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|964 by topic|
|Ab urbe condita||1717|
|Balinese saka calendar||885–886|
|Chinese calendar|| 癸亥年 (Water Pig)|
3660 or 3600
— to —
甲子年 (Wood Rat)
3661 or 3601
|- Vikram Samvat||1020–1021|
|- Shaka Samvat||885–886|
|- Kali Yuga||4064–4065|
|Japanese calendar|| Ōwa 4 / Kōhō 1|
|Minguo calendar||948 before ROC |
|Seleucid era||1275/1276 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||1506–1507|
1090 or 709 or −63
— to —
1091 or 710 or −62
Year 964 ( CMLXIV ) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, employ seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value, as follows:
A leap year starting on Friday is any year with 366 days that begins on Friday 1 January and ends on Saturday 31 December. Its dominical letters hence are CB, such as the years 1808, 1836, 1864, 1892, 1904, 1932, 1960, 1988, 2016, 2044, 2072, and 2112 in the Gregorian calendar or, likewise, 2000 and 2028 in the obsolete Julian calendar. Any leap year that starts on Tuesday, Friday or Saturday has only one Friday the 13th; The only Friday the 13th in this leap year occurs in May. Common years starting on Saturday share this characteristic.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC, was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on 1 January 45 BC, by edict. It was the predominant calendar in the Roman world, most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was refined and gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar, promulgated in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII.
Pope John XII was head of the Catholic Church from 16 December 955 to his death in 964. He was related to the Counts of Tusculum and a member of the powerful Roman family of Theophylact which had dominated papal politics for over half a century. His pontificate became infamous for the alleged depravity and worldliness with which he conducted it.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide as of 2016. As the world's "oldest continuously functioning international institution", it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation. The church is headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the Pope. Its central administration, the Holy See, is in the Vatican City, an enclave within the city of Rome in Italy.
Nikephoros II Phokas was Byzantine Emperor from 963 to 969. His brilliant military exploits contributed to the resurgence of the Byzantine Empire during the 10th century. His reign, however, included controversy. In the west, he inflamed conflict with the Bulgarians and saw Sicily completely turn over to the Muslims, while he failed to make any serious gains in Italy following the incursions of Otto I. Meanwhile, in the east, he completed the conquest of Cilicia and even retook the island of Cyprus, thus opening the path for subsequent Byzantine incursions reaching as far as the Jazira and the Levant. His administrative policy was less successful, as in order to finance these wars he increased taxes both on the people and on the church, while maintaining unpopular theological positions and alienating many of his most powerful allies. These included his nephew John Tzimiskes, who would take the throne after killing Nikephoros in his sleep.
Anatolia, also known as Asia Minor, Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, the Armenian Highlands to the east, and the Aegean Sea to the west. The Sea of Marmara forms a connection between the Black and Aegean Seas through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits and separates Anatolia from Thrace on the European mainland.
Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located mainly in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest; Georgia to its northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south. Ankara is its capital but Istanbul is the country's largest city. Approximately 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority; the size of the Kurdish population is a subject of dispute with estimates placing the figure at anywhere from 12 to 25 per cent of the population.
Adalbert was the King of Italy from 950 until 961, ruling jointly with his father, Berengar II. After his deposition, he continued to claim the Italian kingdom until his defeat in battle in 965. Since he was the second Adalbert in his family, the Anscarids, he is sometimes numbered Adalbert II. It is occasionally, especially in older works, shortened to Albert, which has the same roots.
The Kingdom of Italy was one of the constituent kingdoms of the Holy Roman Empire, along with the kingdoms of Germany, Bohemia, and Burgundy. It comprised northern and central Italy, but excluded the Republic of Venice and the Papal States. Its original capital was Pavia until the 11th century.
The Duchy of Spoleto was a Lombard territory founded about 570 in central Italy by the Lombard dux Faroald. Its capital was the city of Spoleto.
Pope Leo VIII was Pope from 23 June 964 to his death in 965; before that, he was an antipope from 963 to 964, in opposition to Pope John XII and Pope Benedict V. An appointee of the Holy Roman Emperor, Otto I, his pontificate occurred during the period known as the Saeculum obscurum.
The Bishop of Speyer is the Ordinary of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Speyer, which is a suffragan see of the Archdiocese of Bamberg. The diocese covers an area of 5,893 km². The current bishop is Karl-Heinz Wiesemann.
The Diocese of Speyer is a diocese of the Catholic Church in Germany. The diocese is located in the South of the Rhineland-Palatinate and comprises also the Saarpfalz district in the east of the Saarland. The bishop's see is in the Palatinate city of Speyer.
'Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi (Persian: عبدالرحمن صوفی was a Persian astronomer also known as 'Abd ar-Rahman as-Sufi, 'Abd al-Rahman Abu al-Husayn, 'Abdul Rahman Sufi, or 'Abdurrahman Sufi and, historically, in the West as Azophi and Azophi Arabus. The lunar crater Azophi and the minor planet 12621 Alsufi are named after him. Al-Sufi published his famous Book of Fixed Stars in 964, describing much of his work, both in textual descriptions and pictures. Al-Biruni reports that his work on the ecliptic was carried out in Shiraz. He lived at the Buyid court in Isfahan.
An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth. They observe astronomical objects such as stars, planets, moons, comets, and galaxies – in either observational or theoretical astronomy. Examples of topics or fields astronomers study include planetary science, solar astronomy, the origin or evolution of stars, or the formation of galaxies. Related but distinct subjects like physical cosmology, which studies the Universe as a whole.
The Book of Fixed Stars is an astronomical text written by Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi (Azophi) around 964. The book was written in Arabic, although the author himself was Persian. It was an attempt to create a synthesis of the comprehensive star catalogue in Ptolemy’s Almagest with the indigenous Arabic astronomical traditions on the constellations.
Year 1000 (M) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. In the proleptic Gregorian calendar, it was a non-leap century year starting on Wednesday. It was also the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the 1st millennium of the Dionysian era ending on December 31st, but the first year of the 1000s decade.
The 910s decade ran from January 1, 910, to December 31, 919.
The 950s decade ran from January 1, 950, to December 31, 959.
The 960s decade ran from January 1, 960, to December 31, 969.
Year 827 (DCCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.
Year 967 (CMLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.
Year 966 (CMLXVI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar.
Year 946 (CMXLVI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.
Year 961 (CMLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.
Year 962 (CMLXII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.
Year 963 (CMLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.
Year 968 (CMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1022 (MXXII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar.
Year 965 (CMLXV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.
Year 985 (CMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.
Year 960 (CMLX) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.
Year 915 (CMXV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.
Pope John XIII was Pope from 1 October 965 to his death in 972. His pontificate was caught up in the continuing conflict between the Emperor, Otto I, and the Roman nobility.
The Siege of Rometta was a siege of the Byzantine city of Rometta in northeastern Sicily by the Kalbids, on behalf of the Fatimid Dynasty in order to complete the Muslim conquest of Sicily.