969

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Millennium: 1st millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
969 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 969
CMLXIX
Ab urbe condita 1722
Armenian calendar 418
ԹՎ ՆԺԸ
Assyrian calendar 5719
Balinese saka calendar 890–891
Bengali calendar 376
Berber calendar 1919
Buddhist calendar 1513
Burmese calendar 331
Byzantine calendar 6477–6478
Chinese calendar 戊辰(Earth  Dragon)
3665 or 3605
     to 
己巳年 (Earth  Snake)
3666 or 3606
Coptic calendar 685–686
Discordian calendar 2135
Ethiopian calendar 961–962
Hebrew calendar 4729–4730
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1025–1026
 - Shaka Samvat 890–891
 - Kali Yuga 4069–4070
Holocene calendar 10969
Iranian calendar 347–348
Islamic calendar 358–359
Japanese calendar Anna 2
(安和2年)
Javanese calendar 870–871
Julian calendar 969
CMLXIX
Korean calendar 3302
Minguo calendar 943 before ROC
民前943年
Nanakshahi calendar −499
Seleucid era 1280/1281 AG
Thai solar calendar 1511–1512
Tibetan calendar 阳土龙年
(male Earth-Dragon)
1095 or 714 or −58
     to 
阴土蛇年
(female Earth-Snake)
1096 or 715 or −57
The coronation of John I Tzimiskes (969). Coronation of John Tzimiskes.jpg
The coronation of John I Tzimiskes (969).

Year 969 ( CMLXIX ) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, employ seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value, as follows:

A common year starting on Friday is any non-leap year that begins on Friday, 1 January, and ends on Friday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is C. The most recent year of such kind was 2010 and the next one will be 2021 in the Gregorian calendar, or, likewise, 2011 and 2022 in the obsolete Julian calendar. The century year, 2100, will also be a common year starting on Friday in the Gregorian calendar. See below for more. Any common year that starts on Wednesday, Friday or Saturday has only one Friday the 13th; The only Friday the 13th in this common year occurs in August. Leap years starting on Thursday share this characteristic, but also have another one in February.

The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC, was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on 1 January 45 BC, by edict. It was the predominant calendar in the Roman world, most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was refined and gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar, promulgated in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII.

Contents

Events

By place

Byzantine Empire

October 28 is the 301st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 64 days remaining until the end of the year.

Siege of Antioch (968–969)

The Siege of Antioch (968–969) was a successful military offensive undertaken by leading commanders of the Byzantine Empire in order to reconquer the strategically important city of Antioch from the Hamdanid Dynasty.

Michael Bourtzes was a leading Byzantine general of the latter 10th century. He became notable for his capture of Antioch from the Arabs in 969, but fell into disgrace by the Emperor Nikephoros II Phokas. Resentful at the slight, Bourtzes joined forces with the conspirators who assassinated Phokas a few weeks later. Bourtzes re-appears in a prominent role in the civil war between Emperor Basil II and the rebel Bardas Skleros, switching his allegiance from the emperor to the rebel and back again. Nevertheless, he was re-appointed as doux of Antioch by Basil, a post he held until 995, when he was relieved because of his failures in the war against the Fatimids.

Europe

  • August 8Lothair II, King of Middle Francia (Lotharingia), dies at Piacenza on his way home from meeting Pope Adrian II at Rome to get assent for a divorce. Lotharingia is subsequently divided between Lothair's uncles, Charles the Bald of France and Louis the German.
  • Peter I, emperor ( tsar ) of the Bulgarian Empire, suffers a stroke and abdicates the throne in favour of his eldest son Boris II. He arrives (after being an honorary hostage at Constantinople) in Preslav and is proclaimed as the new ruler. Boris regains lost territory from the Kievan Rus' and recaptures Pereyaslavets, an important trade city at the mouth of the Danube. [2]
  • Summer Grand Prince Sviatoslav I invades Bulgaria at the head of an Kievan army, which includes Pecheneg and Hungarian auxiliary forces. He defeats the Bulgarians in a major battle and retakes Pereyaslavets. Boris II capitulates and impales 300 Bulgarian boyars for disloyalty. Sviatoslav assigns garrisons to the conquered fortresses in Northern Bulgaria. [3]
  • Pandulf I (Ironhead), duke of Benevento and Capua, leads the siege of Bovino. He is captured by the Byzantines and taken in chains to Bari, and jailed in Constantinople. Neapolitan forces under Marinus II, duke of Naples, invade Benevento-Capua, capture the city of Avellino and then lay siege to Capua. [4]
  • Emperor Otto I (the Great) assembles a large expeditionary force at Pavia, joined by Spoletan troops. He counter-attacks, relieves the siege of Capua and devastates the area around Naples. Otto enters Benevento, where he is received as 'liberator' by Landulf IV and in the cities of Apulia (Southern Italy).

August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 145 days remaining until the end of the year.

Lothair II King of Lotharingia

Lothair II was the king of Lotharingia from 855 until his death. He was the second son of Emperor Lothair I and Ermengarde of Tours. He was married to Teutberga, daughter of Boso the Elder.

Lotharingia former medieval kingdom (855-959)

Lotharingia was a medieval successor kingdom of the Carolingian Empire, comprising the present-day Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany), Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany), Saarland (Germany), and Lorraine (France). It was named after King Lothair II who received this territory after the kingdom of Middle Francia of his father Lothair I was divided among his sons in 855.

Africa

Al-Muizz li-Din Allah Fatimid Caliph

Abu Tamim Maad al-Muizz li-Dinillah, also spelled as al-Moezz, was the fourth Fatimid Caliph and 14th Ismaili imam, and reigned from 953 to 975. It was during his caliphate that the center of power of the Arab Fatimid dynasty was moved from afriqiya to then Egypt. Fatimids founded the city of al-Qāhirah "the Victorious" in 969 as the new capital of the Fāṭimid caliphate in Egypt.

Jawhar ِl Siqili or Jawhar the Sicilian was a Fatimid general. Under the command of Caliph Al-Mu'izz, he led the conquest of North Africa and then of Egypt, founded the city of Cairo and the great al-Azhar Mosque. A Greek slave by origin, he was freed by Al-Mu'izz.

Egypt in the Middle Ages Wikimedia list article

Following the Islamic conquest in 639 AD, Lower Egypt was ruled at first by governors acting in the name of the Rashidun Caliphs and then the Ummayad Caliphs in Damascus, but in 747 the Ummayads were overthrown. Throughout the Islamic rule, Askar was named the capital and housed the ruling administration. The conquest led to two separate provinces all under one ruler: Upper and Lower Egypt. These two very distinct regions would be heavily governed by the military and followed the demands handed down by the governor of Egypt and imposed by the heads of their communities.

Asia

September 27 is the 270th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 95 days remaining until the end of the year.

Emperor Reizei was the 63rd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.

Mental disorder distressing thought or behavior pattern

A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning. Such features may be persistent, relapsing and remitting, or occur as a single episode. Many disorders have been described, with signs and symptoms that vary widely between specific disorders. Such disorders may be diagnosed by a mental health professional.

By topic

Religion

Pope John XIII pope

Pope John XIII was Pope from 1 October 965 to his death in 972. His pontificate was caught up in the continuing conflict between the Emperor, Otto I, and the Roman nobility.

Synod council of a church

A synod is a council of a church, usually convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application. The word synod comes from the Greek σύνοδος (sýnodos) meaning "assembly" or "meeting", and it is synonymous with the Latin word concilium meaning "council". Originally, synods were meetings of bishops, and the word is still used in that sense in Catholicism, Oriental Orthodoxy and Eastern Orthodoxy. In modern usage, the word often refers to the governing body of a particular church, whether its members are meeting or not. It is also sometimes used to refer to a church that is governed by a synod.

Rome Capital city and comune in Italy

Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome also serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi), it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber. The Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been often defined as capital of two states.

Births

Deaths

Related Research Articles

The 950s decade ran from January 1, 950, to December 31, 959.

The 960s decade ran from January 1, 960, to December 31, 969.

The 970s decade ran from January 1, 970, to December 31, 979.

811 Year

Year 811 (DCCCXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

967 Year

Year 967 (CMLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

963 Year

Year 963 (CMLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

968 Year

Year 968 (CMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

1022 Year

Year 1022 (MXXII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar.

Constantine VIII Byzantine emperor

Constantine VIII was the Byzantine Emperor from 15 December 1025 until his death in 1028. He was the son of Emperor Romanos II and Empress Theophano. He was nominal co-emperor for 63 years from 962, successively with his father, his stepfather Nikephoros II Phokas, his uncle John I Tzimiskes, and his elder brother Basil II.

958 Year

Year 958 (CMLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

977 Year

Year 977 (CMLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar.

971 Year

Year 971 (CMLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

Nikephoros II Phokas Byzantine emperor

Nikephoros II Phokas was Byzantine Emperor from 963 to 969. His brilliant military exploits contributed to the resurgence of the Byzantine Empire during the 10th century. His reign, however, included controversy. In the west, he inflamed conflict with the Bulgarians and saw Sicily completely turn over to the Muslims, while he failed to make any serious gains in Italy following the incursions of Otto I. Meanwhile, in the east, he completed the conquest of Cilicia and even retook the island of Cyprus, thus opening the path for subsequent Byzantine incursions reaching as far as the Jazira and the Levant. His administrative policy was less successful, as in order to finance these wars he increased taxes both on the people and on the church, while maintaining unpopular theological positions and alienating many of his most powerful allies. These included his nephew John Tzimiskes, who would take the throne after killing Nikephoros in his sleep.

This is a list of people, places, things, and concepts related to or originating from the Byzantine Empire. Feel free to add more, and create missing pages. You can track changes to the articles included in this list from here.

Boris II of Bulgaria Tsar of the Bulgarians

Boris II was emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria from 969 to 977.

Pandulf Ironhead Italian noble

Pandulf I Ironhead was the Prince of Benevento and Capua from 943 until his death. He was made Duke of Spoleto and Camerino in 967 and succeeded as Prince of Salerno in 977 or 978. He was an important nobleman in the fight with the Byzantines and Saracens for control of the Mezzogiorno in the centuries after the collapse of Lombard and Carolingian authority on the Italian Peninsula. He established himself over almost the whole of the southern half of Italia before his death in March 981.

Byzantine–Bulgarian wars series of conflicts fought between the Byzantines and Bulgarians

The Byzantine–Bulgarian wars were a series of conflicts fought between the Byzantines and Bulgarians which began when the Bulgars first settled in the Balkan peninsula in the 5th century, and intensified with the expansion of the Bulgarian Empire to the southwest after 680 AD. The Byzantines and Bulgarians continued to clash over the next century with variable success, until the Bulgarians, led by Krum, inflicted a series of crushing defeats on the Byzantines. After Krum died in 814, his son Omurtag negotiated a thirty-year peace treaty. In 893, during the next major war, Simeon I, the Bulgarian emperor, defeated the Byzantines while attempting to form a large Eastern European Empire, but his efforts failed.

The Principality of Capua was a Lombard state centred on Capua in Southern Italy, usually de facto independent, but under the varying suzerainty of Western and Eastern Roman Empires. It was originally a gastaldate, then a county, within the principality of Salerno.

The 1020s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1020, and ended on December 31, 1029.

Sviatoslavs invasion of Bulgaria conflict in the eastern Balkans, involving the Kievan Rus, Bulgaria, and the Byzantine Empire

Sviatoslav's invasion of Bulgaria refers to a conflict beginning in 967/968 and ending in 971, carried out in the eastern Balkans, and involving the Kievan Rus', Bulgaria, and the Byzantine Empire. The Byzantines encouraged the Rus' ruler Sviatoslav to attack Bulgaria, leading to the defeat of the Bulgarian forces and the occupation of the northern and north-eastern part of the country by the Rus' for the following two years. The allies then turned against each other, and the ensuing military confrontation ended with a Byzantine victory. The Rus' withdrew and eastern Bulgaria was incorporated into the Byzantine Empire.

References

  1. Reuter, Timothy (1999). The New Cambrigde Medieval History, Volume III, p. 594. ISBN   978-0-521-36447-8.
  2. John V.A. Fine, Jr. (1991). The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century, p. 184. ISBN   978-0472-08149-3.
  3. Reuter, Timothy (1999). The New Cambrigde Medieval History, Volume III, p. 584. ISBN   978-0-521-36447-8.
  4. Gay, Jules (1904). L'Italie méridionale et l'empire Byzantin: Livre II. New York: Burt Franklin.
  5. The Fatimid Revolution (861-973) and its aftermath in North Africa, Michael Brett, The Cambrigde History of Africa, Vol. 2 ed. J. D. Fage, Roland Anthony Oliver, (Cambrigde University Press, 2002). p. 622.