964

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Millennium: 1st millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
964 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 964
CMLXIV
Ab urbe condita 1717
Armenian calendar 413
ԹՎ ՆԺԳ
Assyrian calendar 5714
Balinese saka calendar 885–886
Bengali calendar 371
Berber calendar 1914
Buddhist calendar 1508
Burmese calendar 326
Byzantine calendar 6472–6473
Chinese calendar 癸亥(Water  Pig)
3660 or 3600
     to 
甲子年 (Wood  Rat)
3661 or 3601
Coptic calendar 680–681
Discordian calendar 2130
Ethiopian calendar 956–957
Hebrew calendar 4724–4725
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1020–1021
 - Shaka Samvat 885–886
 - Kali Yuga 4064–4065
Holocene calendar 10964
Iranian calendar 342–343
Islamic calendar 352–353
Japanese calendar Ōwa 4 / Kōhō 1
(康保元年)
Javanese calendar 864–865
Julian calendar 964
CMLXIV
Korean calendar 3297
Minguo calendar 948 before ROC
民前948年
Nanakshahi calendar −504
Seleucid era 1275/1276 AG
Thai solar calendar 1506–1507
Tibetan calendar 阴水猪年
(female Water-Pig)
1090 or 709 or −63
     to 
阳木鼠年
(male Wood-Rat)
1091 or 710 or −62
Pope Benedict V (r. 964-965) Pope Benedict V Illustration.jpg
Pope Benedict V (r. 964–965)

Year 964 ( CMLXIV ) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, employ seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value, as follows:

A leap year starting on Friday is any year with 366 days that begins on Friday 1 January and ends on Saturday 31 December. Its dominical letters hence are CB, such as the years 1808, 1836, 1864, 1892, 1904, 1932, 1960, 1988, 2016, 2044, 2072, and 2112 in the Gregorian calendar or, likewise, 2000 and 2028 in the obsolete Julian calendar. Any leap year that starts on Tuesday, Friday or Saturday has only one Friday the 13th; The only Friday the 13th in this leap year occurs in May. Common years starting on Saturday share this characteristic.

The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC, was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on 1 January 45 BC, by edict. It was the predominant calendar in the Roman world, most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was refined and gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar, promulgated in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII.

Contents

Events

Info

Pope John XII pope

Pope John XII was head of the Catholic Church from 16 December 955 to his death in 964. He was related to the Counts of Tusculum and a member of the powerful Roman family of Theophylact which had dominated papal politics for over half a century. His pontificate became infamous for the alleged depravity and worldliness with which he conducted it.

Catholic Church Christian church led by the Bishop of Rome

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide as of 2016. As the world's "oldest continuously functioning international institution", it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation. The church is headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the Pope. Its central administration, the Holy See, is in the Vatican City, an enclave within the city of Rome in Italy.

Byzantine Empire

Nikephoros II Phokas Byzantine emperor

Nikephoros II Phokas was Byzantine Emperor from 963 to 969. His brilliant military exploits contributed to the resurgence of the Byzantine Empire during the 10th century. His reign, however, included controversy. In the west, he inflamed conflict with the Bulgarians and saw Sicily completely turn over to the Muslims, while he failed to make any serious gains in Italy following the incursions of Otto I. Meanwhile, in the east, he completed the conquest of Cilicia and even retook the island of Cyprus, thus opening the path for subsequent Byzantine incursions reaching as far as the Jazira and the Levant. His administrative policy was less successful, as in order to finance these wars he increased taxes both on the people and on the church, while maintaining unpopular theological positions and alienating many of his most powerful allies. These included his nephew John Tzimiskes, who would take the throne after killing Nikephoros in his sleep.

Anatolia Asian part of Turkey

Anatolia, also known as Asia Minor, Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, the Armenian Highlands to the east, and the Aegean Sea to the west. The Sea of Marmara forms a connection between the Black and Aegean Seas through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits and separates Anatolia from Thrace on the European mainland.

Turkey Republic in Western Asia

Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located mainly in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest; Georgia to its northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south. Ankara is its capital but Istanbul is the country's largest city. Approximately 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority; the size of the Kurdish population is a subject of dispute with estimates placing the figure at anywhere from 12 to 25 per cent of the population.

Europe

  • Spring King Adalbert II returns to the mainland of Italy and occupies the environs of Spoleto. Emperor Otto I (the Great) leaves Rome with his army and lays siege to the fortress city of Spoleto.
  • Otto I proceeds on campaign in Italy, remaining in the environs of Lucca. In the fall he leaves plague-wracked Tuscany and is forced to retreat to Liguria. His rearguard is attacked by Adalbert II.
Adalbert of Italy Margrave of Ivrea

Adalbert was the King of Italy from 950 until 961, ruling jointly with his father, Berengar II. After his deposition, he continued to claim the Italian kingdom until his defeat in battle in 965. Since he was the second Adalbert in his family, the Anscarids, he is sometimes numbered Adalbert II. It is occasionally, especially in older works, shortened to Albert, which has the same roots.

Kingdom of Italy (Holy Roman Empire) Medieval kingdom on the Apennine Peninsula between 962 and 1024

The Kingdom of Italy was one of the constituent kingdoms of the Holy Roman Empire, along with the kingdoms of Germany, Bohemia, and Burgundy. It comprised northern and central Italy, but excluded the Republic of Venice and the Papal States. Its original capital was Pavia until the 11th century.

Duchy of Spoleto

The Duchy of Spoleto was a Lombard territory founded about 570 in central Italy by the Lombard dux Faroald. Its capital was the city of Spoleto.

By topic

Religion

  • February Pope John XII returns with his supporters to Rome. He convenes a synod that deposes Antipope Leo VIII who finds refuge at the court of Otto I. John dispatches a delegation under Otgar, bishop of Speyer, to negotiate an agreement.
  • May 14 John XII dies after a 9-year reign. The Romans elect Benedict V who is acclaimed by the city militia. He begins his pontificate as the 131st pope of the Catholic Church.
  • June 23 Benedict V is deposed and ecclesiastically degraded after Otto I besieges Rome. He starves the Romans into submission and restores Leo VIII to the papal throne.
Pope Leo VIII pope

Pope Leo VIII was Pope from 23 June 964 to his death in 965; before that, he was an antipope from 963 to 964, in opposition to Pope John XII and Pope Benedict V. An appointee of the Holy Roman Emperor, Otto I, his pontificate occurred during the period known as the Saeculum obscurum.

Bishop of Speyer Wikimedia list article

The Bishop of Speyer is the Ordinary of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Speyer, which is a suffragan see of the Archdiocese of Bamberg. The diocese covers an area of 5,893 km². The current bishop is Karl-Heinz Wiesemann.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Speyer diocese of the Catholic Church

The Diocese of Speyer is a diocese of the Catholic Church in Germany. The diocese is located in the South of the Rhineland-Palatinate and comprises also the Saarpfalz district in the east of the Saarland. The bishop's see is in the Palatinate city of Speyer.

Science

'Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi (Persian: عبدالرحمن صوفی‎ was a Persian astronomer also known as 'Abd ar-Rahman as-Sufi, 'Abd al-Rahman Abu al-Husayn, 'Abdul Rahman Sufi, or 'Abdurrahman Sufi and, historically, in the West as Azophi and Azophi Arabus. The lunar crater Azophi and the minor planet 12621 Alsufi are named after him. Al-Sufi published his famous Book of Fixed Stars in 964, describing much of his work, both in textual descriptions and pictures. Al-Biruni reports that his work on the ecliptic was carried out in Shiraz. He lived at the Buyid court in Isfahan.

Astronomer scientist who studies celestial bodies

An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth. They observe astronomical objects such as stars, planets, moons, comets, and galaxies – in either observational or theoretical astronomy. Examples of topics or fields astronomers study include planetary science, solar astronomy, the origin or evolution of stars, or the formation of galaxies. Related but distinct subjects like physical cosmology, which studies the Universe as a whole.

<i>Book of Fixed Stars</i> book by Abd-al-Rahman Al Sufi

The Book of Fixed Stars is an astronomical text written by Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi (Azophi) around 964. The book was written in Arabic, although the author himself was Persian. It was an attempt to create a synthesis of the comprehensive star catalogue in Ptolemy’s Almagest with the indigenous Arabic astronomical traditions on the constellations.

Births

Deaths

Related Research Articles

Year 1000 (M) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. In the proleptic Gregorian calendar, it was a non-leap century year starting on Wednesday. It was also the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the 1st millennium of the Dionysian era ending on December 31st, but the first year of the 1000s decade.

The 910s decade ran from January 1, 910, to December 31, 919.

The 950s decade ran from January 1, 950, to December 31, 959.

The 960s decade ran from January 1, 960, to December 31, 969.

827 Year

Year 827 (DCCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

967 Year

Year 967 (CMLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

966 Year

Year 966 (CMLXVI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar.

946 Year

Year 946 (CMXLVI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

961 Year

Year 961 (CMLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

962 Year

Year 962 (CMLXII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

963 Year

Year 963 (CMLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

968 Year

Year 968 (CMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

1022 Year

Year 1022 (MXXII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar.

965 Year

Year 965 (CMLXV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

985 Year

Year 985 (CMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

960 Year

Year 960 (CMLX) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

Year 915 (CMXV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

Pope John XIII pope

Pope John XIII was Pope from 1 October 965 to his death in 972. His pontificate was caught up in the continuing conflict between the Emperor, Otto I, and the Roman nobility.

Siege of Rometta

The Siege of Rometta was a siege of the Byzantine city of Rometta in northeastern Sicily by the Kalbids, on behalf of the Fatimid Dynasty in order to complete the Muslim conquest of Sicily.

References

  1. W. Treadgold. A History of the Byzantine State and Society, p. 948.