Last updated
Kickstarter, PBC
Kickstarter logo 2019.svg
Kickstarter screenshot.jpg
Type of business Delaware-registered public-benefit corporation
Type of site
Founder(s) Perry Chen
Yancey Strickler
Charles Adler
CEO Everette Taylor
Industry Financial services
Net income $1.3 million after tax (2019) [1] :1
Employees140 (before May 2020 40% staff reduction) [1] :1
LaunchedApril 28, 2009;14 years ago (2009-04-28)

Kickstarter is an American public benefit corporation [2] based in Brooklyn, New York, that maintains a global crowdfunding platform focused on creativity. [3] The company's stated mission is to "help bring creative projects to life". [4] As of February 2023, Kickstarter has received US$7 billion in pledges from 21.7 million backers to fund 233,626 projects, such as films, music, stage shows, comics, journalism, video games, board games, technology, publishing, and food-related projects. [5]


People who back Kickstarter projects are offered tangible rewards or experiences in exchange for their pledges. [6] This model traces its roots to subscription model of arts patronage, in which artists would go directly to their audiences to fund their work. [7]


Visitors at Kickstarter's Lower East Side, Manhattan offices in 2013 NYAP visits Kickstarter (9457966193).jpg
Visitors at Kickstarter's Lower East Side, Manhattan offices in 2013

Kickstarter launched on April 28, 2009, [8] by Perry Chen, Yancey Strickler, and Charles Adler. The New York Times called Kickstarter "the people's NEA". [9] Time named it one of the "Best Inventions of 2010" [10] and "Best Websites of 2011". [11] Kickstarter reportedly raised $10 million funding from backers including NYC-based venture firm Union Square Ventures and angel investors such as Jack Dorsey, Zach Klein and Caterina Fake. [12] The company was based at 58 Kent Street in Greenpoint, Brooklyn until they transitioned to a fully remote workforce after the COVID-19 pandemic. [13] [14]

On February 14, 2013, Kickstarter released an iOS app called Kickstarter for the iPhone. [15] The app was aimed at users who create and back projects and was the first time Kickstarter had an official mobile presence. [16]

Kickstarter HQ library, Brooklyn in 2017 Editing at Kickstarter 2017-03 jeh.jpg
Kickstarter HQ library, Brooklyn in 2017

On October 31, 2012, Kickstarter opened projects based in the United Kingdom, [17] followed by projects based in Canada on September 9, 2013, [18] Australia and New Zealand on November 13, 2013, [19] the Netherlands on April 28, 2014, Denmark, Ireland, Norway, and Sweden on September 15, 2014, [20] Germany on April 28, 2015, France and Spain on May 19, 2015, [21] Austria, Belgium, Italy, Luxembourg and Switzerland on June 16, 2015, Singapore and Hong Kong on August 30, 2016, [22] Mexico on November 15, 2016, and Japan on September 12, 2017. In July 2017, Strickler announced his resignation. [23]

On April 20, 2020, Kickstarter announced that it was likely going to lay off workers due to the coronavirus pandemic causing the number of active projects to be "about 35% below what it was at this time last year with no clear sign of rebound." [24] The layoff was reported by the union to affect up to 45% of the employees, although Kickstarter has yet to report the scale of the layoff as of May 2, 2020. The union negotiated a settlement for laid off employees including four months of severance pay and up to six months of continued health benefits for anyone who gets laid off, recall rights for a year (so that those laid off can return to job openings), and a release from noncompete agreements for those who accept severance pay. [1] [25]

In December 2021, Kickstarter announced they would be moving their platform to Blockchain, with the aim of making the tools required for creating a crowdfunding site available to anyone. [26]


Kickstarter is one of a number of crowdfunding platforms for gathering money from the public, which circumvents traditional avenues of investment. [27] [28] Project creators choose a deadline and a minimum funding goal. If the goal is not met by the deadline, no funds are collected (a kind of assurance contract). [29]

The kickstarter platform is open to backers from anywhere in the world and to creators from many countries, including the US, UK, [30] Canada, [31] Australia, New Zealand, [19] The Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, Norway, Sweden, Spain, France, Germany, Austria, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg, Switzerland and Mexico.

Kickstarter applies a 5% fee on the total amount of the funds raised. [32] Its payments processor applies an additional 3–5% fee. [33] Unlike many forums for fundraising or investment, Kickstarter claims no ownership over the projects and the work they produce. The web pages of projects launched on the site are permanently archived and accessible to the public. After funding is completed, projects and uploaded media cannot be edited or removed from the site. [34]

There is no guarantee that people who post projects on Kickstarter will deliver on their projects, use the money to implement their projects, or that the completed projects will meet backers' expectations. Kickstarter advises backers to use their judgment on supporting a project. They also warn project leaders that they could be liable for legal damages from backers for failure to deliver on promises. [35] Projects might also fail even after a successful fundraising campaign when creators underestimate the total costs required or technical difficulties to be overcome. [36] [37]

When asked what made Kickstarter different from other crowdfunding platforms, co-founder Perry Chen said: "I wonder if people really know what the definition of crowdfunding is. Or, if there's even an agreed upon definition of what it is. We haven't actively supported the use of the term because it can provoke more confusion. In our case, we focus on a middle ground between patronage and commerce. People are offering cool stuff and experiences in exchange for the support of their ideas. People are creating these mini-economies around their project ideas. So, you aren't coming to the site to get something for nothing; you are trying to create value for the people who support you. We focus on creative projects—music, film, technology, art, design, food and publishing—and within the category of crowdfunding of the arts, we are probably ten times the size of all the others combined." [38]


On June 21, 2012, Kickstarter began publishing statistics on its projects. [39] As of December 4, 2019, there were 469,286 launched projects (3,524 in progress), [40] with a success rate of 37.45% (success rate being how many were successfully funded by reaching their set goal).[ clarification needed ] The total amount pledged was $4,690,286,673. [41]

The business grew quickly in its early years. In 2010 Kickstarter had 3,910 successful projects and $27,638,318 pledged. The corresponding figures for 2011 were 11,836 successfully funded projects and $99,344,381 pledged; and there were 18,109 successfully funded projects, $610,352 pledged in 2012. [42]

On February 9, 2012, Kickstarter hit a number of milestones. A dock made for the iPhone designed by Casey Hopkins became the first Kickstarter project to exceed one million dollars in pledges. A few hours later, a new adventure game project started by computer game developers, Double Fine Productions, reached the same figure, having been launched less than 24 hours earlier, and finished with over $3 million pledged. [43] This was also the first time Kickstarter raised over a million dollars in pledges in a single day. [44] On August 30, 2014, the "Coolest Cooler", an icebox created by Ryan Grepper, became the most funded Kickstarter project in history, with US$13.28 million in funding, breaking the record previously held by the Pebble smartwatch. [45]

From 2012 to 2013, Wharton professor Ethan Mollick and Jeanne Pi conducted research into what contributes to a project's success or failure on Kickstarter. Some key findings from the analysis were that increasing goal size is negatively associated successfully, projects that are featured on the Kickstarter homepage have an 89% chance of being successful, compared to 30% without, and that for an average $10,000 project, a 30-day project has a 35% chance of success, while a 60-day project has a 29% chance of success, all other things being constant. [46]

The ten largest Kickstarter projects by funds raised are listed below. Among successful projects, most raise between $1,000 and $9,999. These dollar amounts drop to less than half in the Design, Games, and Technology categories. However, the median amount raised for the latter two categories remains in the four-figure range. There is substantial variation in the success rate of projects falling under different categories. Over two thirds of completed dance projects have been successful. In contrast, fewer than 30% of completed fashion projects have reached their goal. Most failing projects fail to achieve 20% of their goals and this trend applies across all categories. Indeed, over 80% of projects that pass the 20% mark reach their goal. [41]


Creators categorize their projects into one of 13 categories and 36 subcategories. [47] They are: Art, Comics, Dance, Design, Fashion, Film and Video, Food, Games, Music, Photography, Publishing, Technology and Theater. Of these categories, Film & Video and Music are the largest categories and have raised the most money. These categories, along with Games, account for over half the money raised. [41] Video games and tabletop games alone account for more than $2 out of every $10 spent on Kickstarter. [48]


To maintain its focus as a funding platform for creative projects, Kickstarter has outlined three guidelines for all project creators to follow: creators can fund projects only; projects must fit within one of the site's 13 creative categories; and creators must abide by the site's prohibited uses, which include charity and awareness campaigns. Kickstarter has additional requirements for hardware and product design projects. These include [49] [50]

The guidelines are designed to reinforce Kickstarter's position that people are backing projects, not placing orders for a product. To underscore the notion that Kickstarter is a place in which creators and audiences make things together, creators across all categories are asked to describe the risks and challenges a project faces in producing it. This educates the public about the project goals and encourages contributions to the community. [52]

Notable projects and creators

At $20.3 million, the Pebble Time is the second-largest successful Kickstarter campaign. Pebble Time front.jpg
At $20.3 million, the Pebble Time is the second-largest successful Kickstarter campaign.

Several creative works have gone on to receive critical acclaim and accolades after being funded on Kickstarter. Others, such as the Ouya console, have resulted in commercial failure. [53] The documentary short "Sun Come Up" and documentary short "Incident in New Baghdad" were each nominated for an Academy Award; [54] [55] contemporary art projects "EyeWriter" and "Hip-Hop Word Count" were both chosen to exhibit in the Museum of Modern Art in 2011; [56] filmmaker Matt Porterfield was selected to screen his film Putty Hill at the Whitney Biennial In 2012; [57] author Rob Walker's Hypothetical Futures project exhibited at the 13th International Venice Architecture Biennale; [58] musician Amanda Palmer's album Theatre is Evil debuted at No. 10 on the Billboard 200; [59] designer Scott Wilson won a National Design Award from Smithsonian's Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum following the success of his TikTok + LunaTik project; [60] the Kickstarter funded GoldieBlox toy gained nationwide distribution in 2013; [61] and approximately 10% of the films accepted into the Sundance, SXSW and Tribeca Film Festivals are projects funded on Kickstarter. [62] [63]

The Glowing Plant project was the first and only synthetic biology campaign on Kickstarter. [64]

The Oculus Rift began as a 2012 Kickstarter project and became one of the most funded projects at the time. The company was then acquired by Facebook two years later for $2 billion. [65]

Top projects by funds raised

Ten largest successfully completed Kickstarter projects by total funds pledged (only closed fundings are listed) [66]
RankTotal USDProject nameCreatorCategory % fundedBackersClosing date
141,754,153Surprise! Four Secret Novels by Brandon Sanderson Dragonsteel EntertainmentPublishing4,175185,34131 March 2022
220,338,986 Pebble Time – Awesome Smartwatch, No Compromises [67] Pebble TechnologyProduct design4,06778,47127 March 2015
313,285,226 Coolest Cooler: 21st Century Cooler that's Actually Cooler [68] Ryan GrepperProduct design26,57062,64230 August 2014
412,969,608 Frosthaven [69] Cephalofair GamesTabletop games2,59483,1931 May 2020
512,779,843 Pebble 2, Time 2 + All-New Pebble Core [70] Pebble TechnologyProduct design1,27766,67330 June 2016
612,393,139 Kingdom Death: Monster 1.5 [71] Kingdom Death/Adam PootsTabletop games12,39319,2647 January 2017
712,179,651EcoFlow DELTA Pro: The Portable Home BatteryEcoFlowHardware12,1803,19913 September 2021
812,143,435Travel Tripod by Peak Design [72] Peak DesignProduct design2,42927,16813 December 2019
911,385,449 Critical Role: The Legend of Vox Machina Animated Special [73] [74] Critical Role Productions Film1,51888,88719 April 2019
1010,266,845 Pebble: E-Paper Watch for iPhone and Android [75] Pebble TechnologyProduct design10,26668,92918 May 2012
Top projects by number of backers
RankBackersProject nameCreatorCategoryTotal USDClosing date
1219,382 Exploding Kittens Exploding KittensTabletop games8,782,57120 February 2015
2185,341Surprise! Four Secret Novels by Brandon Sanderson Dragonsteel EntertainmentPublishing41,754,15331 March 2022
3154,926 Fidget Cube Matthew and Mark McLachlanProduct design6,465,69020 October 2016
4105,857Bring Reading Rainbow Back for Every Child, Everywhere! LeVar Burton & Reading RainbowWeb5,408,9163 July 2014
591,585 The Veronica Mars Movie Project Rob Thomas Film5,702,15313 April 2013
688,887Critical Role: The Legend of Vox Machina Animated Special [73] [74] Critical Role ProductionsFilm11,385,44919 April 2019
787,142 Double Fine Adventure Double Fine and 2 Player Productions Film/video games3,336,37114 March 2012
885,581 Bears vs Babies - A Card GameExploding KittensTabletop games3,215,67918 November 2016
983,193FrosthavenCephalofair GamesTabletop games12,969,6081 May 2020
1081,567 Avatar Legends: The Roleplaying Game Magpie GamesTabletop games9,535,3172 September 2021

Project cancellations

Both Kickstarter and project creators have cancelled projects that appeared to have been fraudulent. Questions were raised about the projects in internet communities related to the fields of the projects. The concerns raised were: apparent copying of graphics from other sources; unrealistic performance or price claims; and failure of project sponsors to deliver on prior Kickstarter projects.

Some notable cancelled projects include:



Many individual Kickstarter projects caused controversy:

Patent disputes

Data breach

In February 2014, Kickstarter announced a data breach of almost 5.2 million users' data, including email addresses, usernames and salted SHA1 hashes of passwords. [111]

Unionizing efforts

On March 19, 2019, Kickstarter's staff announced plans to unionize as part of the Office and Professional Employees International Union (OPEIU), which would make Kickstarter the only major tech company to have a union. [112] [113] Shortly after the announcement, three senior staffers released a memo dissenting against the decision, claiming that it is too extreme and that it would be a "misappropriation of unions for use by privileged workers." [114] According to Kickstarter employees, they wanted to found a union both for enabling collective bargaining for wages and for "giving employees more clout," allowing them to work for goals that they saw in their interest and the public's interest. [25]

In May, Aziz Hasan, then CEO of Kickstarter, announced that the company would require an election for the union rather than voluntarily recognizing it, saying that "our view is that we are better set up to be successful without the framework of a union." [115]

On September 16, the employees filed a complaint against Kickstarter with the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) after two employees were terminated. According to the workers, they were fired for unionizing, although the company says it was for "performance issues." [116] [117] After these allegations, some Kickstarter creators have started a campaign against Kickstarter to let its employees unionize. [118] [119]

On September 28, Kickstarter confirmed that it would not recognise the unionisation effort. In a statement addressed to project creators, the CEO stated that unionisation would turn workplace relations "inherently adversarial" and that it "doesn't reflect who we are as a company." Additionally, the CEO confirmed that Kickstarter stood by its decision to fire the two employees and would be pursuing legal action to fight their claims. [120] The statement immediately resulted in criticism and calls for boycotts from creators who had previously used the platform, [121] while writer Neil Gaiman tweeted that he would be unlikely to post support for or links to new Kickstarter campaigns "as long as they are anti-union." [122]

Kickstarter employees continued to file complaints to the NLRB, which forced Kickstarter to allow its employees a formal vote on unionization. The vote was held on the morning of February 18, 2020, with 46 voting in favor of joining the OPEIU and 37 voting against. [123] The CEO at the time, Aziz Hasan, said after the vote, "We support and respect this decision, and we are proud of the fair and democratic process that got us here." [124] With this, the OPEIU will now work with the union effort, Kickstarter United, to bargain with Kickstarter management for a contract. [125]

As of May 2, 2020, 60% of the workforce was part of the union. [1]


On December 8, 2021, Kickstarter announced a plan to develop a decentralized protocol on blockchain platform Celo to build an open source and blockchain-based crowdfunding infrastructure and then move its own website to that system. [126] The announcement prompted backlash from creators and backers on Twitter, many of whom pledged to abandon Kickstarter if the move went forward. [127] [128] On December 15, a week later, Kickstarter responded to the controversy in a blog post that clarified the company's position but did not indicate a change of plans. [128]

See also

Related Research Articles

Funding is the act of providing resources to finance a need, program, or project. While this is usually in the form of money, it can also take the form of effort or time from an organization or company. Generally, this word is used when a firm uses its internal reserves to satisfy its necessity for cash, while the term financing is used when the firm acquires capital from external sources.

ArtistShare is the internet's first commercial crowdfunding website. It also operates as a record label and business model for artists which enables them to fund their projects by allowing the general public to directly finance, watch the creative process, and in most cases gain access to extra material from an artist. According to Bloomberg News, the company's chief executive officer, record producer Brian Camelio, founded ArtistShare in 2000 with the idea that fans would finance production costs for albums sold only on the Internet and Artists also would enjoy much more favourable contract terms. ArtistShare was described in 2005 as a "completely new business model for creative artists" which "benefits both the artist and the fans by financing new and original artistic projects while building a strong and loyal fan base".

Bountysource is a crowdsourcing website for open source bounties and since 2012 also for crowdfunding. Users can pledge money for tasks using micropayment services that open source software developers can pick up and solve to earn the money. It also allows large-scale fundraising for big improvements on the project. It integrates with GitHub using its bug tracker to check if the problem is resolved and connect the resolution with GitHub's pull request system to identify the patch. When the users agree that they are satisfied and the project maintainer merged the proposed changes to the source-code, Bountysource will transfer the money acting as a trustee during the whole process.

Fan-funded music is crowdfunding for music. Often, fan-funded music occurs in conjunction with direct-to-fan marketing. Fans of music have the option to donate and collectively raise money with the goal of jump-starting the career of a given musical artist. The fan-funding of music occurs primarily through web-based services using a business model for crowdfunding. Fans are typically given rewards based on their monetary contributions.

PledgeMusic was an online direct-to-fan music platform, launched in August 2009. It was started to facilitate musicians looking to pre-sell, market, and distribute projects; such as recordings and concerts. It bore similarities to other artist payment platforms as ArtistShare, Kickstarter, Indiegogo, Patreon, RocketHub and Sellaband.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Indiegogo</span> American crowdfunding website

Indiegogo is an American crowdfunding website founded in 2008 by Danae Ringelmann, Slava Rubin, and Eric Schell. Its headquarters are in San Francisco, California. The site is one of the first sites to offer crowd funding. Indiegogo allows people to solicit funds for an idea, charity, or start-up business. Indiegogo charges a 5% fee on contributions. This charge is in addition to Stripe credit card processing charges of 3% + $0.30 per transaction. Fifteen million people visit the site each month.

<i>Castle Story</i> 2017 RTS videogame

Castle Story is a sandbox and real-time strategy game developed by Sauropod Studio. Funded through crowdfunding website Kickstarter in 2012, the game launched in September 2013 in early access, and was fully released in August 2017.

<i>Broken Age</i> 2015 video game

Broken Age is a point-and-click adventure video game developed and published by Double Fine. Broken Age was game director Tim Schafer's first return to the genre since 1998's Grim Fandango, and was released for Microsoft Windows, macOS, Linux, iOS, Android, PlayStation 4, PlayStation Vita, and Xbox One platforms. The game was developed in two acts; the first was released on January 28, 2014, and the second was released on April 28, 2015. A retail version of the complete game for Windows, macOS, and Linux, published by Nordic Games, was released on April 28, 2015. A Nintendo Switch version was released on September 13, 2018.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pebble (watch)</span> Discontinued smartwatch

Pebble is a discontinued smartwatch developed by Pebble Technology Corporation. Funding was conducted through a Kickstarter campaign running from April 11, 2012, to May 18, 2012, which raised $10.3 million; it was the most funded project in Kickstarter history, at the time. Pebble began shipping watches to Kickstarter backers in January 2013. Pebble watches can be connected to Android and iOS devices to show notifications and messages. An online app store distributed Pebble-compatible apps from many developers including ESPN, Uber, Runkeeper, and GoPro.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ouya</span> Android-based microconsole by Ouya Inc.

The Ouya, stylized as OUYA, is an Android-based microconsole developed by Ouya Inc. Julie Uhrman founded the project in 2012, bringing in designer Yves Béhar to collaborate on its design and Muffi Ghadiali as VP of Product Management to put together the engineering team. Development was funded via Kickstarter, raising US$8.5 million, becoming one of the website's highest earning projects in its history.

Video game development has typically been funded by large publishing companies or are alternatively paid for mostly by the developers themselves as independent titles. Other funding may come from government incentives or from private funding.

<i>Star Citizen</i> Upcoming multiplayer space game

Star Citizen is an in-development multiplayer, space trading and combat simulation game. The game is being developed and published by Cloud Imperium Games for Windows. An extended retry of unrealized plans for Freelancer, Star Citizen is led by director Chris Roberts. The game was announced via a private crowdfunding page in September 2012, followed on October 18, 2012 by a successful Kickstarter campaign which drew over US$2 million. Pre-production of the game began in 2010, with production starting in 2011.

Experiment, formerly called Microryza, is a US website for crowdfunding science-based research projects. Researchers can post their research projects to solicit pledges. Experiment works on the all-or-nothing funding model. The backers are only charged if the research projects reach their funding target during a set time frame. In February 2014, the site changed its name from Microryza to

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Spacehive</span> UK-based crowdfunding platform

Spacehive is a United Kingdom-based crowdfunding platform for projects aimed at improving local civic and community spaces.

One Spark was an annual crowdfunding festival held in Downtown Jacksonville, Florida, United States. In the event, creators displayed projects in various categories and crowdfunded from attendees. The event also offered opportunities for private investment in projects, as well as speakers, music, and entertainment. The event launched in 2013.

Seed&Spark is a film-centric crowdfunding and SVOD platform launched in 2012.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Harebrained Schemes</span> American video game developer

Harebrained Schemes, LLC is an American video game developer based in Seattle, Washington. It was co-founded in 2011 by Jordan Weisman and Mitch Gitelman. Prior to founding Harebrained Schemes, Weisman and Gitelman worked together on the MechCommander and Crimson Skies franchises at FASA, another company founded by Weisman. As of mid-2015, the studio had under 60 employees. The studio was acquired by Paradox Interactive in June 2018.

Crowdfunding is the practice of funding a project or venture by raising money from a large number of people, typically via the internet. Crowdfunding is a form of crowdsourcing and alternative finance. In 2015, over US$34 billion was raised worldwide by crowdfunding.

<i>Chronicles of Elyria</i> Video game

Chronicles of Elyria is a planned massively multiplayer online role-playing game for Microsoft Windows that has been in development by Soulbound Studios since 2016. Production started after an initially successful crowdfunding campaign on Kickstarter that raised $1.3 million. The studio subsequently raised an additional $7.7m via their website. The game was originally marked for an estimated December 2017 release, but this target was not met and nor have any subsequent timelines. In 2020 the studio announced that it would close, and laid-off of all of its staff. It subsequently reopened later the same year.


  1. 1 2 3 4 Lyons, Kim (2020-05-02). "Kickstarter union reaches agreement with management for laid-off workers". The Verge. Archived from the original on 2020-05-02. Retrieved 2020-05-03. Kickstarter United, the union that represents 60 percent of the company's 140 employees, said the agreement includes four months of severance pay for all laid-off employees, a release from any non-compete agreements for anyone who accepts severance, and recall rights for one year. The company will continue healthcare coverage for any laid-off employees for up to six months, depending on salary.
  2. Isaac, Mike (September 21, 2015). "Kickstarter Focuses Its Mission on Altruism Over Profit". The New York Times .
  3. "Kickstarter crowdfunding site officially launches in Canada". The Canadian Press. 10 September 2013. Retrieved 14 October 2013.
  4. Gannes, Liz (May 29, 2010). "Kickstarter: We Don't Have Anything Against Celebrity Projects". All Things D .
  5. "Kickstarter Official Stats". Kickstarter. Retrieved 23 July 2021.
  6. Walker, Rob (5 August 2011). "The Trivialities and Transcendence of Kickstarter". The New York Times Magazine .
  7. Garber, Megan (29 June 2013). "Kickstarters of Yore: Mozart, Lady Liberty, Alexander Pope". The Atlantic .
  8. Wauters, Robin (April 29, 2009). "Kickstarter Launches Another Social Fundraising Platform".
  9. Walker, Rob (August 5, 2011). "The Trivialities and Transcendence of Kickstarter". The New York Times . Retrieved June 20, 2012.
  10. Snyder, Steven James (November 11, 2010). "The 50 Best Inventions of 2010". TIME . Archived from the original on November 14, 2010. Retrieved June 20, 2012.
  11. McCracken, Harry (August 16, 2011). "The 50 Best Websites of 2011". TIME . Archived from the original on September 23, 2011. Retrieved June 20, 2012.
  12. Kafka, Peter. "Kickstarter Fesses Up: The Crowdsourced Funding Start-Up Has Funding, Too". All Things D. Dow Jones & Company Inc. Retrieved February 7, 2012.
  13. Anderson, Nicole (May 26, 2015). "Kickstarter Headquarters". The Architect's Newspaper . Retrieved April 7, 2018.
  14. Delaney, Kevin J. (March 27, 2022). "As Kickstarter Launches a 4-Day Workweek, Its CEO Steps Down". Time .
  15. "Kickstarter for iPhone for iPhone 3GS, iPhone 4, iPhone 4S, iPhone 5, iPod touch (3rd generation), iPod touch (4th generation), iPod touch (5th generation) and iPad on the iTunes App Store". iTunes . Retrieved February 15, 2013.
  16. Dredge, Stuart (January 14, 2013). "Kickstarter? There's now an official iPhone app for that". The Guardian . Retrieved February 15, 2013.
  17. Perry Chen; Yancey Strickler; Charles Adler. "Kickstarter in the UK » The Kickstarter Blog — Kickstarter". Retrieved 2013-09-18.
  18. "Kickstarter in Canada! » The Kickstarter Blog — Kickstarter",, September 9, 2013, retrieved 2013-09-18
  19. 1 2 Starr, Michelle. "Kickstarter officially opens in Australia and New Zealand". CNET. Archived from the original on July 29, 2017. Retrieved July 4, 2022.
  20. Woods, Ben (15 September 2014). "Kickstarter opens up to projects from Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Ireland".
  21. Cortes, Iker (19 May 2015). "Kickstarter llega a España". EL CORREO.
  22. Ho, Victoria (31 August 2016). "Kickstarter opens in Asia, starting in Hong Kong and Singapore". Mashable. Retrieved 2017-04-18.
  23. Dickey, Megan Rose (27 July 2017). "Kickstarter co-founder and CEO Yancey Strickler will step down this year". Techcrunch. Retrieved 2017-07-27.
  24. Carman, Ashley (2020-04-20). "Kickstarter plans layoffs after new projects on the site drop off by 35 percent". The Verge. Archived from the original on 2020-04-20. Retrieved 2020-04-21.
  25. 1 2 Covert, Bryce (2020-05-27). "How Kickstarter Employees Formed a Union". Wired. ISSN   1059-1028. Archived from the original on 2020-05-28. Retrieved 2020-05-30.
  26. "Kickstarter plans to move its crowdfunding platform to the blockchain – TechCrunch". 2021-01-15. Retrieved 2022-03-13.
  27. Villano, Matt (March 14, 2010). "Small Donations in Large Numbers, With Online Help". The New York Times .
  28. Gould, Emily. "Start me up". Technology Review . MIT. Archived from the original on January 17, 2011. Retrieved January 20, 2011.
  29. Musgrove, Mike (March 7, 2010). "At Play: Kickstarter is a Web site for the starving artist". The Washington Post .
  30. "Kickstarter starts welcoming UK creators with projects launching Oct. 31". GigaOM . October 10, 2012. Archived from the original on October 6, 2020. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
  31. Kickstarter Allowing Canada-Based Projects Beginning This Summer. TechCrunch (2013-06-27). Retrieved on 2013-09-21.
  32. "Creators – Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)". Retrieved July 13, 2012.
  33. "Creators – Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)". Retrieved February 13, 2015.
  34. "Help Center — Kickstarter".
  35. "Kickstarter FAQ If I am unable to complete my project as listed, what should I do?".
  36. "Adrianne Jeffries, "Jellyfish Tanks, Funded 54 Times Over on Kickstarter, Turn Out to Be Jellyfish Death Traps UPDATED", BetaBeat, March 15, 2012". Betabeat. 15 March 2012. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
  37. "Kevin Stout, "Kickstarter, Pros and Cons",, April 23, 2012" . Retrieved 9 October 2014.
  38. Davison, Hallie. "THE Q&A: PERRY CHEN, KICKSTARTER". More Intelligent Life. The Economist. Archived from the original on 28 May 2015. Retrieved 28 May 2015.
  39. Strickler, Yancey. "Kickstarter Stats".
  40. "Kickstarter Stats" . Retrieved December 4, 2019.
  41. 1 2 3 "Kickstarter Stats". Kickstarter. Retrieved December 4, 2019.
  42. "2011: The Stats", February 11, 2015,, accessed February 11, 2015.
  43. "Double Fine Kickstarter hits 3 million, drive closing on Ustream", Joystiq , March 13, 2012, Retrieved March 13, 2012.
  44. Carl Franzen "Crowd-Funding Website Kickstarter Has Double Million Dollar Day Archived 2012-02-14 at the Wayback Machine ", TPM, February 10, 2012, Retrieved February 11, 2012
  45. Bogart, Nicole. "'Coolest Cooler' beats Pebble to become top Kickstarter project". Global News.
  46. Mollick, Ethan R. (June 26, 2013). "The Dynamics of Crowdfunding: An Exploratory Study". Journal of Business Venturing. 29 (1): 1–16. doi:10.2139/ssrn.2088298. S2CID   53612446. SSRN   2088298.
  47. "Discover – Kickstarter". Retrieved June 20, 2012.
  48. "What Is Kickstarter For? Video Games". Airbrite. November 13, 2013. Archived from the original on January 4, 2014.
  49. "Eric Blattberg, "Kickstarter Bans Project Renderings, Adds 'Risks and Challenges' Section, 21 September 2012". Archived from the original on 17 October 2014. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
  50. "Mark Milian, "After Raising Money on Kickstarter, Side Project Lands Another $3 million", Bloomberg Tech Deals, 6 September 2012" . Retrieved 9 October 2014.
  51. "Cha, Ariana Eunjung, "Glowing plants spark environmental debate" The Seattle Times 5 October 2013". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on 20 October 2014. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
  52. "Kickstarter Is Not a Store". Kickstarter.
  53. "The stillborn revolution: Ouya fails to sell, developer seeks buyout - ExtremeTech". 2 September 2014.
  54. "The Love Story Behind Oscar Nominee Sun Come Up". NPR . February 26, 2011.
  55. Montgomery, David (February 21, 2012). "Incident in New Baghdad: What Happened in Iraq?". The Washington Post .
  56. "Talk to Me – MoMA". Retrieved July 2, 2012.
  57. "Matt Porterfield". Archived from the original on June 18, 2012. Retrieved July 2, 2012.
  58. Titunik, Vera (May 15, 2012). "Real Designs For Fake Buildings Are Going to Venice". The New York Times . Archived from the original on June 21, 2012.
  59. Caulfield, Keith (September 19, 2012). "Dave Matthews Band Debuts at No. 1 on Billboard 200". Billboard .
  60. "National Design Awards". Retrieved July 2, 2012.
  61. Taylor, Colleen (2 July 2013). "GoldieBlox, The Toy That Aims To Get Girls Hooked On Engineering, Is Coming To A Toys 'R' Us Near You". TechCrunch. Retrieved 3 July 2013.
  62. Carr, David (January 30, 2012). "At Sundance, Kickstarter Resembled a Movie Studio, but Without the Egos". The New York Times .
  63. Watercutter, Angela (March 9, 2012). "When SXSW Money Crunch Hits, Kickstarter Comes to the Rescue". Wired .
  64. Schwartz, Ariel. "One of the most controversial Kickstarter campaigns in history is dead — here's the product that actually got made". Business Insider. Retrieved 2019-10-24.
  65. "Oculus Rift: From $2.4 million Kickstarter to $2 billion sale". 28 March 2014.
  66. "Discover >> Most Funded - Kickstarter". 31 March 2022.
  67. "Pebble Time - Awesome Smartwatch, No Compromises". Kickstarter. Retrieved 9 September 2016.
  68. "COOLEST COOLER: 21st Century Cooler that's Actually Cooler". Kickstarter. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
  69. "Frosthaven". Kickstarter. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
  70. "Pebble 2, Time 2 + All-New Pebble Core". Kickstarter. Retrieved 30 June 2016.
  71. "Kingdom Death: Monster 1.5". Kickstarer. Retrieved 7 January 2017.
  72. "Travel Tripod by Peak Design". Kickstarter. Retrieved 29 December 2019.
  73. 1 2 "Critical Role: The Legend of Vox Machina Animated Special". Kickstarter. Retrieved 19 April 2019.
  74. 1 2 Whitten, Sarah (2019-04-19). "'Dungeons and Dragons' Kickstarter breaks record with $11.3 million campaign". CNBC. Retrieved 2021-05-04.
  75. "Pebble: E-Paper Watch for iPhone and Android". Kickstarter. Retrieved 9 September 2016.
  76. "Evan Ackerman "Update:Eye3 Drone Officially Too Good to be True", IEEE Spectrum January 31, 2012". 31 January 2012. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
  77. Adrianne Jeffries. "This Is What a Kickstarter Scam Looks Like". Betabeat.
  78. "Adrian Jeffries, "When Kickstarter Goes Wrong: Were 419 Backers Almost Taken for a $27,637 Ride?", BetaBeat, September 15, 2011". Betabeat. 15 September 2011. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
  79. Kirk Hamilton (17 May 2012). "Creator of 'Satirical' Tentacle-Rape Game Apologizes". Kotaku. Gawker Media.
  80. "Pepitone, Julianne, "Kickstarter pulls plug on scam minutes before $120,000 heist", CNN Money, 17 June 2013". CNNMoney. 17 June 2013. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
  81. "Lester Haines "Kickstarter unplugs iFind miracle battery-free locator", The Register June 27, 2014". The Register . Retrieved 9 October 2014.
  82. Vincent, James. (13 October 2015). "$4 million laser razor campaign banned from Kickstarter is already on Indiegogo", The Verge . Retrieved 11 September 2018.
  83. Tanzer, Myles (May 9, 2011). "NYU Tisch Student Makes Plagiarized Film To Win Festival Prize After Raising $1,700 On Kickstarter · NYU Local". NYU Local . Retrieved June 23, 2011.
  84. Sam Biddle (9 May 2011). "NYU Film Student Plagiarizes His Way to Kickstarter Fame". Gizmodo .
  85. Clover, Joshua. "The Amanda Palmer Kickstarter Scandal". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2013-06-03.
  86. Amos Barshad. "Thanks to Kickstarter, Zach Braff Finally Has Millions of Dollars".
  87. Steven Bogos (2013-03-12). "The Escapist : News : Richard Garriott Explains Why He Needs a $1 Million Kickstarter". Archived from the original on 2020-02-03. Retrieved 2013-06-03.
  88. · 35 comments (2012-03-29). "Blockbuster Effects » The Kickstarter Blog — Kickstarter". Retrieved 2013-06-03.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  89. Best Inventions of 2010 (2013-05-09). "Who is Kickstarter for? » The Kickstarter Blog — Kickstarter". Retrieved 2013-06-03.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  90. Dunn, Gaby (24 June 2013). "Reddit pick-up artist issues mea culpa after Kickstarter controversy". Daily Dot. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
  91. Baker, Katie J.M (19 June 2013). "Redditor's PUA Kickstarter Project Recommends Sexual Assault". Jezebel. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
  92. Dredge, Stuart (21 June 2013). "Kickstarter bans 'seduction guides' after Above The Game controversy". Guardian. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
  93. Ha, Anthony (21 June 2013). "Kickstarter Says It Was Wrong About 'Above The Game' Campaign, Bans Future 'Seduction Guides'". Techcrunch. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
  94. "NED RIFLE by Hal Hartley". Kickstarter. Retrieved April 30, 2014.
  95. Bernstein, Paula (November 25, 2013). "Hal Hartley Explains Why He is Offering Distribution Rights to 'Ned Rifle' as Kickstarter Backer Reward". Indiewire . Retrieved April 30, 2014.
  96. Saperstein, Pat (November 25, 2013). "Updated: Hal Hartley Can't Offer Distribution Rights as Kickstarter Reward". Variety . Retrieved April 30, 2014.
  97. Bond, Paul (May 2014). "Filmmaker Accuses Kickstarter of Censoring 'Gosnell' Abortion Movie". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved February 13, 2017.
  98. "Gosnell Movie". Indiegogo. Retrieved February 13, 2017.
  99. Jan Wolfe (19 February 2013). "Jan Wolfe, "ArtistShare Can't Show Kickstarter Infringes Crowd-Funding Patent" The AM Law Litigation Daily, 19 February 2013". Litigation Daily. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
  100. Sarah Jacobsson Purewal (October 5, 2011). "Kickstarter Faces Patent Suit Over Funding Idea". PCWorld. Retrieved October 6, 2011.
  101. Eriq Gardner (February 16, 2012). "Hollywood Docket: Comedy Club Documentary Lawsuit; Michael Jordan vs. 1st Amendment". The Hollywood Reporter . Retrieved March 23, 2012.
  102. Jeffries, Adrianne (14 May 2012). "Kickstarter Wins Small Victory in Patent Lawsuit With 2000-Era Crowdfunding Site". BetaBeat. The New York Observer . Retrieved 17 May 2012.
  103. "Kickstarter Wins Crowdfunding Patent Lawsuit Against ArtistShare". Crowdfund Insider. 29 June 2015.
  104. "Joseph Flaherty, "3D Systems Sues Formlabs and Kickstarter for Patent Infringement" Wired, 21 November 2012". WIRED. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
  105. ""Kickstarter Sued: Formlabs 3D Printer Accused Of Patent Breach" Huffington Post, 21 November 2012". The Huffington Post UK. 22 November 2012. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
  106. "3D Systems gets 6-month stay for settlement talks over patent lawsuit". Archived from the original on 2015-02-12. Retrieved 2015-01-30.
  107. "Details Emerge on Patent Lawsuit Against Multiple Crowdfunding Platforms". Crowdfund Insider. 2015-01-29. Retrieved 2019-05-14.
  108. "Details Emerge on Patent Lawsuit Against Multiple Crowdfunding Platforms". Bloomberg News . 27 May 2023.
  109. "Patent troll targets crowdfunding startups — Innovation Act could stop that". VentureBeat. 2015-02-11. Retrieved 2019-05-14.
  110. "Alice Decision Saves Crowdfunding From Patent Troll". Electronic Frontier Foundation. 2017-10-05. Retrieved 2019-05-14.
  111. "Kickstarter hacked, user data stolen". Cnet. 15 February 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2023.
  112. Stephen, Bijan (2019-03-19). "Kickstarter's staff is unionizing". The Verge . Vox Media. Archived from the original on 2019-08-24. Retrieved 2019-09-27.
  113. Perry, Tekla S. (2019-05-06). "Kickstarter Workers Kick Off a Union Organizing Drive; NPM Allegedly Fires Engineers for Organizing Efforts". IEEE Spectrum . Archived from the original on 2019-05-06. Retrieved 2019-09-27.
  114. Menegus, Bryan (2019-03-21). "Kickstarter Union Opposed by Senior Employees: Leaked Memo". Gizmodo . Archived from the original on 2019-09-15. Retrieved 2019-09-27.
  115. Stephen, Bijan (2019-05-15). "Kickstarter will not voluntarily recognize its employee union". The Verge . Archived from the original on 2019-09-15. Retrieved 2019-09-27.
  116. Gurley, Lauren Kaori (2019-09-18). "Workers Accuse Kickstarter of Union-Busting in Federal Complaint". Vice . Archived from the original on 2019-09-22. Retrieved 2019-09-27.
  117. Davis, Vincy (2019-09-18). "Kickstarter's union-busting triggers the need of unions in tech". Packt Hub. Archived from the original on 2019-09-27. Retrieved 2019-09-27.
  118. Jamieson, Dave (2019-09-14). "Kickstarter's Union Opposition Puts Users In A Bind: 'It's Toxic Now'". HuffPost . Archived from the original on 2019-09-24. Retrieved 2019-09-27.
  119. Hall, Charlie (2019-09-16). "Kickstarter under fire from creators over labor dispute". Polygon . Archived from the original on 2019-09-18. Retrieved 2019-09-27.
  120. Robinson, Nathan J. (2019-09-28). "Kickstarter To Workers And Project Creators: Drop Dead". Current Affairs . Archived from the original on 2019-09-29. Retrieved 2019-09-29.
  121. Wieland, Rob (1 October 2019). "Can Small Businesses Navigate Tabletop Industry Turbulence?". Forbes . Retrieved 1 October 2019.
  122. Neil Gaiman [@neilhimself] (September 29, 2019). "To clarify, I'm not calling for a boycott of @Kickstarter. I'm saying that, in good conscience, I'm very unlikely to post support for or links to Kickstarters here, as long as they are anti-union. That's a personal view" (Tweet). Retrieved 1 October 2019 via Twitter.
  123. Jamieson, Dave (18 February 2020). "Kickstarter Workers Vote To Unionize". HuffPost . Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  124. Hall, Charlie (18 February 2020). "Kickstarter employees vote to unionize, relieving tension among game developers". Polygon . Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  125. Perry, Alex (18 February 2020). "Kickstarter employees vote to unionize in historic first for tech industry". Mashable . Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  126. Davalos, Jackie (8 December 2021). "Kickstarter Will Move Its Crowdfunding Platform to Blockchain". Bloomberg. Bloomberg. Retrieved 17 December 2021.
  127. MacDonald, Heidi (9 December 2021). "Kickstarter's switch to crypto platform alarms creators". The Beat. Superlime Media LLC. Retrieved 17 December 2021.
  128. 1 2 Morse, Jack (16 December 2021). "Kickstarter said it's moving to the blockchain, and creators are pissed". Mashable. Mashable, Inc. Retrieved 17 December 2021.