969

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Millennium: 1st millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
969 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 969
CMLXIX
Ab urbe condita 1722
Armenian calendar 418
ԹՎ ՆԺԸ
Assyrian calendar 5719
Balinese saka calendar 890–891
Bengali calendar 376
Berber calendar 1919
Buddhist calendar 1513
Burmese calendar 331
Byzantine calendar 6477–6478
Chinese calendar 戊辰(Earth  Dragon)
3665 or 3605
     to 
己巳年 (Earth  Snake)
3666 or 3606
Coptic calendar 685–686
Discordian calendar 2135
Ethiopian calendar 961–962
Hebrew calendar 4729–4730
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1025–1026
 - Shaka Samvat 890–891
 - Kali Yuga 4069–4070
Holocene calendar 10969
Iranian calendar 347–348
Islamic calendar 358–359
Japanese calendar Anna 2
(安和2年)
Javanese calendar 870–871
Julian calendar 969
CMLXIX
Korean calendar 3302
Minguo calendar 943 before ROC
民前943年
Nanakshahi calendar −499
Seleucid era 1280/1281 AG
Thai solar calendar 1511–1512
Tibetan calendar 阳土龙年
(male Earth-Dragon)
1095 or 714 or −58
     to 
阴土蛇年
(female Earth-Snake)
1096 or 715 or −57
The coronation of John I Tzimiskes (969). Coronation of John Tzimiskes.jpg
The coronation of John I Tzimiskes (969).

Year 969 ( CMLXIX ) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar, the 969th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 969th year of the 1st millennium, the 69th year of the 10th century, and the 10th and last year of the 960s decade.

Contents

Events

By place

Byzantine Empire

Europe

  • Peter I, emperor ( tsar ) of the Bulgarian Empire, suffers a stroke and abdicates the throne in favour of his eldest son Boris II. He arrives (after being an honorary hostage at Constantinople) in Preslav and is proclaimed as the new ruler. Boris regains lost territory from the Kievan Rus' and recaptures Pereyaslavets, an important trade city at the mouth of the Danube. [2]
  • Summer Grand Prince Sviatoslav I invades Bulgaria at the head of an Kievan army, which includes Pecheneg and Hungarian auxiliary forces. He defeats the Bulgarians in a major battle and retakes Pereyaslavets. Boris II capitulates and impales 300 Bulgarian boyars for disloyalty. Sviatoslav assigns garrisons to the conquered fortresses in Northern Bulgaria. [3]
  • Pandulf I (Ironhead), duke of Benevento and Capua, leads the siege of Bovino. He is captured by the Byzantines and taken in chains to Bari, and jailed in Constantinople. Neapolitan forces under Marinus II, duke of Naples, invade Benevento-Capua, capture the city of Avellino and then lay siege to Capua. [4]
  • Emperor Otto I (the Great) assembles a large expeditionary force at Pavia, joined by Spoletan troops. He counter-attacks, relieves the siege of Capua and devastates the area around Naples. Otto enters Benevento, where he is received as 'liberator' by Landulf IV and in the cities of Apulia (Southern Italy).

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Related Research Articles

The 940s decade ran from January 1, 940, to December 31, 949.

The 960s decade ran from January 1, 960, to December 31, 969.

The 970s decade ran from January 1, 970, to December 31, 979.

967 Calendar year

Year 967 (CMLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

963 Calendar year

Year 963 (CMLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

968 Calendar year

Year 968 (CMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

998 Calendar year

Year 998 (CMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.

Sviatoslav I of Kiev Grand Prince of Kiev

Sviatoslav I Igorevich, also spelled Svyatoslav, was a Grand Prince of Kiev famous for his persistent campaigns in the east and south, which precipitated the collapse of two great powers of Eastern Europe, Khazaria and the First Bulgarian Empire. He also conquered numerous East Slavic tribes, defeated the Alans and attacked the Volga Bulgars, and at times was allied with the Pechenegs and Magyars.

Constantine VIII 10th and 11th-century Byzantine emperor

Constantine VIII Porphyrogenitus was de jure Byzantine Emperor from 962 until his death. He was the younger son of Emperor Romanos II and Empress Theophano. He was nominal co-emperor for 63 years, successively with his father; stepfather, Nikephoros II Phokas; uncle, John I Tzimiskes; and brother, Basil II.

958 Calendar year

Year 958 (CMLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

945 Calendar year

Year 945 (CMXLV) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

Nikephoros II Phokas Byzantine emperor from 963 to 969

Nikephoros II Phokas was Byzantine Emperor from 963 to 969. His brilliant military exploits contributed to the resurgence of the Byzantine Empire during the 10th century. His reign, however, included controversy. In the west, he inflamed conflict with the Bulgarians and saw Sicily completely turn over to the Muslims, while he failed to make any serious gains in Italy following the incursions of Otto I. Meanwhile, in the east, he completed the conquest of Cilicia and even retook the island of Cyprus, thus opening the path for subsequent Byzantine incursions reaching as far as the Jazira and the Levant. His administrative policy was less successful, as in order to finance these wars he increased taxes both on the people and on the church, while maintaining unpopular theological positions and alienating many of his most powerful allies. These included his nephew John Tzimiskes, who would take the throne after killing Nikephoros in his sleep.

This is an alphabetical index of people, places, things, and concepts related to or originating from the Byzantine Empire. Feel free to add more, and create missing pages. You can track changes to the articles included in this list from here.

Boris II of Bulgaria Emperor of Bulgaria

Boris II was emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria from 969 to 977.

Pandulf Ironhead Italian noble

Pandulf I Ironhead was the Prince of Benevento and Capua from 943 until his death. He was made Duke of Spoleto and Camerino in 967 and succeeded as Prince of Salerno in 977 or 978. He was an important nobleman in the fight with the Byzantines and Saracens for control of the Mezzogiorno in the centuries after the collapse of Lombard and Carolingian authority on the Italian Peninsula. He established himself over almost the whole of the southern half of Italia before his death in March 981.

The Principality of Capua was a Lombard state centred on Capua in Southern Italy, usually de facto independent, but under the varying suzerainty of Western and Eastern Roman Empires. It was originally a gastaldate, then a county, within the principality of Salerno.

From ca. 970 until 1018, a series of conflicts between the Bulgarian Empire and the Byzantine Empire led to the gradual reconquest of Bulgaria by the Byzantines, who thus re-established their control over the entire Balkan peninsula for the first time since the 7th-century Slavic invasions. The struggle began with the incorporation of eastern Bulgaria after the Russo–Byzantine War (970–971). Bulgarian resistance was led by the Cometopuli brothers, who based in the unconquered western regions of the Bulgarian Empire led it until its fall under Byzantine rule in 1018.

Sviatoslavs invasion of Bulgaria conflict in the eastern Balkans, involving the Kievan Rus, Bulgaria, and the Byzantine Empire

Sviatoslav's invasion of Bulgaria refers to a conflict beginning in 967/968 and ending in 971, carried out in the eastern Balkans, and involving the Kievan Rus', Bulgaria, and the Byzantine Empire. The Byzantines encouraged the Rus' ruler Sviatoslav to attack Bulgaria, leading to the defeat of the Bulgarian forces and the occupation of the northern and north-eastern part of the country by the Rus' for the following two years. The allies then turned against each other, and the ensuing military confrontation ended with a Byzantine victory. The Rus' withdrew and eastern Bulgaria was incorporated into the Byzantine Empire.

Landulf I (archbishop of Benevento) Italian archbishop

Landulf I was the bishop of Benevento from 956 and the first archbishop of Benevento from 969.

References

  1. Reuter, Timothy (1999). The New Cambridge Medieval History, Volume III, p. 594. ISBN   978-0-521-36447-8.
  2. Fine, John V. A., Jr. (1991) [1983]. The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press. p. 184. ISBN   0-472-08149-7..
  3. Reuter, Timothy (1999). The New Cambridge Medieval History, Volume III, p. 584. ISBN   978-0-521-36447-8.
  4. Gay, Jules (1904). L'Italie méridionale et l'empire Byzantin: Livre II. New York: Burt Franklin.
  5. The Fatimid Revolution (861-973) and its aftermath in North Africa, Michael Brett, The Cambridge History of Africa, Vol. 2 ed. J. D. Fage, Roland Anthony Oliver, (Cambridge University Press, 2002). p. 622.