Last updated
Kickstarter, PBC
Kickstarter logo 2017.svg
Kickstarter screenshot.jpg
Type of business Public-benefit corporation
Type of site
Founder(s) Perry Chen
Yancey Strickler
Charles Adler
CEO Aziz Hasan
Key people Perry Chen
(Founder and former CEO )
Industry Financial services
Alexa rankIncrease2.svg 614 (May 2018) [1]
LaunchedApril 28, 2009;10 years ago (2009-04-28)

Kickstarter is an American public-benefit corporation [2] based in Brooklyn, New York, that maintains a global crowdfunding platform focused on creativity and merchandising. [3] The company's stated mission is to "help bring creative projects to life". [4] As of May 2019, Kickstarter has received more than $4 billion in pledges from 16.3 million backers to fund 445,000 projects, such as films, music, stage shows, comics, journalism, video games, technology, publishing, and food-related projects. [5]

Public-benefit corporations are a specific type of corporation that allow for public benefit to be a charter purpose in addition to the traditional corporate goal of maximizing profit for shareholders. Depending on the country they may also be known as crown corporations, statutory corporations, or government owned corporations having monopoly over a specific service or market..

Brooklyn Borough in New York City and county in New York state, United States

Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with an estimated 2,504,700 residents in 2010. Named after the Dutch village of Breukelen, it borders the borough of Queens at the western end of Long Island. Brooklyn has several bridge and tunnel connections to the borough of Manhattan across the East River, and the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge connects it with Staten Island. Since 1896, Brooklyn has been coterminous with Kings County, the most populous county in the U.S. state of New York and the second-most densely populated county in the United States, after New York County.

New York (state) American state

New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies that formed the United States. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. In order to distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes referred to as New York State.


People who back Kickstarter projects are offered tangible rewards or experiences in exchange for their pledges. [6] This model traces its roots to subscription model of arts patronage, where artists would go directly to their audiences to fund their work. [7]


Kickstarter HQ library, Brooklyn Editing at Kickstarter 2017-03 jeh.jpg
Kickstarter HQ library, Brooklyn

Kickstarter launched on April 28, 2009, [8] by Perry Chen, Yancey Strickler, and Charles Adler. The New York Times called Kickstarter "the people's NEA". [9] Time named it one of the "Best Inventions of 2010" [10] and "Best Websites of 2011". [11] Kickstarter reportedly raised $10 million funding from backers including NYC-based venture firm Union Square Ventures and angel investors such as Jack Dorsey, Zach Klein and Caterina Fake. [12] The company is based in Greenpoint, Brooklyn. [13]

Perry Chen American Internet entrepreneur

Perry Chen is an American artist and entrepreneur best known for being the creator and principal founder of Kickstarter, the online funding platform for creative projects. He came up with the idea for Kickstarter in 2001 and launched it in 2009 along with co-founders Charles Adler and Yancey Strickler.

<i>The New York Times</i> Daily broadsheet newspaper based in New York City

The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won 127 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other newspaper. The Times is ranked 18th in the world by circulation and 3rd in the U.S.

National Endowment for the Arts

The National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) is an independent agency of the United States federal government that offers support and funding for projects exhibiting artistic excellence. It was created by an act of the U.S. Congress in 1965 as an independent agency of the federal government. The NEA has its offices in Washington, D.C. It was awarded Tony Honors for Excellence in Theatre in 1995, as well as the Special Tony Award in 2016.

Andy Baio served as the site's CTO until November 2010, when he joined Expert Labs. [14] Lance Ivy has been Lead Developer since the website launched. [15] On February 14, 2013, Kickstarter released an iOS app called Kickstarter for the iPhone. [16] The app was aimed at users who create and back projects and was the first time Kickstarter had an official mobile presence. [17]

Andy Baio American blogger

Andy Baio is an American technologist and blogger. He is the co-founder of the XOXO Festival, founder of, a former CTO of Kickstarter and the author of the blog. In 2018, Baio was named a Kickstarter Fellow.

Expert Labs is a non-profit technology incubator intended to aid government access expertise from interested members of the public. Part of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, it was formed in November 2009, following discussions with the White House Office of Science & Technology Policy. Expert Labs is directed by longtime blogger and technology evangelist Anil Dash. Initial funding of US$500,000 is from the MacArthur Foundation.

iOS mobile operating system by Apple

iOS is a mobile operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. exclusively for its hardware. It is the operating system that presently powers many of the company's mobile devices, including the iPhone, iPad, and iPod Touch. It is the second most popular mobile operating system globally after Android.

On October 31, 2012, Kickstarter opened projects based in the United Kingdom, [18] followed by projects based in Canada on September 9, 2013, [19] Australia and New Zealand on November 13, 2013, [20] the Netherlands on April 28, 2014, Denmark, Ireland, Norway, and Sweden on September 15, 2014, [21] Germany on April 28, 2015, France and Spain on May 19, 2015, [22] Austria, Belgium, Italy, Luxembourg and Switzerland on June 16, 2015, Singapore and Hong Kong on August 30, 2016, [23] Mexico on November 15, 2016 and Japan on September 12, 2017. In July 2017, Strickler announced his resignation. [24]

United Kingdom Country in Europe

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea separates Great Britain and Ireland. The United Kingdom's 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi) were home to an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017.

Canada Country in North America

Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Its southern border with the United States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world's longest bi-national land border. Canada's capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.

Denmark Constitutional monarchy in Europe

Denmark, officially the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Nordic country. Denmark proper, which is the southernmost of the Scandinavian countries, consists of a peninsula, Jutland, and an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand, Funen and the North Jutlandic Island. The islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. The southernmost of the Scandinavian nations, Denmark lies southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and is bordered to the south by Germany. The Kingdom of Denmark also includes two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark has a total area of 42,924 km2 (16,573 sq mi), land area of 42,394 km2 (16,368 sq mi), and the total area including Greenland and the Faroe Islands is 2,210,579 km2 (853,509 sq mi), and a population of 5.8 million.


Kickstarter is one of a number of crowdfunding platforms for gathering money from the public, which circumvents traditional avenues of investment. [25] [26] Project creators choose a deadline and a minimum funding goal. If the goal is not met by the deadline, no funds are collected (a kind of assurance contract). [27]

Crowdfunding is the practice of funding a project or venture by raising small amounts of money from a large number of people, typically via the Internet. Crowdfunding is a form of crowdsourcing and alternative finance. In 2015, over US$34 billion was raised worldwide by crowdfunding.

An assurance contract, also known as a provision point mechanism, or crowdaction, is a game theoretic mechanism and a financial technology that facilitates the voluntary creation of public goods and club goods in the face of collective action problems such as the free rider problem.

The kickstarter platform is open to backers from anywhere in the world and to creators from many countries, including the US, UK, [28] Canada, [29] Australia, New Zealand, [20] The Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, Norway, Sweden, Spain, France, Germany, Austria, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg, Switzerland and Mexico.

Kickstarter applies a 5% fee on the total amount of the funds raised. [30] Their payments processor applies an additional 3–5% fee. [31] Unlike many forums for fundraising or investment, Kickstarter claims no ownership over the projects and the work they produce. The web pages of projects launched on the site are permanently archived and accessible to the public. After funding is completed, projects and uploaded media cannot be edited or removed from the site. [32]

There is no guarantee that people who post projects on Kickstarter will deliver on their projects, use the money to implement their projects, or that the completed projects will meet backers' expectations. Kickstarter advises backers to use their own judgment on supporting a project. They also warn project leaders that they could be liable for legal damages from backers for failure to deliver on promises. [33] Projects might also fail even after a successful fundraising campaign when creators underestimate the total costs required or technical difficulties to be overcome. [34] [35]

Asked what made Kickstarter different from other crowdfunding platforms, co-founder Perry Chen said: "I wonder if people really know what the definition of crowdfunding is. Or, if there’s even an agreed upon definition of what it is. We haven’t actively supported the use of the term because it can provoke more confusion. In our case, we focus on a middle ground between patronage and commerce. People are offering cool stuff and experiences in exchange for the support of their ideas. People are creating these mini-economies around their project ideas. So, you aren’t coming to the site to get something for nothing; you are trying to create value for the people who support you. We focus on creative projects—music, film, technology, art, design, food and publishing—and within the category of crowdfunding of the arts, we are probably ten times the size of all of the others combined." [36]


On June 21, 2012, Kickstarter began publishing statistics on its projects. [37] As of February 13, 2015, there were 207,135 launched projects (7,802 in progress), with a success rate of 40%.[ clarification needed ] The total amount pledged was $1,523,718,656. [38]

The business grew quickly in its early years. In 2010 Kickstarter had 3,910 successful projects and $27,638,318 pledged. The corresponding figures for 2011 were 11,836 successfully funded projects and $99,344,381 pledged; and there were 18,109 successfully funded projects, $610,352 pledged in 2012. [39] [40]

On February 9, 2012, Kickstarter hit a number of milestones. A dock made for the iPhone designed by Casey Hopkins became the first Kickstarter project to exceed one million dollars in pledges. A few hours later, a new adventure game project started by computer game developers, Double Fine Productions, reached the same figure, having been launched less than 24 hours earlier, and finished with over $3 million pledged. [41] This was also the first time Kickstarter raised over a million dollars in pledges in a single day. [42] On August 30, 2014, the "Coolest Cooler", an icebox created by Ryan Grepper, became the most funded Kickstarter project in history, with US$13.28 million in funding, breaking the record previously held by the Pebble smart watch. [43]

In July 2012, Wharton professor Ethan Mollick and Jeanne Pi conducted research into what contributes to a project's success or failure on Kickstarter. Some key findings from the analysis were that increasing goal size is negatively associated with success, projects that are featured on the Kickstarter homepage have an 89% chance of being successful, compared to 30% without, and that for an average $10,000 project, a 30-day project has a 35% chance of success, while a 60-day project has a 29% chance of success, all other things being constant. [44]

The ten largest Kickstarter projects by funds raised are listed below. Among successful projects, most raise between $1,000 and $9,999. These dollar amounts drop to less than half in the Design, Games, and Technology categories. However, the median amount raised for the latter two categories remains in the four-figure range. There is substantial variation in the success rate of projects falling under different categories. Over two thirds of completed dance projects have been successful. In contrast, fewer than 30% of completed fashion projects have reached their goal. Most failing projects fail to achieve 20% of their goals and this trend applies across all categories. Indeed, over 80% of projects that pass the 20% mark reach their goal. [38]


Creators categorize their projects into one of 13 categories and 36 subcategories. [45] They are: Art, Comics, Dance, Design, Fashion, Film and Video, Food, Games, Music, Photography, Publishing, Technology and Theater. Of these categories, Film & Video and Music are the largest categories and have raised the most money. These categories, along with Games, account for over half the money raised. [38] Video games and tabletop games alone account for more than $2 out of every $10 spent on Kickstarter. [46]


To maintain its focus as a funding platform for creative projects, Kickstarter has outlined three guidelines for all project creators to follow: creators can fund projects only; projects must fit within one of the site's 13 creative categories; and creators must abide by the site's prohibited uses, which include charity and awareness campaigns. Kickstarter has additional requirements for hardware and product design projects. These include [47] [48]

The guidelines are designed to reinforce Kickstarter's position that people are backing projects, not placing orders for a product. To underscore the notion that Kickstarter is a place in which creators and audiences make things together, creators across all categories are asked to describe the risks and challenges a project faces in producing it. This educates the public about the project goals and encourages contributions to the community. [50]

Notable projects and creators

At $20.3 million, the Pebble Time is the largest successful Kickstarter campaign. Pebble Time front.jpg
At $20.3 million, the Pebble Time is the largest successful Kickstarter campaign.

Several creative works have gone on to receive critical acclaim and accolades after being funded on Kickstarter. Others, such as the Ouya console, have resulted in commercial failure. [51] The documentary short "Sun Come Up" and documentary short "Incident in New Baghdad" were each nominated for an Academy Award; [52] [53] contemporary art projects "EyeWriter" and "Hip-Hop Word Count" were both chosen to exhibit in the Museum of Modern Art in 2011; [54] filmmaker Matt Porterfield was selected to screen his film Putty Hill at the Whitney Biennial In 2012; [55] author Rob Walker's Hypothetical Futures project exhibited at the 13th International Venice Architecture Biennale; [56] musician Amanda Palmer's album "Theatre is Evil" debuted at No. 10 on the Billboard 200; [57] designer Scott Wilson won a National Design Award from Smithsonian's Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum following the success of his TikTok + LunaTik project; [58] the Kickstarter funded GoldieBlox toy gained nationwide distribution in 2013; [59] and approximately 10% of the films accepted into the Sundance, SXSW and Tribeca Film Festivals are projects funded on Kickstarter. [60] [61]

Numerous well-known creators have used Kickstarter to produce their work, including: musicians Jennifer Paige, [62] Paula Cole, [63] TLC, [64] Amanda McBroom, [65] De La Soul, [66] Amanda Palmer, [67] Daniel Johnston, [68] Stuart Murdoch, [69] Tom Rush [70] and Disciple; [71] filmmakers and actors Kevin Sorbo, [72] Alyson Hannigan, [73] Zach Braff, [74] Bret Easton Ellis, [75] Colin Hanks, [76] Ed Begley, Jr., [77] Gary Hustwit, [78] Hal Hartley, [79] Jennie Livingston, [80] Mark Duplass, [81] Matthew Modine, [82] Paul Schrader, [83] Ricki Lake, [84] Whoopi Goldberg, [85] Kristen Bell, John de Lancie and Zana Briski; authors and writers Dan Harmon, [86] Kevin Kelly, [87] Neal Stephenson, [88] Steve Altes, [89] and Seth Godin; [90] photographers Spencer Tunick, [91] Shane Lavalette, [92] and Gerd Ludwig; [93] game developers Tim Schafer, [94] Keiji Inafune, Brian Fargo, [95] and Rand Miller; [96] designer Stefan Sagmeister; [97] animator John Kricfalusi; comedian Eugene Mirman; [98] animators Don Bluth and Gary Goldman; [99] entrepreneurs Tim Ferriss, [100] Samuel Agboola [101] and Craig Mod; [102] and custom guitar maker Moniker. [103]

The Glowing Plant project was the first and only Kickstarter project to fund the development of a genetically modified organism (GMO).[ citation needed ]

Top projects by funds raised

Ten largest successfully completed Kickstarter projects by total funds pledged (only closed fundings are listed) [104]
RankTotal USDProject nameCreatorCategory% fundedBackersClosing date
120,338,986 Pebble Time – Awesome Smartwatch, No Compromises [105] Pebble TechnologyProduct design4,06778,4712015-03-27
213,285,226 Coolest Cooler: 21st Century Cooler that's Actually Cooler [106] Ryan GrepperProduct design26,57062,6422014-08-30
312,779,843 Pebble 2, Time 2 + All-New Pebble Core [107] Pebble TechnologyProduct design1,27766,6732016-06-30
412,393,139 Kingdom Death: Monster 1.5 [108] Kingdom Death/Adam PootsTabletop games12,39319,2642017-01-07
511,385,449 Critical Role: The Legend of Vox Machina Animated Special [109] Critical RoleFilm1,51888,8872019-04-19
610,266,845 Pebble: E-Paper Watch for iPhone and Android [110] Pebble TechnologyProduct design10,26668,9292012-05-18
79,192,055The World's Best Travel Jacket with 15 Features || BAUBAX [111] BAUBAX LLCProduct design45,96044,9492015-09-03
88,782,571 Exploding Kittens [112] Elan Lee Playing cards87,825219,3822015-02-20
98,596,474 OUYA: A New Kind of Video Game Console [113] Ouya Inc.Video games90463,4162012-08-09
107,072,757THE 7th CONTINENT – What Goes Up, Must Come Down [114] Serious PoulpBoard game17,68143,7332017-10-19

Project cancellations

Both Kickstarter and project creators have canceled projects that appeared to have been fraudulent. Questions were raised about the projects in internet communities related to the fields of the projects. The concerns raised were: apparent copying of graphics from other sources; unrealistic performance or price claims; and failure of project sponsors to deliver on prior Kickstarter projects.

A small list of canceled projects includes:


In the Huffington Post article "Why Kickstarter is Corrupted [122] " Nathan Resnick [123] blames the rise of paid advertising, investor-backed campaigns, and crowdfunding agencies for the decline of Kickstarter as a useful tool for small inventors and creators. Kickstarter's internal reports says that 9% of Kickstarter projects fail to deliver rewards. [124]

Resnick cites Nebia, [125] backed by Tim Cook and Eric Schmidt, as an example of a well funded, investor-backed project using Kickstarter purely for publicity, thus drawing donations from smaller teams.

In addition, many individual projects caused controversy.

Patent disputes

See also

Related Research Articles

Funding is the act of providing financial resources, usually in the form of money, or other values such as effort or time, to finance a need, program, and project, usually by an organization or company. Generally, this word is used when a firm uses its internal reserves to satisfy its necessity for cash, while the term financing is used when the firm acquires capital from external sources.

ArtistShare is the internet's first crowdfunding website. It also operates as a record label and business model for artists which enables them to fund their projects by allowing the general public to directly finance, watch the creative process, and in most cases gain access to extra material from an artist. According to Bloomberg News, the company's chief executive officer, Brian Camelio, founded ArtistShare in 2000 with the idea that fans would finance production costs for albums sold only on the Internet and Artists also would enjoy much more favourable contract terms. ArtistShare was described in 2005 as a "completely new business model for creative artists" which "benefits both the artist and the fans by financing new and original artistic projects while building a strong and loyal fan base".

Bountysource is a website for open source bounties and since 2012 also for crowdfunding. Users can pledge money for tasks using micropayment services that open source software developers can pick up and solve to earn the money. It also allows large-scale fundraising for big improvements on the project. It integrates with GitHub using its bug tracker to check if the problem is resolved and connect the resolution with GitHub's pull request system to identify the patch. When the users agree that they are satisfied and the project maintainer merged the proposed changes to the source-code, Bountysource will transfer the money acting as a trustee during the whole process.

The Oatmeal is a webcomic and humor website created in 2009 by cartoonist Matthew Boyd Inman. Inman, who lives in Seattle, updates his site with original comics, quizzes, and occasional articles. The Oatmeal has also made the transition to a series of books, featuring content from the webcomic as well as previously unpublished material.

Indiegogo crowdfunding website

Indiegogo is an American crowdfunding website founded in 2008 by Danae Ringelmann, Slava Rubin, and Eric Schell. Its headquarters are in San Francisco, California. The site is one of the first sites to offer crowd funding. Indiegogo allows people to solicit funds for an idea, charity, or start-up business. Indiegogo charges a 5% fee on contributions. This charge is in addition to Stripe credit card processing charges of 3% + $0.30 per transaction. Fifteen million people visit the site each month.

<i>Broken Age</i> video game

Broken Age is a point-and-click adventure video game developed and published by Double Fine. Broken Age was game director Tim Schafer's first return to the genre since 1998's Grim Fandango, and was released for Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, iOS, Android, PlayStation 4, PlayStation Vita, and Xbox One platforms. The game was developed in two acts; the first was released on January 28, 2014, and the second was released on April 28, 2015. A retail version of the complete game for Windows, OS X, and Linux, published by Nordic Games, was released on April 28, 2015. A Nintendo Switch version was released on September 13, 2018.

Pebble (watch) smartwatch model

Pebble is a discontinued smartwatch developed by Pebble Technology Corporation. Funding was conducted through a Kickstarter campaign running from April 11, 2012, through May 18, 2012, which raised $10.3 million; it was the most funded project in Kickstarter history, at the time. Pebble began shipping watches to Kickstarter backers in January 2013. Pebble watches can be connected to Android and iOS devices to show notifications and messages. An online app store distributes Pebble-compatible apps from many developers including ESPN, Uber, Runkeeper, and GoPro.

Video game development has typically been funded by large publishing companies or are alternatively paid for mostly by the developers themselves as independent titles. Other funding may come from government incentives or from private funding.

<i>Planetary Annihilation</i>

Planetary Annihilation is a real-time strategy PC game originally developed by Uber Entertainment, whose staff included several industry veterans who worked on Total Annihilation and Supreme Commander. A standalone expansion pack for Planetary Annihilation has been released which adds powerful Titan-class units, called Planetary Annihilation: TITANS.

<i>Star Citizen</i> multiplayer space trading and combat game

Star Citizen is an upcoming multiplayer space trading and combat game developed and published by Cloud Imperium Games for Microsoft Windows. Development of the game began in 2011 led by director Chris Roberts, and is being mostly financed from a large crowdfunding campaign of over US$250 million. The game's full launch was originally anticipated to be in 2014, but significant expansion of gameplay features have led to postponement. Squadron 42, a single-player story-driven game set in the same universe as Star Citizen, is also being developed.

Offbeatr was a US website for crowdfunding pornography. It has been described as “Kickstarter for porn”. Project creators posted pitches for new projects, which could be media, events or objects. The user community voted on projects. If a project got enough votes, it would open for funding. If a project met its goal, then the project creator got the funds. Project creators could also sell previously created material. Projects had to be based in either United States, United Kingdom, Germany, Canada, France, Australia, or New Zealand.

Experiment, formerly called Microryza, is a US website for crowdfunding science-based research projects. Researchers can post their research projects to solicit pledges. Experiment works on the all-or-nothing funding model. The backers are only charged if the research projects reach their funding target during a set time frame. In February 2014, the site changed its name from Microryza to


Spacehive is a United Kingdom-based crowdfunding platform for projects aimed at improving local civic and community spaces.

One Spark is an annual crowdfunding festival held in Downtown Jacksonville, Florida, United States. In the event, "creators" display projects in various categories and crowdfund from attendees. The event also offers opportunities for private investment in projects as well as speakers, music, and entertainment. The event launched in 2013.

Digital Bolex was a partnership between Cinemeridian, Inc. and Ienso Canada to develop the Digital Bolex D16 digital cinema camera. Development was funded via a successful Kickstarter in March 2012, raising $262,661. On June 27, 2016, the company announced on their website that they would no longer be producing cameras as of that month, and would shut down their online store on June 30, 2016.

Seed&Spark is a film-centric crowdfunding and SVOD platform launched in 2012.

Exploding Kittens card game

Exploding Kittens is a card game designed by Elan Lee, Matthew Inman from the comics site The Oatmeal, and Shane Small. Originally proposed as a Kickstarter project seeking US $10,000 in crowdfunding, it exceeded the goal in eight minutes and on January 27, 2015, seven days after opening, it passed 103,000 backers setting the record for most backers in Kickstarter history. At completion on February 19, 2015, it had $8,782,571 USD in pledges by 219,382 backers. The campaign ended as the fourth most funded campaign on the crowdfunding site. The first play test of Exploding Kittens was recorded on YouTube by Smosh Games, who had the first deck. The backers started receiving delivery in late July 2015; all backers received the game by September 2015.

Harebrained Schemes American video game studio

Harebrained Schemes, LLC is an American video game developer based in Seattle, Washington. It was co-founded in 2011 by Jordan Weisman and Mitch Gitelman. Prior to founding Harebrained Schemes, Weisman and Gitelman worked together on the MechCommander and Crimson Skies franchises at FASA, another company founded by Weisman. As of mid-2015, the studio had under 60 employees.


  1. " Site Info". Alexa Internet . Retrieved 17 May 2018.
  2. Isaac, Mike (September 21, 2015). "Kickstarter Focuses Its Mission on Altruism Over Profit". The New York Times .
  3. "Kickstarter crowdfunding site officially launches in Canada". The Canadian Press. 10 September 2013. Retrieved 14 October 2013.
  4. Gannes, Liz (May 29, 2010). "Kickstarter: We Don't Have Anything Against Celebrity Projects". All Things D .
  5. "Kickstarter Official Stats". Kickstarter. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  6. Walker, Rob (August 5, 2011). "The Trivialities and Transcendence of Kickstarter". The New York Times Magazine .
  7. Garber, Megan (June 29, 2013). "Kickstarters of Yore: Mozart, Lady Liberty, Alexander Pope". The Atlantic .
  8. Wauters, Robin (April 29, 2009). "Kickstarter Launches Another Social Fundraising Platform".
  9. Walker, Rob (August 5, 2011). "The Trivialities and Transcendence of Kickstarter". The New York Times . Retrieved June 20, 2012.
  10. Snyder, Steven James (November 11, 2010). "The 50 Best Inventions of 2010". TIME . Retrieved June 20, 2012.
  11. McCracken, Harry (August 16, 2011). "The 50 Best Websites of 2011". TIME . Retrieved June 20, 2012.
  12. Kafka, Peter. "Kickstarter Fesses Up: The Crowdsourced Funding Start-Up Has Funding, Too". All Things D. Dow Jones & Company Inc. Retrieved February 7, 2012.
  13. "Kickstarter".
  14. Andy Baio. "Joining Expert Labs". Retrieved November 17, 2010.
  15. (November 30, 2010). "Kickstarter CrunchBase Profile".
  16. "Kickstarter for iPhone for iPhone 3GS, iPhone 4, iPhone 4S, iPhone 5, iPod touch (3rd generation), iPod touch (4th generation), iPod touch (5th generation) and iPad on the iTunes App Store:" . Retrieved February 15, 2013.
  17. Dredge, Stuart (January 14, 2013). "Kickstarter? There's now an official iPhone app for that". The Guardian . Retrieved February 15, 2013.
  18. Perry Chen; Yancey Strickler; Charles Adler. "Kickstarter in the UK » The Kickstarter Blog — Kickstarter". Retrieved 2013-09-18.
  19. "Kickstarter in Canada! » The Kickstarter Blog — Kickstarter",, September 9, 2013, retrieved 2013-09-18
  20. 1 2 Starr, Michelle. "Kickstarter officially opens in Australia and New Zealand". CNET.
  21. Woods, Ben. "Kickstarter opens up to projects from Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Ireland".
  22. Cortes, Iker. "Kickstarter llega a España". EL CORREO.
  23. Ho, Victoria. "Kickstarter opens in Asia, starting in Hong Kong and Singapore". Mashable. Retrieved 2017-04-18.
  24. Dickey, Megan Rose. "Kickstarter co-founder and CEO Yancey Strickler will step down this year". Techcrunch. Retrieved 2017-07-27.
  25. Villano, Matt (March 14, 2010). "Small Donations in Large Numbers, With Online Help". The New York Times .
  26. Gould, Emily. "Start me up". Technology Review . MIT . Retrieved January 20, 2011.
  27. Musgrove, Mike (March 7, 2010). "At Play: Kickstarter is a Web site for the starving artist". The Washington Post .
  28. "Kickstarter starts welcoming UK creators with projects launching Oct. 31". GigaOM . October 10, 2012.
  29. Kickstarter Allowing Canada-Based Projects Beginning This Summer. TechCrunch (2013-06-27). Retrieved on 2013-09-21.
  30. "Creators – Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)". Retrieved July 13, 2012.
  31. "Creators – Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)". Retrieved February 13, 2015.
  32. "Help Center — Kickstarter".
  33. "Kickstarter FAQ If I am unable to complete my project as listed, what should I do?".
  34. "Adrianne Jeffries, "Jellyfish Tanks, Funded 54 Times Over on Kickstarter, Turn Out to Be Jellyfish Death Traps UPDATED", BetaBeat, March 15, 2012". Betabeat. 15 March 2012. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
  35. "Kevin Stout, "Kickstarter, Pros and Cons",, April 23, 2012" . Retrieved 9 October 2014.
  36. Davison, Hallie. "THE Q&A: PERRY CHEN, KICKSTARTER". More Intelligent Life. The Economist. Archived from the original on 28 May 2015. Retrieved 28 May 2015.
  37. Strickler, Yancey. "Kickstarter Stats".
  38. 1 2 3 "Kickstarter Stats". Kickstarter. Retrieved February 13, 2015.
  39. "2011: The Stats", February 11, 2015,, accessed February 11, 2015.
  40. "Kickstarter".
  41. "Double Fine Kickstarter hits 3 million, drive closing on Ustream", Joystiq , March 13, 2012, Retrieved March 13, 2012.
  42. Carl Franzen "Crowd-Funding Website Kickstarter Has Double Million Dollar Day Archived 2012-02-14 at the Wayback Machine ", TPM, February 10, 2012, Retrieved February 11, 2012
  43. Bogart, Nicole. "'Coolest Cooler' beats Pebble to become top Kickstarter project". Global News. Global News.
  44. Mollick, Ethan (July 15, 2012). "The Dynamics of Crowdfunding: Determinants of Success and Failure". Social Science Research Network . SSRN   2088298 .Missing or empty |url= (help)
  45. "Discover – Kickstarter". Retrieved June 20, 2012.
  46. "What Is Kickstarter For? Video Games". Airbrite. November 13, 2013. Archived from the original on January 4, 2014.
  47. "Eric Blattberg, "Kickstarter Bans Project Renderings, Adds 'Risks and Challenges' Section, 21 September 2012". Archived from the original on 17 October 2014. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
  48. "Mark Milian, "After Raising Money on Kickstarter, Side Project Lands Another $3 million", Bloomberg Tech Deals, 6 September 2012" . Retrieved 9 October 2014.
  49. "Cha, Ariana Eunjung, "Glowing plants spark environmental debate" The Seattle Times 5 October 2013". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on 20 October 2014. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
  50. "Kickstarter Is Not a Store".
  51. "The stillborn revolution: Ouya fails to sell, developer seeks buyout - ExtremeTech". 2 September 2014.
  52. Staff, NPR (February 26, 2011). "The Love Story Behind Oscar Nominee Sun Come Up". NPR .
  53. Montgomery, David (February 21, 2012). "Incident in New Baghdad: What Happened in Iraq?". The Washington Post .
  54. "Talk to Me – MoMA". Retrieved July 2, 2012.
  55. "Matt Porterfield". Archived from the original on June 18, 2012. Retrieved July 2, 2012.
  56. Titunik, Vera (May 15, 2012). "Real Designs For Fake Buildings Are Going to Venice". The New York Times . Archived from the original on June 21, 2012.
  57. Caulfield, Keith (September 19, 2012). "Dave Matthews Band Debuts at No. 1 on Billboard 200". Billboard .
  58. "National Design Awards". Retrieved July 2, 2012.
  59. Taylor, Colleen (2 July 2013). "GoldieBlox, The Toy That Aims To Get Girls Hooked On Engineering, Is Coming To A Toys 'R' Us Near You". TechCrunch. Retrieved 3 July 2013.
  60. Carr, David (January 30, 2012). "At Sundance, Kickstarter Resembled a Movie Studio, but Without the Egos". The New York Times .
  61. Watercutter, Angela (March 9, 2012). "When SXSW Money Crunch Hits, Kickstarter Comes to the Rescue". Wired .
  62. "Jennifer Paige Makes NEW ALBUM: Daydreamer".
  63. "Discover » "paula cole" — Kickstarter".
  64. "TLC is BACK to make our FINAL ALBUM with YOU!". Kickstarter.
  65. "VOICES by Amanda McBroom".
  66. "De La Soul's NEW ALBUM".
  67. Sisario, Ben (June 5, 2012). "Giving Love, Lots of It, To Her Fans". The New York Times .
  68. McCarter, Reid (January 27, 2011). "The Weekly Kickstarter: Daniel Johnston and the Comic Book". The Social Times.
  69. Eanet, Lindsay (January 13, 2012). "You Can Help Stuart Murdoch From Belle & Sebastian Make a Movie". BlackBook . Archived from the original on April 21, 2013.
  70. Young, Robin (May 15, 2012). "Folk Singer Tom Rush Kickstarts 50th Anniversary Concert". NPR .
  71. "Disciple Launches Kickstarter Campaign for 'Long Live the Rebels'". New Release Today. August 3, 2016.
  72. "Mythica: A Quest for Heroes - starring Kevin Sorbo". Retrieved 2016-07-20.
  73. "Do You Take This Man".
  74. "Zach Braff Explains Why He Turned to Kickstarter for New Indie Film". April 24, 2013. Retrieved August 11, 2013.
  75. Carlson, Erin (May 4, 2012). "Bret Easton Ellis Is Using Kickstarter to Finance 'The Canyons' Indie". The Hollywood Reporter .
  76. Aswad, Jem (June 2, 2011). "Colin Hanks Uses Kickstarter to Help Fund His Tower Records Doc". The Hollywood Reporter .
  77. d'Estries, Michael (February 17, 2012). "To Build America's Greenest Home, Actor Ed Begley Jr. Needs Your Help". Forbes .
  78. Jr, Core (February 2012). "Gary Hustwit's Urbanized on Kickstarter + Trailer Preview". Core77 .
  79. Anderson, John (January 4, 2012). "Sundance Offers a Web Afterlife for Its Alumni". The New York Times .
  80. Renninger, Bryce (January 6, 2011). "In the Works: New Doc from "Paris is Burning" Director, Sundance's "Pariah," Chicago Mob Boss & More". IndieWire .
  81. Prigge, Matt (March 15, 2012). "Mark Duplass Talks About His Newest Film, "Jeff Who Lives at Home"". Philadelphia Weekly . Archived from the original on January 31, 2013.
  82. Herbert, Chris (April 21, 2011). "Kickstarter Project: "Full Metal Jacket Diary" – The iPad App". MacStories.
  83. Tiku, Nitasha (May 3, 2012). "Bret Easton Ellis and Paul Schrader are Raising Money for Their Upcoming Thriller The Canyons on Kickstarter". The New York Observer .
  84. Melanie (July 8, 2011). "Ricki Lake Teaches Us Even More About Birth".
  85. Smith, Nigel (June 27, 2012). "Why Whoopi Goldberg is Using Kickstarter to Fund Her Directorial Debut". IndieWire .
  86. Strecker, Erin (July 12, 2012). "Charlie Kaufman, Dan Harmon use Kickstarter to fund next movie". Entertainment Weekly.
  87. Frauenfelder, Mark (June 20, 2012). "The Silver Cord by Kevin Kelly". Boing Boing .
  88. Kain, Erik (June 13, 2012). "Neal Stephenson's Clang Is a Kickstarter Devoted to Sword Fighting". Forbes .
  89. "How Stunt Work on Die Hard Led to a Graphic Novel About MIT Hacks". MIT Slice of Life blog. Cambridge, MA. Retrieved 2015-08-14.
  90. Trachtenberg, Jeffrey (June 24, 2012). "Giving Book Readers a Say". The Wall Street Journal .
  91. Laster, Paul (February 16, 2012). "Spencer Tunick: On Stealing Cameras, Controversy, and Kickstarter". The 99 Percent.
  92. Picturing the South, A Photobook by Shane Lavalette — Kickstarter. Retrieved on 2014-01-14.
  93. Ismael Ruiz, Matthew (March 19, 2012). "Kickstarter: How the Web Is Helping Photographers Fund Their Work". Popular Photography .
  94. Netburn, Deborah (March 13, 2012). "Double Fine Raises $3.25 Million on Kickstarter for New Game". Los Angeles Times .
  95. Orland, Kyle (March 15, 2012). "Interplay's Brian Fargo Finds Fan Funding for Wasteland Sequel". Ars Technica .
  96. Chalk, Andy (October 17, 2013). "Myst Studio Brings Obduction To Kickstarter". The Escapist . Retrieved October 18, 2013.
  97. Drumm, Perrin (September 12, 2011). "Best of Kickstarter, 9/12: The Happy Film". Sundance Channel. Archived from the original on February 3, 2013.
  98. McGlynn, Katia (July 12, 2011). "Eugene Mirman Comedy Festival Using Kickstarter to Fund Awkward Party BUs, Sex Pit & More". The Huffington Post.
  99. "Dragon's Lair: The Movie (Canceled) by Don Bluth & Gary Goldman — Kickstarter". Retrieved 2016-04-02.
  100. Brooke, Eliza. "Charitable Water Filter Maker Soma Raises $3.7M Seed Round". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2016-10-31.
  101. "Flag App Kickstarter Wants To Print Your Photos For Free (updated)". Popular Photography. Retrieved 2016-10-31.
  102. "The Lessons of Craig Mod". Kickstarter. Retrieved 2016-10-31.
  103. Raymond, Chris (February 7, 2014). "Design Your Own Guitar—This Startup Will Build It". Popular Mechanics.
  104. "Discover >> Most Funded - Kickstarter". 27 October 2017.
  105. "Pebble Time - Awesome Smartwatch, No Compromises". Kickstarter. Retrieved 9 September 2016.
  106. "COOLEST COOLER: 21st Century Cooler that's Actually Cooler". Kickstarter. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
  107. "Pebble 2, Time 2 + All-New Pebble Core". Kickstarter. Retrieved 30 June 2016.
  108. "Kingdom Death: Monster 1.5". Kickstarer. Retrieved 7 January 2017.
  109. "Critical Role: The Legend of Vox Machina Animated Special". Kickstarer. Retrieved 19 April 2019.
  110. "Pebble: E-Paper Watch for iPhone and Android". Kickstarter. Retrieved 9 September 2016.
  111. "The World's Best TRAVEL JACKET with 15 Features || BAUBAX". Kickstarter. Retrieved 17 January 2015.
  112. "Exploding Kittens". Kickstarter. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
  113. "OUYA: A New Kind of Video Game Console". Kickstarter. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
  114. "THE 7th CONTINENT – What Goes Up, Must Come Down". Kickstarter. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
  115. "Evan Ackerman "Update:Eye3 Drone Officially Too Good to be True", IEEE Spectrum January 31, 2012" . Retrieved 9 October 2014.
  116. Adrianne Jeffries. "This Is What a Kickstarter Scam Looks Like". Betabeat.
  117. "Adrian Jeffries, "When Kickstarter Goes Wrong: Were 419 Backers Almost Taken for a $27,637 Ride?", BetaBeat, September 15, 2011". Betabeat. 15 September 2011. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
  118. Kirk Hamilton. "Creator of 'Satirical' Tentacle-Rape Game Apologizes". Kotaku. Gawker Media.
  119. "Pepitone, Julianne, "Kickstarter pulls plug on scam minutes before $120,000 heist", CNN Money, 17 June 2013". CNNMoney. 17 June 2013. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
  120. "Lester Haines "Kickstarter unplugs iFind miracle battery-free locator", The Register June 27, 2014" . Retrieved 9 October 2014.
  121. Vincent, James. (13 October 2015). "$4 million laser razor campaign banned from Kickstarter is already on Indiegogo", The Verge . Retrieved 11 September 2018.
  122. Resnick, Nathan (2015-09-14). "Why Kickstarter Is Corrupted | Huffington Post". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2016-10-31.
  123. "Entrepreneur, Writer, Traveler". Retrieved 2016-10-31.
  124. "Kickstarter Fulfillment Report". Retrieved 2019-04-23.
  125. "Nebia Shower - Better experience, 70% less water". Kickstarter. Retrieved 2016-10-31.
  126. Bond, Paul. "Filmmaker Accuses Kickstarter of Censoring 'Gosnell' Abortion Movie". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved February 13, 2017.
  127. "Gosnell Movie". Indiegogo. Retrieved February 13, 2017.
  128. "NED RIFLE by Hal Hartley". Kickstarter. Retrieved April 30, 2014.
  129. Bernstein, Paula (November 25, 2013). "Hal Hartley Explains Why He is Offering Distribution Rights to 'Ned Rifle' as Kickstarter Backer Reward". Indiewire . Retrieved April 30, 2014.
  130. Saperstein, Pat (November 25, 2013). "Updated: Hal Hartley Can't Offer Distribution Rights as Kickstarter Reward". Variety . Retrieved April 30, 2014.
  131. Dunn, Gaby. "Reddit pick-up artist issues mea culpa after Kickstarter controversy". Daily Dot. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
  132. Baker, Katie J.M. "Redditor's PUA Kickstarter Project Recommends Sexual Assault". Jezebel. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
  133. Dredge, Stuart. "Kickstarter bans 'seduction guides' after Above The Game controversy". Guardian. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
  134. Ha, Anthony. "Kickstarter Says It Was Wrong About 'Above The Game' Campaign, Bans Future 'Seduction Guides'". Techcrunch. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
  135. Amos Barshad. "Thanks to Kickstarter, Zach Braff Finally Has Millions of Dollars".
  136. Steven Bogos (2013-03-12). "The Escapist : News : Richard Garriott Explains Why He Needs a $1 Million Kickstarter". Retrieved 2013-06-03.
  137. · 35 comments (2012-03-29). "Blockbuster Effects » The Kickstarter Blog — Kickstarter". Retrieved 2013-06-03.
  138. Best Inventions of 2010 (2013-05-09). "Who is Kickstarter for? » The Kickstarter Blog — Kickstarter". Retrieved 2013-06-03.
  139. "Crowdfunders create fake donors to fraudulently inflate campaign "success"". Crowdfaking. Crowdfaking.
  140. Clover, Joshua. "The Amanda Palmer Kickstarter Scandal". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2013-06-03.
  141. Tanzer, Myles (May 9, 2011). "NYU Tisch Student Makes Plagiarized Film To Win Festival Prize After Raising $1,700 On Kickstarter · NYU Local". NYU Local . Retrieved June 23, 2011.
  142. Sam Biddle. "NYU Film Student Plagiarizes His Way to Kickstarter Fame". Gizmodo .
  143. Jan Wolfe (19 February 2013). "Jan Wolfe, "ArtistShare Can't Show Kickstarter Infringes Crowd-Funding Patent" The AM Law Litigation Daily, 19 February 2013". Litigation Daily. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
  144. Sarah Jacobsson Purewal (October 5, 2011). "Kickstarter Faces Patent Suit Over Funding Idea". PCWorld. Retrieved October 6, 2011.
  145. Eriq Gardner (February 16, 2012). "Hollywood Docket: Comedy Club Documentary Lawsuit; Michael Jordan vs. 1st Amendment". The Hollywood Reporter . Retrieved March 23, 2012.
  146. Jeffries, Adrianne (14 May 2012). "Kickstarter Wins Small Victory in Patent Lawsuit With 2000-Era Crowdfunding Site". BetaBeat. The New York Observer . Retrieved 17 May 2012.
  147. "Kickstarter Wins Crowdfunding Patent Lawsuit Against ArtistShare". Crowdfund Insider.
  148. "Joseph Flaherty, "3D Systems Sues Formlabs and Kickstarter for Patent Infringement" Wired, 21 November 2012". WIRED. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
  149. ""Kickstarter Sued: Formlabs 3D Printer Accused Of Patent Breach" Huffington Post, 21 November 2012". The Huffington Post UK. 22 November 2012. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
  150. "3D Systems gets 6-month stay for settlement talks over patent lawsuit".
  151. "Details Emerge on Patent Lawsuit Against Multiple Crowdfunding Platforms". Crowdfund Insider. 2015-01-29. Retrieved 2019-05-14.
  152. "Details Emerge on Patent Lawsuit Against Multiple Crowdfunding Platforms".
  153. "Patent troll targets crowdfunding startups — Innovation Act could stop that". VentureBeat. 2015-02-11. Retrieved 2019-05-14.
  154. "Alice Decision Saves Crowdfunding From Patent Troll". Electronic Frontier Foundation. 2017-10-05. Retrieved 2019-05-14.
  155. "Patent Trolls to Watch Out For: ZiiLabs, VLSI Technology LLC, and AlphaCap Ventures". Techrights. 2017-10-07. Retrieved 2019-05-14.