List of Roman laws

Last updated

This is a partial list of Roman laws. A Roman law (Latin: lex) is usually named for the sponsoring legislator and designated by the adjectival form of his gens name ( nomen gentilicum ), in the feminine form because the noun lex (plural leges) is of feminine grammatical gender. When a law is the initiative of the two consuls, it is given the name of both, with the nomen of the senior consul first. Sometimes a law is further specified by a short phrase describing the content of the law, to distinguish that law from others sponsored by members of the same gens.

Contents

Roman laws

NameDatePassed byMagistracy heldDescription
Lex Acilia Calpurnia 67 BC C. Calpurnius Piso & M. Acilius Glabrio ConsulsPermanent exclusion from office in cases of electoral corruption.
Lex Acilia de intercalando 191 BC M. Acilius Glabrio ConsulAdjustment of the calendar.
Lex Acilia repetundarum 122 BC [1] M. Acilius Glabrio (& C. Sempronius Gracchus)Tribunes of the plebsRepetundae procedures for jurors in courts overseeing senatorial class to prevent corruption abroad.
Lex Aebutia de formulis 120–63 BC (circa)Aebutius [2] Tribune of the plebs (?)Authorized praetor's discretion to be introduced into the court of the praetor urbanus, praetor able to remodel private law of Rome.
Lex Aebutia de magistratibus extraordinariis 120–63 BC (circa)Aebutius [2] Tribune of the plebs?Proposer of extraordinary magistracy cannot hold it.
Lex Aelia et Fufia 150 BC (circa)?Aelius & Fufius [3] Tribunes of the plebs?Two laws probably regulating auspices.
Lex Aelia Sentia 4 AD Sex. Aelius Catus & C. Sentius Saturninus ConsulsManumissions of slaves.
Lex Aemilia de censoribus434 BC Mam. Aemilius Mamercinus DictatorReduced the terms of censors to a year and a half.
Lex Ampia63 BCT. Ampius Balbus [4] Tribune of the plebsAllowed Pompey to wear the crown of bay at the Ludi Circenses.
Lex Antonia de Termessibus 68 BC C. Antonius Hybrida [5] Tribune of the plebsAlliance with Termessus.
Lex Antonia 44 BC Mark Antony ConsulMeasures of Mark Antony against dictatorship etc.
Lex Appuleia agraria 103–100 BC Saturninus Tribune of the plebsMade provision for public lands taken in Cisalpine Gaul from the Cimbri to be allocated to poor citizens.
Lex Appuleia de maiestate 103–100 BC Saturninus Tribune of the plebsEstablished an equestrian court to try maiestas.
Lex Aquilia de damno 286 BC (possibly)AquiliusTribune of the plebsProvided compensation to the owners of property injured by someone's fault.
Lex Aternia Tarpeia 454 BC Aul. Aternius Varus &S. Tarpeius Montanus Capitolinus ConsulsAllowed magistrates to fine citizens, but set maximum fines.
Lex Atilia Marcia 311 BCL. Atilius & C. Marcius Rutilus CensorinusTribunes of the plebsEmpowered the people to elect sixteen Military Tribunes for each of four legions.
Lex Atinia 149 BC [6] AtiniusTribune of the plebs Tribunes of the plebs automatically promoted to the senate.
Lex Atinia de usucapione 149 BCAtiniusTribune of the plebsDealing with ownership.
Lex Aufeia 123 BCAufeiusTribune of the plebsSettlement of Asia.
Lex Aufidia de ambitu 61 BC M. Aufidius Lurco Tribune of the plebsIf a candidate promised money to a tribe and did not pay it, he should be unpunished; but if he did pay the money, he should further pay to each tribe (annually?) 3000 sesterces as long as he lived.
Lex Aurelia de tribunicia potestate 75 BC C. Aurelius Cotta ConsulFormer tribunes of the plebs can hold further magistracies (this right had been removed by Sulla).
Lex Aurelia iudiciaria 70 BC L. Aurelius Cotta PraetorJuries should be chosen from senators, equites and tribuni aerarii.
Lex Baebia de Praetoribus 181 BC M. Baebius Tamphilus ConsulSet number of praetors to alternate, but was never observed.
Lex Cornelia et Baebia de Ambitu 181 BC P. Cornelius Cethegus & M. Baebius Tamphilus ConsulsAgainst electoral bribery.
Lex Caecilia de censoria 52 BC Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio ConsulRepealed the lex Clodia de Censoribus passed by the tribune of the plebs Clodius in 58 BC, which had regulated the Censors.
Lex Caecilia de vectigalibus 60 BC Q. Caecilius Metellus Nepos Iunior PraetorReleased lands and harbors in Italy from the payment of taxes.
Lex Caecilia Didia 98 BC Q. Caecilius Metellus Nepos & T. Didius ConsulsRequired laws to proposed at least three market days before any vote. Also forbade Omnibus bills, which are bills with a large amount of unrelated material.
Lex Calpurnia 149 BC L. Calpurnius Piso Tribune of the plebsEstablished a permanent extortion court.
Lex Canuleia 445 BC C. Canuleius Tribune of the plebsAllowed patricians and plebeians to intermarry.
Lex Cassia tabellaria 137 BC L. Cassius Longinus Ravilla Tribune of the plebsIntroduced secret votes in court jury decisions.
Lex Cassia de senatu 104 BCL. Cassius LonginusTribune of the plebsRequired any senator to be expelled from the senate if they had been convicted of a crime, or if their power ( imperium ) had been revoked while serving as a magistrate.
Lex Cassia 44 BCL. Cassius LonginusTribune of the plebsAllowed Julius Caesar to add new individuals to the patrician (aristocratic) class.
Lex Cassia Terentia frumentaria 73 BC C. Cassius Longinus & M. Terentius Varro Lucullus ConsulsRequired the distribution of corn among the poor citizens.
Lex Cincia de donis et muneribus 204 BCM. Cincius AlimentusTribune of the plebs Tort reform concerning the payment of lawyers.
Lex citationis 426 AD Valentinian III EmperorDuring court proceedings, only five Roman lawyers could be cited.
Lex Claudia 218 BCQ. ClaudiusTribune of the plebsProhibited senators from participating in overseas trade, obsolete by the time of Cicero.
Lex Clodia 58 BC P. Clodius Pulcher Tribune of the plebsSeven laws: (1) Lex Clodia de Auspiciis: repealed the leges Aeliae et Fufiae. (2) Lex Clodia de Censoribus: prescribed certain rules for the Roman Censors in exercising their functions as inspectors of public morals. (3) Lex Clodia de Civibus Romanis Interemptis: threatened punishment for anyone who offered fire and water to those who had executed Roman citizens without a trial. (4) Lex Clodia Frumentaria: required the distribution of grain to Rome's poor citizens for free. (5) Lex Clodia de Sodalitatibus: declared that certain clubs of a "semi-political nature" (i.e. armed gangs) were lawful. (6) Lex Clodia de Libertinorum Suffragiis: attempted to extend freedmen's (i.e. ex-slaves') voting rights. (7) Lex Clodia de Rege Ptolemaeo et de exsulibus Byzantinis: pertained to several of Rome's eastern provinces and vassal states.
Lex Cornelia annalis 81 BC Sulla DictatorA sanction law for Sulla's past acts; part of his program to strengthen the Senate.
Lex Cornelia de maiestate 81 BC Sulla DictatorTreason law passed by Sulla to regulate the activities of pro-magistrates in their provinces, especially unapproved war and unauthorised travel.
Lex Cornelia de sicariis et veneficiis 81 BC Sulla DictatorDealing with injuries and deaths obtained by magic.
Lex Domitia de sacerdotis 104 BC Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus Tribune of the plebsEstablished the election of the pontifex maximus and the members of the college of priests (chosen by cooptation before).
Lex Fufia Caninia 2 BC C. Fufius Geminus & L. Caninius Gallus ConsulsLimited manumissions.
Lex Gabinia 67 BC A. Gabinius Tribune of the plebs Pompey has special powers in the Mediterranean to fight against pirates
Lex Gabinia tabellaria 139 BCA. GabiniusTribune of the plebsIntroduced secret votes in election for magistrate offices.
Lex Gellia Cornelia 72 BC L. Gellius Publicola & Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Clodianus ConsulsAuthorised Pompey to confer Roman citizenship to his clientela and Spaniards.
Lex Genucia 342 BCL. GenuciusTribune of the plebsThree laws: (1) Abolished interest on loans. (2) Required the election of at least one plebeian consul each year. (3) Prohibited a magistrate from holding two magistracies in the same year, or the same magistracy for the next ten years (until 332). [7] [8] [9]
Lex Hadriana 117–138 AD Hadrian EmperorEnabled permanent tenants to develop land, it was an extension of the lex Manciana .
Lex Hieronica 240 BC Hiero II King of SicilyTaxation of Sicily (the legislation of Hiero II was included in Roman law).
Lex Hortensia 287 BC Q. Hortensius DictatorPlebiscites approved by the Assembly of the People gain the status of law.
Lex de Imperio Vespasiani 69 AD Vespasian EmperorConferring powers, privileges and exemptions to the emperor Vespasian.
Lex Icilia de Aventino publicando 456 BCL. IciliusTribune of the plebsGave land to plebeians.
Lex Iulia de Civitate Latinis et Sociis Danda 90 BC Lucius Julius Caesar ConsulOffered citizenship to all Italians who had not raised arms against Rome in the Social War.
Lex Iulia de adulteriis coercendis 17 BC Augustus EmperorMade conjugal unfaithfulness a public as well as a private offence, with banishment a possible penalty.
Lex Iulia de Ambitu 18 BC Augustus EmperorPenalised bribery when acquiring political offices.
Lex Iulia de maritandis ordinibus 18 BC Augustus EmperorMarrying-age celibates and young widows that would not marry were barred from receiving inheritances and from attending public games.
Lex Iulia de repetundis 59 BC Julius Caesar ConsulRegarding extortion in the provinces.
Lex Iulia de vicesima hereditatum 5 AD Augustus EmperorInstituted a 5 percent tax on testamentary inheritances, exempting close relatives.
Lex Iulia municipalis 45 BC Julius Caesar Dictator and consulSet regulations for the Italian municipalities.
Lex Junia Licinia 62 BC D. Junius Silanus & L. Licinius Murena ConsulsA reinforcement law passed to back up the earlier lex Caecilia Didia law of 98 BC.
Lex Junia Norbana 19 AD M. Junius Silanus Torquatus & L. Norbanus Balbus ConsulsRegarding status of freedmen.
Lex Licinia Mucia 95 BC L. Licinius Crassus & Q. Mucius Scaevola ConsulsRemoved Latin and Italian allies from Rome's citizen-rolls.
Lex Licinia Pompeia 55 BC Pompey and Crassus Consuls Caesar's proconsulship in both the Gauls was extended for another 5 years.
lex Licinia Sextia 367 BC C. Licinius Stolo & L. Sextius Lateranus Tribunes of the plebsFour laws: (1) Lex de consule altero ex plebe et de praetore ex patribus creando: resumed the consulship and opened it to plebeians, and created the praetorship, reserved to patricians. [8] (2) Lex de aere alieno: provided that the interest already paid on debts should be deducted from the principal and that the payment of the rest of the principal should be in three equal annual instalments. (3) Lex de modo agrorum: restricted individual ownership of public land in excess of 500 iugeras (300 acres) and forbade the grazing of more than 100 cattle on public land. (4) Lex de Decemviri Sacris Faciundis: created the Decemviri sacris faciundis , a college of ten priests, of whom five had to be plebeians.
Lex Maenia 279 BCMaenius [10] Tribune of the plebsCarried the principle of lex Pubilia to elections (approval of Senate moved before the elections, not after)..
Lex Menenia Sestia452 BCT. Menenius Lanatus & P. Sestius Capitolinus Vaticanus ConsulsScale for fines, 1 ox = 12 sheep = 100 lb. of bronze.
Lex Manciana 69–96 ADDealt with imperial and private cases in North Africa, regulated relations between cultivators and the proprietors.
Lex Manilia 66 BC C. Manilius Tribune of the plebsPompey's actions against Mithridates.
Lex Minucia 216 BCM. MinuciusTribune of the plebsAppointment of three finance commissioners.
Lex Ogulnia 300 BCCn. & Q. OgulniusTribune of the plebsCreated four plebeian pontiffs and five plebeian augurs.
Lex Oppia 215 BC C. Oppius Tribune of the plebsLimited female adornment.
Lex Ovinia 312 BC (before)OviniusTribune of the plebsTransferred the right to appoint Senators from the consuls to the censors.
Lex Papia de peregrinis 65 BCC. PapiusTribune of the plebsChallenged false claims of citizenship and deported foreigners from Rome.
Lex Papia Poppaea 9 ADM. Papius Mutilus & Q. Poppaeus Secundus ConsulsRegarding marriage.
Lex Papiria de dedicationibus 166–155 BC [11] PapiriusTribune of the plebsForbade consecration of real property without approval of the popular assembly.
Lex Papiria Julia 430 BCL. Papirius Crassus & L. Julius Iulus ConsulsMade payment of fines in bronze mandatory.
Lex de permutatione provinciae44 BC Mark Antony ConsulGave himself a five-year command in Cisalpine and Transalpine Gaul in lieu of Macedon. Also gave authorization to transfer Caesar's legions from Macedon to the new provinces.
Lex Petronia 32 BC (before) [12] PetroniusTribune of the plebsRegulated appointments of municipal prefects.
Lex Plautia de reditu lepidanorum 70 BCPlautiusTribune of the plebsGranted a pardon to Lepidus' former associates.
Lex Plautia Judiciaria 89 BCM. Plautius SilvanusTribune of the plebsChose jurors from other classes, not just the Equites.
Lex Plautia Papiria 89 BCC. Papirius Carbo & M. Plautius SilvanusTribunes of the plebsGranted citizenship to Roman allies.
Lex Poetelia Papiria 326 BCC. Poetelius Libo & L. Papirius Cursor ConsulsAbolished the contractual form of Nexum, or debt bondage.
Lex Pompeia de Transpadanis 89 BC Cn. Pompeius Strabo ConsulGranted Latin Right to the populations of Cisalpine Gaul.
Lex de Porcia capita civium 199 BC P. Porcius Laeca Tribune of the plebsGave right of appeal (provocatio) in capital cases.
Lex Porcia de tergo civium 195 BC Cato the Elder ConsulExtended the right to provocatio against flogging.
Lex Porcia 185 BCL. Porcius LicinusConsulProvided for a very severe sanction (possibly death) against magistrates who refused to grant provocatio.
Lex provincia 146 BCSet of laws designed to regulate and organize the administration of Roman provinces.
Lex Publilia 471 BC Volero Publilius Tribune of the plebsTransferred the election of the tribunes of the plebs to the comitia tributa.
Lex Publilia339 BC Q. Publilius Philo Consul and dictatorThree laws: (1) Reserved one censorship to plebeians. (2) Made plebiscites binding on all citizens (including patricians). (3) Stated that the Senate had to give its prior approval (the Auctoritas patrum) to plebiscites before becoming binding on all citizens (the lex Valeria Horatia of 449 had placed this approval after plebiscites).
Lex Pupia 61 BC M. Pupius Piso Frugi Calpurnianus ConsulSenate could not meet on Comitiales Dies.
Lex Regia 759–509 BCKings of RomeLaws enacted by the Roman kings before the Republic.
Lex Roscia 49 BC L. Roscius Fabatus Praetor Caesar proposed full Latin Rights on the people of Transalpine Gaul.
Lex Roscia theatralis 67 BC L. Roscius Otho Tribune of the plebsAllocated a place in Roman theaters to the equestrian order.
Lex Rubria 122 BCC. RubriusTribune of the plebsAuthorised a colony on the ruins of Carthage.
Lex Sacrata 494 BClaw after first secession of the plebeians that either affirmed the sacrosanctity of the tribunes or established the plebeians as a sworn confederacy against patricians.
Lex Scantinia 149 BC (circa)M. Scantius or Scantinius [13] Tribune of the plebsRegulating some aspects of homosexual behaviour among citizens, primarily protecting freeborn male minors.
Lex Sempronia agraria 133 BC Ti. Sempronius Gracchus Tribune of the plebsSet of laws that redistributed land among the poor; repealed after his assassination.
Lex Servilia Caepio 106 BC Q. Servilius Caepio ConsulSome control of the court de rebus repentundis was handed back to senators from the equites .
Lex Servilia Glaucia de Repetundis101 BC C. Servilius Glaucia [14] Tribune of the plebsMade juries in property court composed by equites only.
Lex Terentia Cassia 73 BC M. Terentius Varro Lucullus & C. Cassius Longinus ConsulsSafeguarded Rome's grain supply and distributed grain at reduced rates.
Lex Titia 43 BCP. TitiusTribune of the plebsGave Octavian, Mark Antony and Lepidus full powers to defeat the assassins of Julius Caesar; legalised the second triumvirate.
Lex Trebonia 448 BCL. TreboniusTribune of the plebsForbade the cooptation of additional tribunes of the plebs to fill vacant positions.
Lex Trebonia 55 BC C. Trebonius Tribune of the plebsGranted a five year proconsulship: in Syria to Crassus, in Spain to Pompey.
Lex Tullia 63 BC Cicero ConsulRegulated election fraud (see ambitus).
Lex Ursonensis 44 BCMark AntonyConsulFoundation charter of the Caesarean colonia Iulia Genetiva.
Lex Valeria 509, 449, & 300 BC P. Valerius Publicola ConsulGranted every Roman citizen legal right to appeal against a capital sentence, defined and confirmed the right of appeal (provocatio).
Lex Valeria 82 BC Lucius Valerius Flaccus InterrexAppointed Sulla dictator.
Lex Valeria Cornelia 5 AD L. Valerius Messalla Volesus & Cn. Cornelius Cinna Magnus ConsulsRegarding voting in the Comitia Centuriata.
Lex Valeria Horatia 449 BC L. Valerius Potitus & M. Horatius Barbatus ConsulsThree laws: (1) Lex Valeria Horatia de plebiscitis: established that the resolutions passed by the Plebeian Council were binding on all. (2) Lex Valeria Horatia de provocatione: granted the right to appeal to the People of any decision of magistrates. (3) Lex Valeria Horatia de tribunicia potestate: restored the potestas tribunicia, the powers of the plebeian tribunes.
Lex Vatinia 59 BC P. Vatinius Tribune of the plebsGave Julius Caesar governorship of Cisalpine Gaul and of Illyricum for five years.
Lex Villia Annalis 180 BC L. Villius Annalis Tribune of the plebsEstablished minimum ages for the cursus honorum offices; determined an interval of two years between offices.
Lex Voconia 169 BCQ. Voconius SaxaTribune of the plebsDisallowed women from being the main heir to a dead man's estate, including cases where there were no male relatives alive.

Post-Roman law codes based on Roman legislation

General denominations

Resolutions of the Senate


Other

Notes

See also

Related Research Articles

Licinia (gens) families from Ancient Rome who shared the Licinius nomen

The gens Licinia was a celebrated plebeian family at Rome, which appears from the earliest days of the Republic until imperial times, and which eventually obtained the imperial dignity. The first of the gens to obtain the consulship was Gaius Licinius Calvus Stolo, who, as tribune of the plebs from 376 to 367 BC, prevented the election of any of the annual magistrates, until the patricians acquiesced to the passage of the lex Licinia Sextia, or Licinian Rogations. This law, named for Licinius and his colleague, Lucius Sextius, opened the consulship for the first time to the plebeians. Licinius himself was subsequently elected consul in 364 and 361 BC, and from this time, the Licinii became one of the most illustrious gentes in the Republic.

Junia (gens) families from Ancient Rome who shared the Iunius nomen

The gens Junia was one of the most celebrated families in Rome. The gens may originally have been patrician. The family was already prominent in the last days of the Roman monarchy. Lucius Junius Brutus was the nephew of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the seventh and last King of Rome, and on the expulsion of Tarquin in 509 BC, he became one of the first consuls of the Roman Republic.

Manius Acilius Glabrio was the name (tria nomina) used by several ancient Roman men of the gens Acilia, including:

The gens Popillia, sometimes written Popilia, was a plebeian family at Rome. The first of the Popillii to obtain the consulship was Marcus Popillius Laenas in 359 BC, only eight years after the lex Licinia Sextia opened that magistracy to the plebeians.

Marcus Baebius Tamphilus was a consul of the Roman Republic in 181 BC along with P. Cornelius Cethegus. Baebius is credited with reform legislation pertaining to campaigns for political offices and electoral bribery (ambitus). The Lex Baebia was the first bribery law in Rome and had long-term impact on Roman administrative practices in the provinces.

The gens Carvilia was a plebeian family at ancient Rome, which first distinguished itself during the Samnite Wars. The first member of this gens to achieve the consulship was Spurius Carvilius Maximus, in 293 BC.

Annia (gens) Families from Ancient Rome who shared the Annius nomen

The gens Annia was a plebeian family at Rome. Livy mentions a Lucius Annius, praetor of the Roman colony of Setia, in 340 BC, and other Annii are mentioned at Rome during this period. Members of this gens held various positions of authority from the time of the Second Punic War, and Titus Annius Luscus attained the consulship in 153 BC. In the second century AD, the Annii gained the Empire itself; Marcus Aurelius was descended from this family.

The gens Appuleia, occasionally written Apuleia, was a plebeian family at ancient Rome, which flourished from the fifth century BC into imperial times. The first of the gens to achieve importance was Lucius Appuleius, tribune of the plebs in 391 BC.

Memmia (gens) Families from Ancient Rome who shared the Memmius nomen

The gens Memmia was a plebeian family at Rome. The first member of the gens to achieve prominence was Gaius Memmius Gallus, praetor in 172 BC. From the period of the Jugurthine War to the age of Augustus they contributed numerous tribunes to the Republic.

<i>Lex curiata de imperio</i>

In the constitution of ancient Rome, the lex curiata de imperio was the law confirming the rights of higher magistrates to hold power, or imperium. In theory, it was passed by the comitia curiata, which was also the source for leges curiatae pertaining to Roman adoption.

Plaetoria (gens) families from Ancient Rome who shared the Plaetorius nomen

The gens Plaetoria was a plebeian family at Rome. A number of Plaetorii appear in history during the first and second centuries BC, but none of this gens ever obtained the consulship. Several Plaetorii issued denarii from the late 70s into the 40s, of which one of the best known alludes to the assassination of Caesar on the Ides of March, since one of the Plaetorii was a partisan of Pompeius during the Civil War.

Coelia (gens) families from Ancient Rome who shared the Coelius nomen

The gens Coelia, occasionally written Coilia, was a plebeian family at Rome. The Coelii are frequently confounded with the Caelii, with some individuals called Caelius in manuscripts, while they appear as Coelius or Coilius on coins. The first of this gens who obtained the consulship was Gaius Coelius Caldus in 94 BC.

The gens Genucia was a prominent family of the Roman Republic. It was probably of patrician origin, but most of the Genucii appearing in history were plebeian. The first of the Genucii to hold the consulship was Titus Genucius Augurinus in 451 BC.

The gens Metilia was a minor family at Rome. Although they occur throughout Roman history, and several were tribunes of the plebs, beginning in the fifth century BC, none of the Metilii attained the higher offices of the Roman state until imperial times, when several of them became consul.

The gens Nautia was an old patrician family at Rome. The first of the gens to obtain the consulship was Spurius Nautius Rutilus in 488 BC, and from then until the Samnite Wars the Nautii regularly filled the highest offices of the Roman Republic. After that time, the Nautii all but disappear from the record, appearing only in a handful of inscriptions, mostly from Rome and Latium. A few Nautii occur in imperial times, including a number who appear to have been freedmen, and in the provinces.

The gens Numitoria was an ancient but minor plebeian family at Rome. The first member of this gens to appear in history was Lucius Numitorius, elected tribune of the plebs in 472 BC. Although Numitorii are found down to the final century of the Republic, none of them ever held any of the higher magistracies.

The gens Poetelia or Poetilia was a plebeian family at ancient Rome. Members of this gens are first mentioned in the time of the Decemvirs, and from thence down to the Second Punic War, they regularly held the chief magistracies of the Roman state. After this, however, they fade into obscurity, and are only occasionally mentioned. The nomen Poetelius is sometimes confused with Petillius, and can be found with either a single or double 'l'.

The gens Pupia was a plebeian family at ancient Rome. Members of this gens are mentioned as early as 409 BC, when Publius Pupius was one of the first plebeian quaestors, but over the course of centuries they achieved little of significance, and rarely held any of the higher offices of the Roman state.

Titus Manlius Torquatus was a politician of the Roman Republic, who became consul in 165 BC. Born into a prominent family, he sought to emulate the legendary severity of his ancestors, notably by forcing his son to commit suicide after he had been accused of corruption. Titus had a long career and was a respected jurist. He was also active in diplomatic affairs; he notably served as ambassador to Egypt in 162 BC in a mission to support the claims of Ptolemy VIII Physcon over Cyprus.

References

  1. Broughton, vol. I, pp. 517, 519 (note 4).
  2. 1 2 Broughton, vol. II, p. 468.
  3. Broughton, vol. I, pp. 452, 453.
  4. Broughton, vol. II, p. 167.
  5. Broughton, vol. II, pp. 138, 141 (note 8).
  6. Broughton, vol. I, pp. 458, 459.
  7. Livy, vii. 42.
  8. 1 2 Cornell, Cambridge Ancient History, vol. 7-2, p. 337. Cornell explains that Livy confused the contents of the Lex Licinia Sextia of 366 with the Lex Genucia of 342.
  9. Brennan, The Praetorship, pp. 65-67, where he shows that the ten year rule was only temporary at this time.
  10. Broughton, vol. I, pp. 193, 237.
  11. W. Jeffrey Tatum, "The lex Papiria de Dedicationibus", in Classical Philology, Vol. 88, No. 4. (October 1993), pp. 319–328. The traditional date of 304 BC is incorrect.
  12. Broughton, vol. II, p. 472.
  13. Broughton, vol. I, pp. 459, 460 (note 3).
  14. Broughton, vol. I, pp. 571, 572.

Bibliography