang, Tsung-Dao Lee, Samuel Chao Chung Ting, Robert A. Mundell, and Reinhard Selten as well as former President of Korea Kim Dae Jung and former US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger were all conferred Honorary Professorships by Nankai University. [52]

In November 2016 Robert F. Engle, who won the 2003 Nobel Prize in economics, became an honorary professor at Nankai. [53]

Many other world-known scholars and entrepreneurs have been invited as Visiting Professors at Nankai University. Dr. Heng-Kang Sang returned from the United States to found the College of Economic and Social Development in 1987. Nankai University, a magnet for talented mathematicians known both at home and abroad, has become one of the most famous centers for mathematics worldwide.

Nankai established nine Confucius Institutes around the world.[ citation needed ]

Scientists from Nankai have been involved in different scientific breakthroughs and important advancements. [54] [55] [56]

Rankings and reputation

University rankings
Global – Overall
ARWU World [57] 201–300 (2021)
QS World [58] 358 (2022)
QS Employability [59] 301–500 (2020)
THE World [60] 301-350 (2022)
USNWR Global [61] 342 (2021)
Regional – Overall
QS BRICS [62] 31 (2019)
THE Asia [63] 52 (2020)
THE Emerging Economies [64] 46 (2020)
USNWR Asia [65] 51 (2021)
Library of Nankai University New Campus Library of Nankai University New Campus 20150911.jpg
Library of Nankai University New Campus

Nankai University is ranked among the top 10 universities in China, with exceptions in 2017 and 2018. [9] In the ranking of top 50 universities in China published by Renmin University of China in June 2011, it was ranked 10th. [7] In the Netbig ranking of 2011 it was ranked 10th as well. [8] In the QS World University Rankings of 2013 it was ranked 62nd among Asian universities, and 11th in China. [9] In the Chinese first-class university ranking of 2012 by Wu Shulian of China Management Academy, it was placed 8th. [10] In the CWTS Leiden Ranking 2013, it was ranked 53rd among world universities, and 1st in China. [66] In the Nature Index Global 2014, it was ranked 83rd among world universities, and 7th in China. [67]

Department rankings

The university is also highly regarded for its top quality undergraduate programs. [68] Nankai's mathematics, chemistry, history, business and economics programs are among the best in China. [68] [69] [70]

Chern, Shiing-Shen established the world's largest mathematics institute (in terms of office area) in Nankai University.[ citation needed ]

Student life

Student body

In 2018 Nankai enrolled 24,525 full-time students, with 13,067 undergraduate, 8,162 postgraduate and 3,296 PhD students. Of them 1,902 were international students.[ citation needed ]

Colleges and schools



Notable alumni

Zhou Enlai, first Premier of the People's Republic of China and student of the first ever class at Nankai in 1919 Guo Gong Nei Zhan Shi Qi Zhou En Lai .jpg
Zhou Enlai, first Premier of the People's Republic of China and student of the first ever class at Nankai in 1919

Notable alumni of Nankai university include

A more extensive list of Nankai alumni can be found here.

Related Research Articles

Tianjin City and province-level municipality of China

Tianjin, alternately romanized as Tientsin, is a municipality and a coastal metropolis in Northern China on the shore of the Bohai Sea. It is one of the nine national central cities in Mainland China, with a total population of 13,866,009 inhabitants during the 2020 Chinese census. Its built-up area, made up of 12 central districts, was home to 11,165,706 inhabitants and is also the world's 29th-largest agglomeration and 11th-most populous city proper.

Tsinghua University University in Beijing, China

Tsinghua University is a national public research university in Beijing, China. The university is funded by the Ministry of Education. Tsinghua University is a member of the C9 League. It is also a member of Double First Class University Plan, Project 985 and Project 211. Since its establishment in 1911, it has produced many notable leaders in science, engineering, politics, business, academia, and culture.

Nankai is a family of schools in China founded by Yan Xiu (严范孙) (1860–1920) and Zhang Boling (张伯苓) (1876–1951). The schools include:

Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area

Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area, commonly abbreviated as TEDA is the main free market zone in Binhai, Tianjin, China. It was formed in late 1984.

Tianjin University University in Tianjin, China

Tianjin University is a national key public research university in Tianjin, China. The university is wholly funded by the Ministry of Education.

Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics

The Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, colloquially known as Nanhang (南航), is a public research university in Nanjing, China. One of the Seven Sons of National Defence, it is directly supervised by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology. The university is part of the Project 211 and a Chinese state Double First Class University Plan university identified by the Ministry of Education of China.

Nanjing Normal University

Nanjing Normal University is a public research university in Nanjing, China. Founded in 1902 as Sanjiang Normal School, it is one of the oldest and most prestigious higher normal schools in China, and has become a research-intensive comprehensive university co-funded by the Ministry of Education of China and Jiangsu Provincial Government since its separation from Nanjing University in 1952. NNU is a leading National Key University designated by China's former Project 211, Plan 111, and Double First Class University Plan.

Tianjin Medical University

Tianjin Medical University (TMU) was founded in 1951; was the first medical institution approved by the State Council of the People's Republic of China. Hsien-I Chu, a renowned endocrinologist, was the first president of the university. The current president is Shang Yongfeng.

Chang Po-ling

Chang Po-ling was a Chinese educator who, with Yan Xiu, founded Nankai University and the Nankai system of schools.

Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology

Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, colloquially Nan Xin Da is an elite Chinese state Double First Class University Plan university approved by the Ministry of Education of China, located in northern part of Nanjing city, China. It is well known for meteorology research and education. The university is among the world's top 500 universities, according to QS World University Rankings, CWTS Leiden Ranking and Shanghai Ranking, and among top 800 universities, according to Times Higher Education World University Rankings, U.S. News & World Report Best Global University Ranking, and SCImago Institutions Rankings. Nature Index identified it as one of the top 50 universities of China in Earth and Environmental Sciences.

The Technology Transfer Center of Zhejiang University, currently is the largest university technology transfer center in the People's Republic of China. It's the main technology transfer department of the Zhejiang University in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province.

Peiyang University

National Peiyang University (北洋大学堂), originally Imperial Tientsin University, was established in Tianjin in October 1895 by Sheng Xuanhuai, the official of the Tianjin Customs, with the approval of the Guangxu Emperor of Qing dynasty. It was the first government-run university in modern China where western science & technology was its main focus. The school motto was "Seeking truth from facts"(实事求是). 1951, by Chinese government's order, it was renamed as Tianjin University.

Jinnan District District in Tianjin, Peoples Republic of China

Jinnan District, formerly Nanjiao District is a district of Tianjin, People's Republic of China, located on the western bank of the lower reaches of the Hai River The name of the district literally means "South Tianjin" or "South of Tianjin", explained by its location relative to the urban core of Tianjin.

The International School of Tianjin is an international school in Jinnan District, Tianjin.

Hunan Womens University

Hunan Women's University is a university located in Yuhua District, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Tianjin No. 20 High School Public school in Heping District, Tianjin, China

Tianjin No. 20 High School is a public secondary school in Heping District in Tianjin.

Double First Class University Plan Chinese university development plan

The World First Class UniversityandFirst Class Academic Discipline Construction, together known as Double First Class, is a tertiary education development initiative designed by the People's Republic of China central government in 2015, which aims to comprehensively develop elite Chinese universities into world-class institutions by the end of 2050 through developing and strengthening their individual faculty departments. The Double First-Class University Plan has made new arrangements for the Chinese higher education institution development. The universities included in this plan are called Double First Class Universities.

Nankai Institute of Economics

Nankai Institute of Economics is an economic research institute affiliated to the Nankai University School of Economics. It is located within the university's Balitai campus at Nankai District, Tianjin. The institute was founded in 1927 by He Lian and Zhang Boling, was originally named Nankai Committee of Sociology and Economics. It changed its name into Nankai Institute of Economics in 1931, and then established the tenet of the institute, which is to "know China and serve China". The systematic social research that the institute has conducted was ahead of its time in China. The Nankai Price Index, compiled in 1927, was the very first price index in China and the most important reference to the study of Chinese economy during that time, indicating that it was rather influential and of high academic value. The institute was then regarded as the authority of Chinese economic studies during the period of Republic of China (1912–1949).

Mei Yiqi

Mei Yiqi or Mei Yi-chi, courtesy name Yuehan, was a Chinese politician, physicist and educator, who served two separate terms as Ministry of Education of the Republic of China, from 1948 to 1949 and from 1958 to 1961. He was President of National Tsinghua University between 1931 and 1948, making him the university's longest serving president.


  1. 1 2 "NKU Motto" . Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  2. 1 2 "Nankai University". China Admissions. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
  3. "教育部 财政部 国家发展改革委 关于公布世界一流大学和一流学科建设高校及建设 学科名单的通知 (Notice from the Ministry of Education and other national governmental departments announcing the list of double first class universities and disciplines)".
  4. "Nankai University, Tianjin, China – Listing by Bizpages". Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  5. Nankai University profile, GoToUniversity (retrieved 28 September 2020)
  6. "学校简介". Nankai University. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
  7. 1 2 "Renmin University of China Higher Education Research". (in Chinese). Retrieved 6 July 2011.
  8. 1 2 "Netbig 2011 Chinese University Ranking". (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 28 June 2011. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
  9. 1 2 3 "QS World University Rankings".
  10. 1 2 "List of the first-class Chinese Universities 2012". Retrieved 3 February 2012.
  11. 梁吉生 (March 2005). 逝去的大学. 北京: 同心出版社. ISBN   9787805939537.
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 南开大学校史编写组 (October 1989). 南开大学校史. 天津: 南开大学出版社.
  13. [ bare URL ]
  14. 南开大学校史研究室 (16 July 2014). "不能忘却的历史——南开大学被炸77周年祭". 南开大学报.
  15. China Information Service (1938). Bulletin. p. 28.
  16. Epstein, Israel (1939). The people's war. V. Gollancz. p. 51.
  17. Epstein, Israel (2005). My China Eye: Memoirs of a Jew and a Journalist. Long River Press. pp. 69–. ISBN   978-1-59265-042-2.
  18. The China Magazine. Chinese News Service. 1946. p. 25.
  19. China Magazine. Chinese News Service. 1946. p. 25.
  20. Shih, Hu (1 February 2013). English Writings of Hu Shih: Literature and Society. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 164–. ISBN   978-3-642-31184-0.
  21. Winchester, Simon (25 September 2008). Bomb, Book and Compass: Joseph Needham and the Great Secrets of China. Penguin UK. pp. 65–. ISBN   978-0-14-188989-4.
  22. Richard J. Meyer (2009). Jin Yan: The Rudolph Valentino of Shanghai. Hong Kong University Press. pp. 66–. ISBN   978-962-209-586-1.
  23. "中央社对天津战事的报道". 申报. 天津. 中央社. 30 July 1937.
  24. "日机继续轰炸南开". 申报. 天津. 中央社. 31 July 1937. pp. 第四版.
  25. 中央日报社 (31 July 1937). "中央日报社评:南开精神". 中央日报.
  26. 彭未风; 刘德胜; 唐瑶 (28 June 2015). "天津高等教育变迁史". 每日新报.
  27. 南开大学校长办公室 (July 1995). 日军毁掠南开暴行录. 天津: 南开大学出版社.
  28. 1 2 清华大学校史研究室 (2006). 清华漫话. 北京: 清华大学出版社. pp. 29–33. ISBN   978-730-212-865-6.
  29. 方惠坚,张思敬 (2001). 清华大学志(下册). 北京: 清华大学出版社. pp. 678–694. ISBN   7-302-04319-1.
  30. 江沛 (2011). "蒋介石与张伯苓及南开大学". 民国档案 (1): 69–79.
  31. 王文俊 (1989年). 南开大学校史资料选:1919-1949. 天津: 南开大学出版社. p. 913.
  32. 天津通志. 天津: 天津市地方志编修委员会办公室. 2007.
  33. Neuffer, Elizabeth (5 January 1986). "New York Times: China opens up to Americans". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  34. Bernstein, Richard (28 June 1989). "New York Times: Beijing orders 2 more Americans to Leave China". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  35. Xin, Hao; Normile, Dennis (11 January 2008). "Gunning for the Ivy League". Science. 319 (5860): 148–151. doi:10.1126/science.319.5860.148. ISSN   0036-8075. PMID   18187632. S2CID   26144558.
  36. Buckley, Chris. "University President Sees Echoes of Cultural Revolution in New Campaign". Sinosphere Blog. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  37. Buckley, Chris. "Chinese President Returns to Mao's (and His) Roots in Yan'an". Sinosphere Blog. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  38. "NKU Campus" . Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  39. 1 2 "Facts and Figures". Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  40. "NKU Academic Calendar" . Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  41. "Chinese Government Scholarship" . Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  42. "CSC Scholarship for American Students" . Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  43. "Tianjin Government Scholarship" . Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  44. "Confucius Institute Scholarship" . Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  45. "Nankai University Scholarship" . Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  46. "NKU Student Exchange" . Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  47. Pomfret, John (27 July 2008). "A Long Wait at the Gate to Greatness". The Washington Post . ISSN   0190-8286 . Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  48. Hill, David (27 August 2009). "Elementary School Expands Chinese Program". The Washington Post . ISSN   0190-8286 . Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  49. "NKU Overview exchange programs" . Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  50. "NKU partners" . Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  51. "NKU International Organizations" . Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  52. "NKU Scholars" . Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  53. 冯紫煜. "Nobel prize winner to educate students in Tianjin". Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  54. "Financial Times: Worth Watching (Liquorice Cancer Care)". Financial Times. 5 June 2006. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  55. "The Washington Post: What's Not to Like About a Graphene Spacecraft?". The Washington Post . Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  56. "Talk about mind control: Chinese develop a car operated by brain waves". Washington Post. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  57. Academic Ranking of World Universities 2020
  58. QS World University Rankings 2022
  59. "QS Graduate Employability Rankings 2020". Top Universities.
  60. "World University Rankings 2022". Times Higher Education (THE). 13 April 2022.
  61. "US News Best Global University Rankings 2021".
  62. "QS University Rankings: BRICS 2019". Top Universities.
  63. "Asia University Rankings 2020". Times Higher Education (THE). 28 May 2020.
  64. "THE Emerging University Rankings 2020".
  65. "US News Best Asia University Rankings 2021".
  66. "Leiden Ranking". Universiteit Leiden Centre for Science and Technology Studies. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
  67. "Nature Index Global 2014". Nature. Nature Publishing Group. 515 (7526): S98–S108. 2014. doi: 10.1038/515S98a . PMID   25390156.
  68. 1 2 "2021 china university major rankings". Retrieved 31 March 2022.
  69. "2021 china's best subject ranking". Retrieved 31 March 2022.
  70. "Nankai university ShanghaiRanking". Retrieved 31 March 2022.
  71. "FELLOWS DIRECTORY | The Royal Society of Canada". Retrieved 30 August 2018.
  72. Hitchin, N. J. (13 August 2014). "Shiing-Shen Chern. 26 October 1911 – 3 December 2004". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 60: 75–85. doi: 10.1098/rsbm.2014.0018 . ISSN   0080-4606.
  73. Lelyveld, Joseph. "New York Times: In China, It's Politics by Allegory" . Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  74. ""Zhou Enlai Class" Named in Nankai University". Retrieved 12 July 2018.
  75. 1 2 "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1957". Retrieved 12 July 2018.
  76. "Welcome to drama". 18 April 2006. Archived from the original on 18 April 2006. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
  77. Chen, Xiaomei (1 April 2014). The Columbia Anthology of Modern Chinese Drama. Columbia University Press. ISBN   9780231165020.
  78. "Scientists give up US nationality to become Chinese citizens". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 12 July 2018.