Crunchyroll

Last updated

Crunchyroll, Inc.
Crunchyroll.svg
Type of business Subsidiary
Type of site
Video streaming service
Available inEnglish, Spanish, Portuguese, French, German, Arabic, Italian, Russian
FoundedMay 15, 2006;15 years ago (2006-05-15)
Headquarters,
Area servedWorldwide
Founder(s) Kun Gao [1] [2]
James Lin [1] [2]
Brandon Ooi [1]
Vu Nguyen [3] [4]
Key peopleJoanne Waage (GM)
Thomas Overton (CTO)
Ryan McDonald (Head of Product)
Industry
Parent Funimation Global Group
Divisions Crunchyroll EMEA
Crunchyroll Games, LLC
Crunchyroll Studios [5] [6]
VRV
URL www.crunchyroll.com
RegistrationOptional
Users Increase2.svg 120 million (2021)
(5 million paying) [7]
Current statusActive

Crunchyroll, Inc. is an American distributor, publisher, production and licensing company focused on streaming anime, manga, and dorama. Founded in 2006 by a group of University of California, Berkeley graduates, [8] Crunchyroll's distribution channel and partnership program delivers content to over 100 million registered users worldwide. [9] Crunchyroll was a subsidiary of Otter Media, which is a subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia. [10] Sony announced in December 2020 that its joint venture anime business Funimation, ran by Sony Pictures Television and Sony Music Entertainment Japan's Aniplex, would acquire Crunchyroll from AT&T for approximately US$1.175 billion; [11] the completion of the acquisition was announced on August 9, 2021. [12] Crunchyroll has offices in San Francisco, Los Angeles, Tokyo, Lausanne, Paris, Berlin, and Chișinău, [13] and is a member of The Association of Japanese Animations (AJA). [14] "Crunchyroll Hime", also known as "Hime", is the official mascot of Crunchyroll. [15]

Contents

Crunchyroll offers over 1,000 anime shows, [14] more than 200 East Asian dramas to users, and around 80 manga titles as Crunchyroll Manga, although not all programming is available worldwide due to licensing restrictions. Crunchyroll passed one million paid subscribers in February 2017, [14] [16] and has over 5 million paid subscribers as of 2021. [7] Crunchyroll also selects some anime titles for release on home video through its distribution partners (Funimation, Sentai Filmworks, Viz Media, & Discotek Media in North America and Anime Limited in the United Kingdom). [17] [18]

History

Origins and illegal distribution

Crunchyroll started in 2006 as a for-profit video upload and streaming site that specialized in hosting East Asian video content. Some of the content hosted on Crunchyroll included fansubbed versions of East Asian shows. [1] [19]

In 2008, Crunchyroll secured a capital investment of $4.05 million from the venture capital firm Venrock. [20] The investment drew criticism from anime distributors and licensors Bandai Entertainment and Funimation as the site continued to allow users to upload illegal copies of licensed titles. [21]

However, Crunchyroll eventually began securing legal distribution agreements with companies, including Gonzo, for an increasing number of titles. On January 8, 2009, after announcing a deal with TV Tokyo to host episodes of Naruto Shippuden , Crunchyroll stated that it was committed to removing all copyright-infringing material from its site and to hosting only content to which it had legitimate distribution rights. [22]

In 2010, Crunchyroll announced its acquisition of the North American DVD rights to 5 Centimeters Per Second . This was the first DVD release licensed by Crunchyroll. [23]

On October 30, 2013, Crunchyroll began digitally distributing 12 different manga titles from Kodansha – series such as Attack on Titan and Fairy Tail were part of the manga that were available initially – through Crunchyroll Manga. [24]

Chernin Group ownership

On December 2, 2013, The Chernin Group, former News Corp. president Peter Chernin's holding company, announced that it acquired a controlling interest in Crunchyroll. A person with knowledge of the transaction said the price for the acquisition was close to $100 million. The Chernin Group said that Crunchyroll management and existing investor TV Tokyo would maintain a "significant" stake in the company. [25] [26] [27]

On April 22, 2014, AT&T and The Chernin Group announced the formation of a joint venture to acquire, invest in and launch over-the-top (OTT) video services. Both companies committed over $500 million in funding to the venture. [28] The new company was named Otter Media and became the majority owner of Crunchyroll. [29] On August 3, 2015, Variety reported that Otter Media would unveil Ellation, a new umbrella company for its subscription-based video services including Crunchyroll. [30] Ellation's services included VRV, which debuted in 2016, a video streaming platform described as targeting "geeks, gamers and lovers of comedy, fantasy and technology." [31]

On October 22, 2015, Anime News Network reported that Crunchyroll had achieved 700,000 paying subscribers. In addition, the company announced that Crunchyroll and Sumitomo Corporation had created a joint venture to produce and invest in anime productions. [32] [33] [34] [35]

On April 11, 2016, Crunchyroll and Kadokawa Corporation announced the formation of a strategic alliance that gave Crunchyroll exclusive worldwide digital distribution rights (excluding Asia) for Kadokawa anime titles in the upcoming year. It also granted Crunchyroll the right to co-finance Kadokawa anime titles to be produced in the future. [36]

Funimation partnership, and home video expansion

On July 1, 2016, Crunchyroll announced plans to dub and release a number of series on home video. [37]

On September 8, 2016, Crunchyroll announced a partnership with Funimation. [38] Crunchyroll would stream selected Funimation titles, while Funimation would stream selected Crunchyroll titles, as well as their upcoming dubbed content. In addition, Funimation and Universal Pictures Home Entertainment would act as distributors for Crunchyroll's home video catalog. On October 18, 2018, Funimation announced that their partnership with Crunchyroll ended as a result of Sony Pictures Television's acquisition of Funimation and AT&T's acquisition of Crunchyroll's parent company Otter Media. [39]

On February 9, 2017, Crunchyroll announced that it had reached one million paid subscribers. [14] [16]

On March 22, 2017, Kun Gao took over as representative director of its Japanese branch, succeeding Vincent Shortino. [40]

On March 30, 2017, Crunchyroll began to distribute anime through Steam. [41] [42]

On November 4, 2017, a group of hackers managed to DNS hijack the official site for almost six hours. Users were redirected to a fake lookalike site which prompted users to download ransomware under the guise of "CrunchyViewer". Crunchyroll filed a first information report against the hackers. [43]

AT&T/WarnerMedia ownership and internal productions

In January 2018, Otter Media bought the remaining shares (20%) of Crunchyroll from TV Tokyo and other investors. [44] In August 2018, AT&T acquired the remainder of Otter Media that it did not already own from Chernin Group; the company and Crunchyroll were thus folded under WarnerMedia (formerly Time Warner, of which AT&T had also recently completed an acquisition). [45]

In October 2018, the service announced an expansion into original content with the anime-inspired series High Guardian Spice produced by Ellation Studios. [46]

On March 4, 2019, it was announced that Otter Media would be placed under Warner Bros. as part of a reorganization. As a result of said reorganization, the company and Crunchyroll became corporate sisters to the American cable channel Cartoon Network and its nighttime programming block Adult Swim, which have been known for their television broadcasting of most of its anime under their Toonami brand. [47] Due to a subsequent reorganization, Crunchyroll was moved under WarnerMedia Entertainment (owner of networks such as TBS and TNT) in May 2019, so that its COO could oversee an upcoming entertainment streaming service from the brand. [48]

On July 3, 2019, Crunchyroll announced that they had partnered with Viz Media to distribute select Crunchyroll licensed titles on home video and electronic sell-through in the United States and Canada. [49]

On July 20, 2019, independent Australian production company Glitch Productions announced that they had partnered with Crunchyroll to produce their YouTube original series, Meta Runner . [50]

On September 6, 2019, Crunchyroll announced that they became the majority investor in Viz Media Europe. [51] Crunchyroll solidified this deal on December 4, 2019, becoming the majority owners of Viz Media Europe Group, and appointed former Viz Media Europe president John Easum as Head of Crunchyroll EMEA. [52]

On October 15, 2019, it was announced that Naver Corporation's webtoon publishing portal, WEBTOON, was partnering with Crunchyroll to produce animated adaptations of its series. [53] On February 25, 2020, Crunchyroll announced a slate of several programs under their new "Crunchyroll Originals" brand, including anime adaptations of the webtoons Tower of God , The God of High School , and Noblesse .

On April 2, 2020, Crunchyroll announced it had rebranded Viz Media Europe as Crunchyroll EMEA, with former Viz Media Europe brands Kazé, Anime on Demand, Anime Digital Network and Eye See Movies becoming Crunchyroll brands, and AV Visionen and Ellation becoming Crunchyroll companies. [54] [55] As a result of the rebranding, the Ellation name transitioned from Otter Media's Consumer Division to Crunchyroll's Moldovan offices, [56] and VRV became a brand of Crunchyroll. [57] Ellation was later renamed to Crunchyroll Moldova on April 17, 2020. [58]

On September 5, 2020, Crunchyroll announced that they had entered in a partnership with Sentai Filmworks to distribute Crunchyroll licensed titles onto home video and electronic sell-through, with Granbelm , Food Wars!: Shokugeki no Soma: The Fourth Plate , Ascendance of a Bookworm , and World Trigger being the first titles distributed through the partnership. [59]

Acquisition by Sony

On August 12, 2020, The Information reported that Sony Pictures Entertainment, Funimation's parent company, was in talks to acquire Crunchyroll from WarnerMedia for US$1.5 billion. [60] According to Variety , the amount was decreased to US$1 billion. [61] Later in October 2020, it was reported that Sony was in its final talks with AT&T to acquire the streaming service for more than ¥100 billion, roughly US$957 million. [62]

On December 9, 2020, Funimation and its owner Sony announced that they had reached a deal with AT&T and WarnerMedia to acquire Crunchyroll for around US$1.175 billion. The acquisition is considered to be a major consolidation of global anime distribution rights outside of East Asia. [11] [63] However, on March 24, 2021, it was reported that the United States Department of Justice had extended its antitrust review of the acquisition. [64]

On August 9, 2021, Sony announced that it had completed its acquisition of Crunchyroll. Following the acquisition, Sony stated that they want to create an unified anime subscription experience using their existing anime businesses as soon as possible. [12]

The Anime Awards

The Anime Awards, also known as the Crunchyroll Anime Awards, are annual awards given to recognize anime from the previous year. The awards were first held in January 2017 and returned for 2018. Crunchyroll selects twenty judges from diverse backgrounds who then create a list of six nominees within each category. This list is then made available to the public for online voting to choose the winners. [65]

Crunchyroll Expo

The Crunchyroll Store at Crunchyroll Expo 2017 Crunchyroll Store at Crunchyroll Expo 2017.jpg
The Crunchyroll Store at Crunchyroll Expo 2017

In February 2017, Crunchyroll created the Crunchyroll Expo (CRX) anime convention with organizational support from Left Field Media. [66] The inaugural Expo was held at the Santa Clara Convention Center on August 25–27, with team manager Dallas Middaugh noting much of the ticket sales came within ten days of the convention. [67] Special guests for the Expo included The Fairly OddParents creator Butch Hartman, voice actors Shun Horie and Hiromi Igarashi, illustrator Yoshitaka Amano, figure skater Johnny Weir, manga artist Kore Yamazaki, and author Keiichi Sigsawa. [68] [69]

The Expo was moved to the San Jose McEnery Convention Center in 2018 on Labor Day weekend. The convention saw 45,000 in turnstile attendance. Among the guests for the convention were Dragon Quest creator Yuji Horii, voice actors Ryo Horikawa, Justin Briner, Luci Christian, Clifford Chapin and Colleen Clinkenbeard, and the staff of Darling in the Franxx . [70]

Crunchyroll Expo 2019, also in San Jose, saw the premieres of the movie Blackfox and the Mob Psycho 100 II original video animation, while Toei Animation organized a screening of the movies Dragon Ball Z: Bardock – The Father of Goku and Dragon Ball Z: Fusion Reborn . [71] [72] Among the guests invited were horror mangaka Junji Ito; [73] 22/7 voice actors Sally Amaki, Kanae Shirosawa, and Ruri Umino; [74] Food Wars!: Shokugeki no Soma writer Yūto Tsukuda and artist Shun Saeki; [75] and staff members of Zombie Land Saga , including voice actors Kaede Hondo and Asami Tano, composer Yasuharu Takanashi, and MAPPA CEO Manabu Ohtsuka. [76] Rock band Flow, whose songs have been featured in various anime as opening themes, held a concert on August 30. [77]

In 2020, Crunchyroll held its first virtual expo due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The event includes Hime's Cosplay Cup on September 5, 2020. Special guests included Shusuke Katagiri, Myth & Roid, Rian Tachibana, and Matt Schley. [78] [79] [80]

Crunchyroll Originals

On February 25, 2020, Crunchyroll initially announced several series under its Crunchyroll Originals label. [81] These are anime or other animated series that are either co-produced or directly produced by the company. Crunchyroll previously co-produced anime titles before, but this list will only include those that Crunchyroll themselves officially place under the label.

So far, these series include:

TitleFirst run start dateFirst run end dateEpisodesNotesAnimation Studio
In/Spectre January 11, 2020March 28, 202012Adaptation of novel series written by Kyo Shirodaira. Brain's Base
Tower of God April 1, 2020June 24, 202013Adaptation of webtoon by SIU. Telecom Animation Film
The God of High School July 6, 2020September 28, 202013Adaptation of webtoon by Yongje Park. MAPPA
Gibiate July 15, 2020September 30, 202012Original work created by Ryō Aoki.Lunch Box
Studio Elle
Tonikawa: Over the Moon for You October 3, 2020December 19, 202012Adaptation of manga by Kenjiro Hata. Seven Arcs
Noblesse October 7, 2020December 30, 202013Adaptation of webtoon written by Son Jeho and illustrated by Lee Kwangsu. Production I.G
Onyx Equinox November 21, 2020December 26, 202012Original work created by Sofia Alexander.Crunchyroll Studios
So I'm A Spider, So What? January 8, 2021July 3, 202124Adaptation of light novel series written by Okina Baba and illustrated by Tsukasa Kiryu. Millepensee
Dr. Ramune Mysterious Disease Specialist January 10, 2021March 28, 202112Adaptation of manga series written by Aho Toro. Platinum Vision
Ex-Arm January 11, 2021March 29, 202112Adaptation of manga written by HiRock and illustrated by Shinya Komi.Visual Flight
Fena: Pirate Princess [82] August 15, 2021TBA12Original work by Kazuto Nakazawa and Production I.G. Co-production with Adult Swim.Production I.G
Blade Runner: Black Lotus [83] Q4 2021TBA13Original work based on the Blade Runner franchise. Co-production with Adult Swim. Sola Digital Arts
FreakAngels TBATBATBAAdaptation of webcomic written by Warren Ellis and illustrated by Paul Duffield.Crunchyroll Studios
High Guardian Spice TBATBATBAOriginal work created by Raye Rodriguez.Crunchyroll Studios
Meiji Gekken: Swords & GunsTBATBATBAOriginal work; working title.Crunchyroll Studios

See also

Related Research Articles

Funimation Global Group, LLC is an American entertainment company that specializes in the dubbing and distribution of East Asian media, most notably Japanese anime. The company was founded on May 9, 1994 by Gen Fukunaga and his wife Cindy in Silicon Valley, with funding by Daniel Cocanougher and his family, who became investors in the company, which then relocated to North Richland Hills, Texas. Funimation is one of the leading distributors of anime and other foreign entertainment properties in North America. It has licensed popular series, such as Dragon Ball, One Piece, YuYu Hakusho, My Hero Academia, Attack on Titan, Fairy Tail, Black Clover, Fruits Basket, Assassination Classroom, Cowboy Bebop, Tokyo Ghoul, and Code Geass among many others.

Madman Entertainment Australian distribution and rights management company

Madman Entertainment Pty. Ltd. is an Australian distribution and rights management company, specialising in feature films, documentaries, television series and anime across theatrical and home entertainment formats in Australia and New Zealand. Its headquarters are in East Melbourne, Victoria.

Patrick Seitz American voice actor

David Patrick Seitz is an American voice actor, ADR director and script writer known for his work for Funimation, Bang Zoom! Entertainment, Viz Media, New Generation Pictures, Studiopolis, Disney/Pixar, Riot Games and NYAV Post. He has provided voices for English versions of Japanese anime and video games, including over 100 projects since his initial foray into the voice-over industry in 2000 with the Amazing Nurse Nanako OVA.

Todd Haberkorn American voice actor

Todd Haberkorn is an American voice actor and voice director, who has provided voices for English-language versions of anime, films, and video games.

Cherami Leigh American film actress

Cherami Leigh Kuehn is an American film, television and voice actress. She has provided voices for a number of English-language versions of anime series and video games with Funimation, Bang Zoom! Entertainment, NYAV Post, Studiopolis and Viz Media. Some of her roles include Kazari Uiharu in A Certain Magical Index and A Certain Scientific Railgun series, Yoshika Miyafuji in Strike Witches, Eucliwood Hellscythe in Is This a Zombie, Mutsuki in KanColle: Kantai Collection, Aisa in One Piece, Mika Shimotsuki in Psycho-Pass, Shijima Kurookano in Nabari no Ou, Hibiki in Sekirei, Elizabeth Midford in Black Butler, Road Kamelot in D.Gray-man, Sae Kashiwagi in Peach Girl, Tamaki Kawazoe in Bamboo Blade, Patty Thompson in Soul Eater, Lucy Heartfilia in Fairy Tail, Cecily Campbell in The Sacred Blacksmith, Asuna Yuuki in Sword Art Online, Sailor Venus in the Viz Media dub of Sailor Moon, Plutia / Iris Heart in Hyperdimension Neptunia, Sarada Uchiha in Boruto: Naruto Next Generations and Chloe in Pokémon Journeys: The Series.

Sentai Filmworks American anime-licensing company

Sentai Filmworks, LLC, or just Sentai, is an American anime licensing company located in Houston, Texas which specializes in Japanese animation and Asian cinema.

Crunchyroll EMEA

Crunchyroll EMEA, formerly known as Viz Media Europe, is a European anime distributor. Established as Viz Media Europe, it was Viz Media's European sister company until 2019. It holds partnerships with TV channels, DVD distributors, and manga publishers. The company used to be headquartered in Amsterdam. The company opened its Paris operations on 15 January 2007. The division is made up of two subsidiaries, Crunchyroll SAS based in Paris, France, and Crunchyroll SA based in Lausanne, Switzerland. Crunchyroll EMEA is owned by Crunchyroll, a subsidiary of Sony's joint venture anime business Funimation Global Group, though Shogakukan, Shueisha and Shogakukan-Shueisha Productions (ShoPro) retain full ownership of the former Viz Media Europe's Publishing Licensing Business.

Aniplex of America Inc. or Aniplex USA is the U.S. distribution enterprise of Aniplex, an anime and music production company owned by Sony Music Entertainment Japan. It was established in March 2005 in Santa Monica, California, with the goal of reinforcing the parent company's licensing business in the North American market. They operate the English language version of the Aniplex+ store, and from 2013 to 2017 operated a streaming service called Aniplex Channel through their website. The company most of the time only directly releases its titles in the Americas, however, some of its titles have been released in other territories by other distributors, such as Anime Limited, Manga Entertainment, MVM Films, Madman Anime Group, and Siren Visual.

Anime on Demand

Anime on Demand is a German video on demand service specialising in the streaming of anime within German-speaking markets.

<i>Date A Live</i> Japanese light novel series and its adaptations

Date A Live is a Japanese light novel series written by Kōshi Tachibana and illustrated by Tsunako. Fujimi Shobo published 22 volumes from March 2011 to March 2020 under their Fujimi Fantasia Bunko imprint. Yen Press holds the license to publish the light novel in English.

Lauren Landa American voice actress

Lauren Landa is an American voice actress who has worked on English dubs for Japanese anime and video games.

<i>My Hero Academia</i> Japanese manga series by Kohei Horikoshi

My Hero Academia is a Japanese superhero manga series written and illustrated by Kōhei Horikoshi. The story follows Izuku Midoriya, a boy born without superpowers in a world where they have become commonplace, but who still dreams of becoming a superhero himself. He is scouted by All Might, Japan's greatest hero, who chooses Midoriya as his successor and shares his Quirk with him after recognizing his potential, and later helps to enroll him in a prestigious high school for heroes in training.

<i>Golden Kamuy</i> Japanese manga series

Golden Kamuy is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Satoru Noda. The story follows Saichi Sugimoto, a veteran of the early twentieth century Russo-Japanese War, and his quest to find a huge fortune of gold of the Ainu people, helped by a young Ainu girl named Asirpa. The Ainu language in the story is supervised by Hiroshi Nakagawa, an Ainu language linguist from Chiba University. The manga won the ninth Manga Taishō award in 2016.

<i>Black Clover</i> Manga series by Yuki Tabata

Black Clover is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Yūki Tabata. The story centers around Asta, a young boy born without any magic power. This is unknown to the world he lives in because seemingly everyone has some sort of magic power. With his fellow mages from the Black Bulls, Asta plans to become the next Wizard King. It has been serialized in Shueisha's Weekly Shōnen Jump magazine since February 2015, with its chapters collected in 29 tankōbon volumes as of July 2021.

Otter Media

Otter Media Holdings, LLC is an American digital media company owned by WarnerMedia Sales and Distribution, a division of AT&T's WarnerMedia. It owns Fullscreen, and Rooster Teeth, and holds ownership stake in Gunpowder & Sky.

Zeno Robinson is an American voice actor. He has done voice acting for both Western animation and English dubs of Japanese anime. Some of his major anime roles include Hawks in My Hero Academia, for which he won Best VA Performance (EN) in The Anime Awards 2021, Goh in Pokémon Journeys: The Series, Vanitas in The Case Study of Vanitas, Zenon Zogratis in Black Clover, Garfiel Tinsel in Re:Zero, Genya Shinazugawa in Demon Slayer: Kimetsu no Yaiba, and Brawler in Akudama Drive. His major animation roles include Remy Remington in Big City Greens, Cyborg/Victor Stone in Young Justice, Alan Albright in Ben 10: Alien Force and Ben 10: Ultimate Alien, and Hunter in The Owl House.

VRV is an over-the-top streaming service launched in November 2016. Owned by Crunchyroll, a subsidiary of Sony's joint venture anime business Funimation Global Group, the service bundles together anime, speculative fiction and gaming related channels and the service targets these large fandoms.

Billy Kametz is an American voice actor based in California.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 "Now Playing:Anime Online". Forbes. August 5, 2009. Retrieved July 27, 2020.
  2. 1 2 "How to change language on Crunchyroll". Technobezz. June 16, 2020. Retrieved July 27, 2020.
  3. "Anime Brand Crunchyroll Shows The Potential Niche Streaming Scale".
  4. "Interview: Crunchyroll's Vu Nguyen".
  5. Roettgers, Janko (August 22, 2018). "AT&T's Ellation Launches Studios in Burbank and Tokyo to Produce Crunchyroll Originals". variety.com.
  6. "Marge Dean Brings Anime and Inclusion Together at Crunchyroll Studios". Animation World Network.
  7. 1 2 Pineda, Rafael Antonio. "Crunchyroll Surpasses 5 Million Subscribers". Anime News Network. Retrieved August 4, 2021.
  8. "Crunchyroll CEO: Making Online Anime Pay". ICv2. December 15, 2008. Archived from the original on December 17, 2008. Retrieved December 15, 2008.
  9. Spangler, Todd (February 2, 2021). "Crunchyroll Inks Deal With Idris and Sabrina Elba for Dark Fantasy Anime Series". Variety. Retrieved February 2, 2021.
  10. "AT&T Acquires Full Ownership of Otter Media". August 7, 2018. Archived from the original on August 8, 2018. Retrieved August 8, 2018.
  11. 1 2 Moore, D.M. (December 9, 2020). "Sony's Funimation acquires anime streaming service Crunchyroll for $1.175 billion". Polygon . Retrieved December 9, 2020.
  12. 1 2 Mateo, Alex (August 9, 2021). "Sony's Funimation Global Group Completes Acquisition of Crunchyroll from AT&T". Anime News Network . Retrieved August 9, 2021.
  13. "Jobs at Crunchyroll". Crunchyroll. Retrieved March 4, 2021.
  14. 1 2 3 4 "Largest Anime Streaming Service Crunchyroll Surpasses One Million Paid Subscribers". Crunchyroll. February 9, 2017. Retrieved February 14, 2021.
  15. Fobian, Peter (June 6, 2018). "The Origin of Crunchyroll Hime". crunchyroll.com. Retrieved August 23, 2021.
  16. 1 2 Sevakis, Justin (February 13, 2017). "How Big Of A Deal Is Crunchyroll Reaching A Million Subscribers?". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on February 13, 2017. Retrieved February 14, 2017.
  17. "Crunchyroll and Funimation Partner to Expand Access to Anime!". crunchyroll.com. Archived from the original on September 9, 2016. Retrieved June 23, 2018.
  18. NormanicGrav (December 24, 2017). "Anime Limited News: New Podcast Episode, Update on Stock, Xmas Sales Updates". Anime UK News. Archived from the original on June 20, 2018. Retrieved June 22, 2018.
  19. Morrison, Chris (September 6, 2007). "Crunchyroll, for pirated anime content". VentureBeat. Retrieved January 17, 2021.
  20. Sevakis, Justin (March 11, 2008). "Video Site with Unauthorized Anime Gets US$4M Capital". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on February 1, 2009. Retrieved February 4, 2009.
  21. Loo, Egan (March 12, 2008). "Funimation, Bandai Entertainment Respond on Crunchyroll". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on February 2, 2009. Retrieved February 4, 2009.
  22. Loo, Egan (November 17, 2008). "TV Tokyo to Stream Naruto via Crunchyroll Worldwide". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on November 6, 2016. Retrieved February 4, 2009.
  23. Loo, Egan (August 13, 2010). "Crunchyroll Adds Shinkai's 5 Centimeters per Second DVD". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on August 15, 2010. Retrieved August 14, 2010.
  24. Marcias, Patrick. "It's Here! Crunchyroll Manga is Now Open!". Crunchyroll. Archived from the original on October 6, 2015. Retrieved October 15, 2015.
  25. Hodgkins, Crystalyn (December 3, 2013). "Chernin Group Purchases Majority Stake in Crunchyroll". Anime News Network . Retrieved December 3, 2019.
  26. Lieberman, David (December 2, 2013). "Peter Chernin Takes Control Of Anime Provider Crunchyroll". Deadline Hollywood . Archived from the original on December 4, 2013. Retrieved December 3, 2013.
  27. Glover, Ronald (December 2, 2013). "Chernin buys anime site Crunchyroll to expand online video assets". Reuters . Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved June 30, 2017.
  28. "The Chernin Group and AT&T Create New Venture to Acquire, Invest In and Launch Online Video Businesses". AT&T. April 22, 2014. Archived from the original on April 23, 2016. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
  29. Spangler, Todd (July 14, 2014). "AT&T-Chernin Group's Otter Media Online-Video Venture Acquires Creativebug for $10 Mil". Variety . Archived from the original on April 22, 2016. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
  30. Roettgers, Janko (August 3, 2015). "Chernin, AT&T Set Brand for New Online Video Venture: Ellation". Variety. Archived from the original on April 16, 2016. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
  31. Baumgartner, Jeff (June 20, 2016). "Ellation Will Ride SVOD's Next Wave". Broadcasting & Cable : 18.
  32. Hodgkins, Crystalyn. "Crunchyroll, Sumitomo Announce Partnership to Create Company to Co-Produce Anime (Updated)". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on December 27, 2015. Retrieved December 14, 2015.
  33. "Crunchyroll & Sumitomo Join Forces to Create Anime Investment Joint Venture". Sumitomo Corporation. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Retrieved December 14, 2015.
  34. Ressler, Karen. "Crunchyroll Partners With NBCUniversal Entertainment Japan to Co-Develop Anime". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on July 12, 2017. Retrieved July 14, 2017.
  35. Antonio Pineda, Rafael. "Sumitomo, Crunchyroll's Parent Chernin Group Announce Strategic Partnership". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on July 1, 2017. Retrieved July 14, 2017.
  36. "Crunchyroll and KADOKAWA Enter into Strategic Alliance". Crunchyroll. April 11, 2016. Archived from the original on April 13, 2016. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
  37. Hodgkins, Crystalyn (July 1, 2016). "Crunchyroll To Dub, Release Anime on BD/DVD". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on July 3, 2016. Retrieved July 2, 2016.
  38. Hodgkins, Crystalyn (September 8, 2016). "Crunchyroll, Funimation Announce Partnership to Share Content Via Streaming, Home Video, Est". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on September 19, 2016. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
  39. "Funimation, Crunchyroll End Content Sharing Partnership". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on October 18, 2018. Retrieved October 18, 2018.
  40. "Crunchyroll's Japanese Head Steps Down". Anime News Network. March 22, 2017. Retrieved March 26, 2021.
  41. "Steam's anime library gets better, thanks to Crunchyroll". Polygon. Archived from the original on March 31, 2017. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
  42. "Steam Anime Sale 2017". Archived from the original on April 1, 2017. Retrieved April 2, 2017.
  43. Gach, Ethan. "Crunchyroll Website Currently Down Following Malware Attacks". Kotaku. Archived from the original on November 4, 2017. Retrieved November 4, 2017.
  44. "Majority Owner Otter Media Buys Remaining Shares Of Fullscreen, Ellation - Tubefilter". Tubefilter. January 25, 2018. Archived from the original on February 13, 2018. Retrieved February 23, 2018.
  45. Patrick Hipes (August 7, 2018). "AT&T Acquires Rest Of Otter Media To Fold Into New WarnerMedia". Deadline Hollywood . Archived from the original on September 17, 2018. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
  46. Haasch Palmer. "Crunchyroll to produce original content, starting in 2019". Ploygon. Archived from the original on October 30, 2018. Retrieved October 29, 2018.
  47. Frank, Allegra (March 12, 2019). "Adult Swim and Crunchyroll are hooking up to bring more anime to TV". Polygon. Archived from the original on March 12, 2019. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
  48. Spangler, Todd (May 31, 2019). "WarnerMedia Reorg Gives Otter Media's Tony Goncalves Oversight of Streaming Service Development". Variety. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
  49. Lopez, Matt (July 3, 2019). "Crunchyroll and VIZ Media Partner on Home Video and EST Distribution (Exclusive)". TheWrap . Retrieved July 4, 2019.
  50. SMG4 [@smg4official] (July 19, 2019). "I guess the cat's out of the bag now. I'm so happy to announce that we've partnered up with @Crunchyroll to help develop Meta Runner! Meta Runner will still be released completely for free exclusively on www.youtube.com/smg4 on July 25th. 6 Days left.pic.twitter.com/zFDCKK8K84" (Tweet). Retrieved July 25, 2019 via Twitter.
  51. Coats, Cayla (September 6, 2019). "Crunchyroll and VIZ Media Europe Group Enter a New Relationship". Crunchyroll. Retrieved September 6, 2019.
  52. "Crunchyroll Becomes Majority Owner of VIZ Media Europe Group". Crunchyroll. December 4, 2019. Retrieved December 4, 2019.
  53. Loveridge, Lynzee (October 15, 2019). "Crunchyroll Joins Forces With WEBTOON for New Animated Content". Anime News Network . Retrieved October 15, 2019.
  54. Mateo, Alex (April 2, 2020). "Viz Media Europe SAS Changes Name to Crunchyroll SAS". Anime News Network . Retrieved April 2, 2020.
  55. "JAPANESE ENTERTAINMENT EMEA LEADER VIZ MEDIA EUROPE REBRANDS AS CRUNCHYROLL". Crunchyroll SAS. April 2, 2020. Retrieved April 2, 2020.
  56. "Umstrukturierungen bei Ellation" (in German). Anime Sushi. March 22, 2020. Retrieved July 20, 2021.
  57. "Crunchyroll | About". Crunchyroll. Retrieved April 4, 2020. VRV (U.S.) and Eye See Movies (Germany) are also Crunchyroll brands.
  58. "Ellation, лучший работодатель 2019 года, переименовывается в Crunchyroll" (in Russian). Diez. April 17, 2020. Retrieved July 20, 2021.
  59. Antonio Pineda, Rafael (September 5, 2020). "Crunchyroll, Sentai Filmworks Partner for Home Video Releases". Anime News Network . Retrieved September 6, 2020.
  60. Toonkel, Jessica; Dotan, Tom (August 12, 2020). "AT&T Wants $1.5 Billion in Crunchyroll Sale to Sony" . The Information . Retrieved August 12, 2020.
  61. "WarnerMedia Looking to Sell Crunchyroll Anime-Streaming Service for at Least $1 Billion". Variety. August 12, 2020. Retrieved August 13, 2020.
  62. Reuters Staff (October 30, 2020). "Sony in talks with AT&T to buy Crunchyroll for more than $950 million: Nikkei". Reuters. Retrieved October 30, 2020.
  63. Spangler, Todd (December 10, 2020). "AT&T to Sell Crunchyroll to Sony's Funimation for $1.175 Billion". Variety. Retrieved December 10, 2020.
  64. Mateo, Alex (March 24, 2021). "Report: U.S. Justice Department Extends Antitrust Review of Sony's Proposed Acquisition of Crunchyroll". Anime News Network. Retrieved March 24, 2021.
  65. "How Did the #AnimeAwards Nominees Get Picked?". Crunchyroll. January 11, 2019. Archived from the original on January 15, 2019. Retrieved January 27, 2019.
  66. Macias, Patrick (February 9, 2017). "Crunchyroll Announces First-Ever "Crunchyroll Expo" Convention!". Crunchyroll. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  67. Orsini, Lauren (September 6, 2017). "The Making Of Crunchyroll Expo, A Corporate Con With An Anime Fan Heart". Forbes . Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  68. Truong, Keira (August 21, 2019). "More Crunchyroll Expo guests revealed, programming schedule posted". Nerd Reactor. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  69. Sherman, Jennifer (August 9, 2017). "Crunchyroll Expo Hosts Kino's Journey Author Keiichi Sigsawa". Anime News Network . Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  70. "Second Annual Crunchyroll Expo Wraps in San Jose With Over 45,000 in Turnstile Attendance". The Geekly Grind. September 6, 2018. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  71. Milligan, Mercedes (August 9, 2019). "'Blackfox' Movie Premiering at Crunchyroll Expo". Animation Magazine . Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  72. Valdez, Nick (June 28, 2019). "New Mob Psycho 100 OVA to Premiere at Crunchyroll Expo". Comic Book. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  73. Hodgkins, Crystalyn (January 22, 2019). "Crunchyroll Expo to Host Horror Manga Artist Junji Ito". Anime News Network . Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  74. Sherman, Jennifer (August 2, 2019). "Crunchyroll Expo Hosts 22/7 Voice Actresses Sally Amaki, Kanae Shirosawa, Ruri Umino". Anime News Network . Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  75. "The Creators of Food Wars! are Coming to Crunchyroll Expo 2019!". Crunchyroll. July 26, 2019. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  76. Mateo, Alex (August 16, 2019). "Crunchyroll Expo Hosts Zombie Land Saga Anime's Cast, Staff". Anime News Network . Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  77. "FLOW to Perform in Concert at Crunchyroll Expo 2019! | 10 Days of Announcements". Crunchyroll. June 29, 2019. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  78. "Crunchyroll Expo Adds The God of High School, Dr. Stone, Onyx Equinox, Noblesse Guests, & More". CBR. August 21, 2020. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
  79. Author, Guest. "Virtual Crunchyroll Expo Announces Final Wave of Guests!". Crunchyroll. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
  80. "411MANIA". Miro Set To Appear At Virtual Crunchyroll Expo. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
  81. "Crunchyroll Unveils 7 'Crunchyroll Originals' Works Including Tower of God, Noblesse, God of High School". Anime News Network. February 25, 2020. Retrieved July 25, 2020.
  82. "Crunchyroll and Adult Swim Reveal New Fena: Pirate Princess Trailer, Main Staff, and More". Crunchyroll. June 16, 2021. Retrieved June 16, 2021.
  83. "Crunchyroll and Adult Swim Reveal New BLADE RUNNER: BLACK LOTUS Trailer and Key Visual". Crunchyroll. July 23, 2021. Retrieved July 23, 2021.