Atari Jaguar

Last updated

Atari Jaguar
Jaguar Logo.png
Atari Jaguar with the standard controller
Developer Atari Corporation
Manufacturer IBM
Type Home video game console
Generation Fifth generation
Release date
  • NA: November 23, 1993 [1]
  • EU: June 27, 1994
  • DE: September 1, 1994 [3]
  • JP: December 8, 1994 [4]
Lifespan 19931996
Introductory price US$249.99 [6]
GB£199.99-299.99 [7]
AU$700 [8]
DM550-600 [3]
JP¥29,800 [9]
SPtas39,990 [5]
  • WW: 1996
Units sold<250,000 [6] [10]
Media ROM cartridge
CPU Motorola 68000, 2 custom RISC processors
Memory2 MB RAM
StorageInternal RAM, cartridge
Best-selling game Alien vs Predator (85,000) [11]

The Atari Jaguar is a home video game console that was developed by Atari Corporation and originally released in North America in November 1993.


A successor to the 7800, the Jaguar came as part of the fifth generation of video game consoles and was, controversially, marketed by Atari as being the world's first "64-bit" video game system, [1] while competing with the existing 16-bit consoles (Sega Genesis and Super Nintendo Entertainment System) and the 32-bit 3DO Interactive Multiplayer platform (which launched the same year). The Jaguar shipped with Cybermorph as the pack-in game. [12]

Development on the Atari Jaguar started in the early 1990s by Flare Technology. The multi-chip architecture, hardware bugs, and lacking developer support tools made game development difficult. Underwhelming sales further contributed to the console's lack of third-party support. [12] This, in addition to the lack of internal development at Atari, led to a games library comprising only 50 licensed titles, plus another 13 games on the Jaguar CD.

Atari attempted to extend the lifespan of the system with the Atari Jaguar CD add-on and marketing the Jaguar as the low-cost next generation console, with a price tag over $100 less than any of its competitors. [13] However, with the release of the Sega Saturn and Sony PlayStation in 1995, sales of the Jaguar continued to fall, ultimately selling no more than 250,000 units before it was discontinued in 1996. The commercial failure of the Jaguar prompted Atari to leave the video game console market.

After Hasbro Interactive acquired all Atari properties in 1998, [14] the rights to the Jaguar were released into the public domain, with the console being declared an open platform. [15] Since its discontinuation, the Jaguar has gained a cult following, with a developer base that produces homebrew games for the console. [16]



The Jaguar was developed by the members of Flare Technology, a company formed by Martin Brennan and John Mathieson. The team had claimed that they could not only make a console superior to the Genesis or the Super NES, but they could also be cost-effective.[ citation needed ] Impressed by their work on the Konix Multisystem, Atari persuaded them to close Flare and form a new company called Flare II, with Atari providing the funding.[ citation needed ] Flare II initially set to work designing two consoles for Atari. One was a 32-bit architecture (codenamed "Panther"), and the other was a 64-bit system (codenamed "Jaguar"); however, work on the Jaguar design progressed faster than expected, so Atari canceled the Panther project to focus on the more promising Jaguar.

The Jaguar was unveiled in August 1993 at the Chicago Consumer Entertainment Show. [17]


The Jaguar was launched on November 23, 1993, at a price of $249.99, [6] under a $500 million manufacturing deal with IBM; to prepare for this, all of Atari's other products -- the 2600, 7800, XEGS and the ST Computer line -- would be discontinued by that time. The system was initially available only in the test markets of New York City and San Francisco, under the slogan "Do the Math", [6] claiming superiority over competing 16-bit and 32-bit systems. A U.S.-wide release followed six months later, in early 1994. [18] Computer Gaming World wrote in January 1994 that the Jaguar was "a great machine in search of a developer/customer base", as Atari had to "overcome the stigma of its name (lack of marketing and customer support, as well as poor developer relations in the past)". The company "ventured late into third party software support" while competing console 3DO's "18 month public relations blitz" would result in "an avalanche of software support", the magazine reported. [19]

The Jaguar struggled to attain a substantial user base. Atari reported that it had shipped 17,000 units as part of the system's initial test market in 1993. [20] By the end of 1994, it reported that it had sold approximately 100,000 units. [21]

Arrival of Saturn and PlayStation

In early 1995, Atari announced that they had dropped the price of the Jaguar to $149.99 in order to improve its competitive nature. Atari ran early morning infomercials, with enthusiastic salesmen touting the powerful game system. These infomercials would run for most of 1995, but did not significantly sell the remaining stock of Jaguar systems. [22]

In a 1995 interview with Next Generation , then-CEO Sam Tramiel declared that the Jaguar was as powerful, if not more powerful, than the newly launched Sega Saturn, and slightly weaker than the upcoming PlayStation. [23] Next Generation received a deluge of letters in response to Tramiel's comments, particularly his threat to bring Sony to court for price dumping if the PlayStation entered the U.S. market at a retail price below $300 [aj 1] and his remark that the small number of third party Jaguar games was good for Atari's profitability, which angered Jaguar owners who were already frustrated at how few games were coming out for the system. [24]

In Atari's 1995 annual report, it noted:

Jaguar sales were substantially below Atari's expectations, and Atari's business and financial results were materially adversely affected in 1995 as Atari continued to invest heavily in Jaguar game development, entered into arrangements to publish certain licensed titles and reduced the retail price for its Jaguar console unit. Atari attributes the poor performance of Jaguar to a number of factors including (i) extensive delays in development of software for the Jaguar which resulted in reduced orders due to consumer concern as to when titles for the platform would be released and how many titles would ultimately be available, and (ii) the introduction of competing products by Sega and Sony in May 1995 and September 1995, respectively. [25]

In addition, Atari had severely limited financial resources, and so could not create the level of marketing which has historically backed successful gaming consoles. [22]


By November 1995, mass layoffs and insider statements were fueling journalistic speculation that Atari had ceased both development and manufacturing for the Jaguar and was simply trying to sell off existing stock before exiting the video game industry. [26] [27] Although Atari continued to deny these theories going into 1996, core Jaguar developers such as High Voltage Software and Beyond Games stated that they were no longer receiving communications from Atari regarding future Jaguar projects. [28]

In its 10-K405 SEC Filing, filed April 12, 1996, [10] Atari informed their stockholders that its revenues had declined by more than half, from $38.7 million in 1994 to $14.6 million in 1995, then gave them the news on the truly dire nature of the Jaguar:

From the introduction of Jaguar in late 1993 through the end of 1995, Atari sold approximately 125,000 units of Jaguar. As of December 31, 1995, Atari had approximately 100,000 units of Jaguar in inventory.

The filing also essentially confirmed all theories that Atari had given up on the Jaguar beginning in November of 1995, and in the subsequent months were concerned chiefly with liquidating its inventory of Jaguar products. [29] On April 8, 1996, Atari Corporation agreed to merge with JTS, Inc. in a reverse takeover, [30] thus forming JTS Corporation. The merger was finalized on July 30. [31]

After the Atari/JTS merger, the bulk of the remaining Jaguar inventory remained unsold; [22] these would be finally moved out to Tiger Software, a private liquidator, on December 23, 1996. [32] On March 13, 1998, JTS sold the Atari name and all of the Atari properties to Hasbro Interactive. [14]

Technical issues

Hardware Bugs

The Jaguar's underlying hardware was crippled by a flaw in the CPU's memory controller, which prevented code execution out of system RAM.[ citation needed ] Less severe defects included a buggy UART.[ citation needed ] The memory controller flaw could have been mitigated by a mature code-development environment, to unburden the programmer from having to micromanage small chunks of code.[ citation needed ] Jaguar's development tools left much to the programmer's own implementation, as documentation was incomplete.[ citation needed ]

Design specs for the console allude to the GPU or DSP being capable of acting as a CPU, leaving the Motorola 68000 to read controller inputs. Atari's Leonard Tramiel also specifically suggested that the 68000 not be used by developers. [33] In practice, however, many developers used the Motorola 68000 to drive gameplay logic due to the greater developer familiarity with the 68000, bugs that made using the custom chips difficult, lacking developer support tools (particularly early on), and the adequacy of the 68000 for certain types of games. [33]

Bit count controversy

Atari tried to play down competing consoles by proclaiming the Jaguar was the only "64-bit" system. This claim is questioned by some, because the (Motorola 68000) CPU and the "Tom" GPU executes a 32-bit instruction-set, but sends control signals to the 64-bit graphics co-processors. Atari's reasoning that the 32-bit "Tom" and "Jerry" chips work in tandem to add up to a 64-bit system was ridiculed in a mini-editorial by Electronic Gaming Monthly , which commented that "If Sega did the math for the Sega Saturn the way Atari did the math for their 64-bit Jaguar system, the Sega Saturn would be a 112-bit monster of a machine." [34] Next Generation , while giving a mostly negative review of the Jaguar, maintained that it is a true 64-bit system, since the data path from the DRAM to the CPU and Tom and Jerry chips is 64 bits wide. [35]

Technical specifications

The Jaguar utilized a multi-chip architecture that was difficult for most developers to use. Atari-Jaguar-Motherboard-L.jpg
The Jaguar utilized a multi-chip architecture that was difficult for most developers to use.

From the Jaguar Software Reference manual, page 1: [36]

Jaguar is a custom chip set primarily intended to be the heart of a very high-performance games/leisure computer. It may also be used as a graphics accelerator in more complex systems, and applied to workstation and business uses. As well as a general purpose CPU, Jaguar contains four processing units. These are the Object Processor, Graphics Processor, Blitter, and Digital Sound Processor. Jaguar provides these blocks with a 64-bit data path to external memory devices, and is capable of a very high data transfer rate into external dynamic RAM.


Other Jaguar features

The inputs and outputs of an NTSC Atari Jaguar Atari-Jaguar-Console-Back.jpg
The inputs and outputs of an NTSC Atari Jaguar

COJAG arcade games

Atari Games licensed the Atari Jaguar's chipset for use in its arcade games. The system, named COJAG (for "Coin-Op Jaguar"), replaced the 68000 with a 68020 or MIPS R3000-based CPU (depending on the board version), added more RAM, a full 64-bit wide ROM bus (Jaguar ROM bus being 32-bit), and optionally a hard drive (some titles such as Freeze are ROM only). It ran the lightgun games Area 51 and Maximum Force , which were released by Atari as dedicated cabinets or as the Area 51/Maximum Force combo machine. Other games (3 On 3 Basketball; Fishin' Frenzy; Freeze; Vicious Circle) were developed but never released.

Atari Jaguar Duo

The Atari Jaguar Duo was a proposed console similar to the TurboDuo and Genesis CDX. It was an attempt by Atari to combine the Atari Jaguar and Atari Jaguar CD to make a new console. A prototype model, described by journalists as resembling a bathroom scale, was unveiled at the 1995 Winter Consumer Electronics Show, [39] but the console was cancelled before production could begin. [40]


Atari Jag Link connectors.jpg
The redesigned controller, dubbed the "ProController", included additional action buttons, and the JagLink peripheral added network styled play to compatible games.

Prior to the launch of the console in November 1993, Atari had announced a variety of peripherals and add-ons for the Jaguar to be released over the console's lifespan. This included a CD-ROM-based add-on console, a dial-up internet link with support for online gaming, a virtual reality headset, and an MPEG-2 video card. [41] [42] However, due to the poor sales and eventual commercial failure of the Jaguar, most of the peripherals in development were scrapped. The only peripherals and add-ons released by Atari for the Jaguar were a redesigned controller, an adapter for four players, a CD console add-on, and a link cable for local area network (LAN) gaming.

The redesigned second controller for the Jaguar, the ProController by Atari, added three more face buttons and two triggers. [43] The controller was created in response to the criticism of the original controller that the console came with, which was said to not possess enough buttons for fighting games in particular. Sold independently, however, it was never bundled with the system after its release. A peripheral that allowed 4 controllers to be plugged into the console was also released. Dubbed the "Team Tap", it was released independently and as a bundle with White Men Can't Jump . [44] However, the Team Tap was compatible with White Men Can't Jump and NBA Jam Tournament Edition only. [45] Eight player gameplay with the Team Tap peripheral is also possible if a second Team Tap is plugged into the second controller port on the console, [44] but neither of the compatible games supports eight players. [43] Local area network multiplayer gameplay was achieved through the use of the Jaglink Interface, which allowed two Jaguar consoles to be linked together [43] through a modular extension and a UTP phone cable. The Jaglink was compatible with three games: AirCars , BattleSphere and Doom .

In 1994 at the CES, Atari announced that it had partnered with Phylon, Inc. to create the Jaguar Voice/Data Communicator. The unit was delayed and eventually in 1995 mass production was canceled, but not before an estimated 100 units were produced. The Jaguar Voice Modem or JVM, as it became known, utilized a 19.9kbit/s dial up modem and had the ability to answer incoming phone calls and store up to 18 phone numbers. Players were required to directly dial each other for online game play. The only Jaguar game that supports the JVM is Ultra Vortek ; the modem is initialized in the Ultra Vortek start up screen by entering 911 on the key pad. [46]

Jaguar CD

The Atari Jaguar CD add-on (left), and the Jaguar CD's Memory Track cartridge (right).

The Atari Jaguar CD is an add-on to the Jaguar that made use of CD-ROMs to distribute games. It was released in September 1995, two years after the Jaguar's launch. Twelve games were released for the system during its manufacturing lifetime, with more being made later by homebrew developers. Each Jaguar CD unit came with a Virtual Light Machine, which displayed light patterns corresponding to music, if the user inserts an audio CD into the console. It was developed by Jeff Minter, who had created the program after experimenting with graphics during the development of Tempest 2000 . [47] The program was deemed a spiritual successor to the Atari Video Music, a system which served a similar purpose, released in 1976. [48]

An additional accessory for the Jaguar CD, which allowed Jaguar CD games to save persistent data such as preferences and saved games, was also released. [43] Known as the Memory Track, it was a cartridge that contained a 128 K EEPROM, and was to be inserted into the cartridge slot on the Jaguar CD while the user played a Jaguar CD game. The program manager for the Memory Track is accessed by pushing the option button while the system is starting, and exited by pushing the * and # keys simultaneously. [49] There were plans to make a second model of the Jaguar console that combined both the Jaguar and the Jaguar CD into one unit, a la the TurboDuo. [50] Originally codenamed the Jaguar III, and later the Jaguar Duo, the proposed model was scrapped after the discontinuation of the Jaguar. [51]

Jaguar VR

A virtual reality headset compatible with the console, tentatively titled the Jaguar VR, was unveiled by Atari at the 1995 Winter Consumer Electronics Show. [52] The development of the peripheral was a response to Nintendo's virtual reality console, the Virtual Boy, which had been announced the previous year. [53] The headset was developed in cooperation with Virtuality, who had previously created many virtual reality arcade systems, and was already developing a similar headset for practical purposes, named Project Elysium, for IBM. [54] The peripheral was targeted for a commercial release before Christmas 1995. [55] However, the deal with Virtuality was abandoned in October 1995. [56] [57] After Atari's merger with JTS in 1996, all prototypes of the headset were allegedly destroyed. However, two working units, one low-resolution prototype with red and grey-colored graphics and one high-resolution prototype with blue and grey-colored graphics, have since been recovered, and are regularly showcased at retrogaming-themed conventions and festivals. [58] [59] Only one game was developed for the Jaguar VR prototype: a 3D-rendered version of the 1980 arcade game Missile Command , entitled Missile Command 3D , though a demo of Virtuality's Zone Hunter was also created for Jaguar VR demonstrations. [57]

Unlicensed peripherals

An unofficial expansion peripheral for the Atari Jaguar dubbed the "Catbox" was released by the Rockford, Illinois company ICD. It was originally slated to be released early in the Jaguar's life, in the second quarter of 1994, [60] but was not actually released until mid-1995. [61] The ICD CatBox plugs directly into the AV/DSP connectors located in the rear of the Jaguar console and provides three main functions. These are audio, video, and communications. It features six output formats, three for audio (line level stereo, RGB monitor, headphone jack with volume control) and three for video (composite, S-Video, and RGB analog component video) making the Jaguar compatible with multiple high quality monitor systems and multiple monitors at the same time. It is capable of communications methods known as CatNet and RS-232 as well as DSP pass through, allowing the user to connect two or more Jaguars together for multiplayer games either directly or with modems. The ICD CatBox features a polished stainless steel casing [61] and red LEDs in the jaguar's eyes on the logo that indicate communications activity. An IBM AT-type null modem cable may be used to connect two Jaguars together. [62] The CatBox is also compatible with Atari's Jaglink Interface peripheral.

An adaptor for the Jaguar that allows for WebTV access was revealed in 1998; one prototype is known to exist.

Game library


The original controller. Atari-Jaguar-Controller.jpg
The original controller.

Reviewing the Jaguar just a few weeks prior to its launch, GamePro gave it a "thumbs sideways". They praised the power of the hardware but criticized the controller, and were dubious of how the software lineup would turn out, commenting that Atari's failure to secure support from key third party publishers such as Capcom was a bad sign. They concluded that "Like the 3DO, the Jaguar is a risky investment – just not quite as expensive." [63]

The Jaguar won GameFan's "Best New System" award for 1993. [64]

The small size and poor quality of the Jaguar's game library became the most commonly cited reason for its failure in the marketplace. The pack-in game Cybermorph was one of the first polygon-based games for consoles, but was criticized for design flaws and a weak color palette, and compared unfavorably with the SNES's Star Fox . Other early releases like Trevor McFur in the Crescent Galaxy , Raiden , and Evolution: Dino Dudes also received poor reviews, the latter two for failing to take full advantage of the Jaguar's hardware. Jaguar did eventually earn praise with titles such as Tempest 2000 , Doom , and Wolfenstein 3D . [65] The most successful title during the Jaguar's first year was Alien vs. Predator . [66] Both Alien vs. Predator and Tempest 2000 were named among the system's defining titles by GamePro in 2007. [6] However, these occasional successes were seen as insufficient while the Jaguar's competitors were receiving a continual stream of critically acclaimed software; GamePro concluded their rave review of Alien vs. Predator by remarking "If Atari can turn out a dozen more games like AvP, Jaguar owners could truly rest easy and enjoy their purchase." [67] In late 1995 reviews of the Jaguar, Game Players remarked, "The Jaguar suffers from several problems, most importantly the lack of good software." [68] and Next Generation likewise commented that "thus far, Atari has spectacularly failed to deliver on the software side, leaving many to question the actual quality and capability of the hardware. With only one or two exceptions – Tempest 2000 is cited most frequently – there have just been no truly great games for the Jaguar up to now." They further noted that while Atari is well known by older gamers, the company had much less overall brand recognition than Sega, Sony, Nintendo, or even The 3DO Company. However, they argued that with its low price point, the Jaguar might still compete if Atari could improve the software situation. They gave the system two out of five stars. [35] Game Players also stated the despite being 64-bit, the Jaguar is much less powerful than the 3DO, Saturn, and PlayStation, even when supplemented with the Jaguar CD. [68] With such a small library of games [69] to challenge the incumbent 16-bit game consoles, Jaguar's appeal never grew beyond a small gaming audience. Digital Spy commented: "Like many failed hardware ventures, it still maintains something of a cult following but can only be considered a misstep for Atari." [70]

In 2006 IGN editor Craig Harris rated the standard Jaguar controller as the worst game controller ever, criticizing the unwarranted recycling of the 1980s "phone keypad" format and the small number of action buttons, which he found particularly unwise given that Atari was actively trying to court fighting game fans to the system. [71] Ed Semrad of Electronic Gaming Monthly commented that many Jaguar games gratuitously used all of the controller's phone keypad buttons, making the controls much more difficult than they needed to be. [72] GamePro's The Watch Dog remarked, "The controller usually doesn't use the keypad, and for games that use the keypad extensively (Alien vs. Predator, Doom), a keypad overlay is used to minimize confusion. But yes, it is a lot of buttons for nuttin'." [73] Atari added more action buttons for its Pro Controller, to improve performance in fighting games in particular. [74] [75]


An Atari Jaguar unit on display at an interactive history exhibit at the EB Games Expo 2015, with Zool 2 available to play. EB Games Expo 2015 - Atari Jaguar.JPG
An Atari Jaguar unit on display at an interactive history exhibit at the EB Games Expo 2015, with Zool 2 available to play.

Telegames continued to publish games for the Jaguar after it was discontinued, and for a time was the only company to do so. [76] On May 14, 1999, Hasbro Interactive announced that it had released all rights to the Jaguar, declaring it an open platform; [15] this opened the doors for extensive homebrew development. [16] Following the announcement, Songbird Productions joined Telegames in releasing unfinished Jaguar games alongside new games to satisfy the cult following. Hasbro Interactive, along with all the Atari properties, was sold to Infogrames on January 29, 2001. [77] [78]

In the United Kingdom in 2001, Telegames and retailer Game made a deal to bring the Jaguar to Game's retail outlets. It was initially sold for £29.99 new and software ranged between £9.99 for more common games such as Doom and Ruiner Pinball and £39.99 for rarer releases such as Defender 2000 and Checkered Flag . The machine had a presence in the stores until 2007, when remaining consoles were sold off for £9.99 and games were sold for as low as 97p.[ citation needed ]

In 1997, Imagin Systems, a manufacturer of dental imaging equipment, purchased the Jaguar cartridge and console molds from JTS. The console molds could, with minor modification, fit their HotRod camera, [79] and the cartridge molds were reused to create an optional memory expansion card. [80] In December 2014, the molds were purchased from Imagin Systems by Mike Kennedy, owner of the Kickstarter funded Retro Videogame Magazine, to propose a new crowdfunded video game console, the Retro VGS, [81] later rebranded the Coleco Chameleon [82] after entering a licensing agreement with Coleco. The purchase of the molds was far cheaper than designing and manufacturing entirely new molds, and Kennedy described their acquisition as "the entire reason [the Retro VGS] is possible". [83] However, the project was terminated in March 2016 following criticism of Kennedy [84] and doubts regarding demand for the proposed console. Two "prototypes" were discovered to be fakes and Coleco withdrew from the project. [85] After the project's termination, the molds were sold to Albert Yarusso, the founder of the AtariAge website. [86]

See also


  1. Many readers found this threat hollow and hypocritical, since Tramiel noted in the same interview that Atari were themselves selling the Jaguar at a loss. However, as noted by the editor in response to the letters, price dumping does not have to do with a product being priced below cost, but its being priced much lower in one country than another (which, as Tramiel said, is illegal). Tramiel and Next Generation agreed that the PlayStation's Japanese price converts to approximately $500.

Related Research Articles

Atari Lynx handheld game console

The Atari Lynx is a 8/16-bit handheld game console that was released by Atari Corporation in September 1989 in North America, and in Europe and Japan in 1990.

Nintendo 64 Home video game console produced by Nintendo

The Nintendo 64 (officially abbreviated as N64, hardware model number pre-term: NUS, stylized as NINTENDO64) is a home video game console developed and marketed by Nintendo. Named for its 64-bit central processing unit, it was released in June 1996 in Japan, September 1996 in North America, and March 1997 in Europe and Australia. It was the last major home console to use the cartridge as its primary storage format until the Nintendo Switch in 2017. The Nintendo 64 was discontinued in 2002 following the launch of its successor, the GameCube, in 2001.

Neo Geo (system) Cartridge-based arcade system board and home video game console

The Neo Geo, stylised as NEO•GEO, also written as NEOGEO, is a cartridge-based arcade system board and fourth-generation home video game console released on April 26, 1990, by Japanese game company SNK Corporation. It was the first system in SNK's Neo Geo family. The Neo Geo was marketed as 24-bit; its CPU is technically a 16/32-bit 68000-based system with an 8/16-bit Z80 coprocessor, while its GPU chipset has a 24-bit graphics data bus.

PlayStation (console) Fifth-generation and first home video game console developed by Sony

The PlayStation is a home video game console developed and marketed by Sony Computer Entertainment. It was first released on 3 December 1994 in Japan, on 9 September 1995 in North America, on 29 September 1995 in Europe, and on 15 November 1995 in Australia, and was the first of the PlayStation lineup of video game consoles. As a fifth generation console, the PlayStation primarily competed with the Nintendo 64 and the Sega Saturn.

32X Add-on for the Sega Mega Drive/Genesis video game console

The 32X is an add-on for the Sega Genesis video game console. Codenamed "Project Mars", the 32X was designed to expand the power of the Genesis and serve as a transitional console into the 32-bit era until the release of the Sega Saturn. Independent of the Genesis, the 32X uses its own ROM cartridges and has its own library of games. It was distributed under the name Super 32X in Japan, Genesis 32X in North America, Mega Drive 32X in the PAL region, and Mega 32X in Brazil.

Video game console Interactive entertainment computer or customized computer system for running video games

A video game console is a computer device that outputs a video signal or visual image to display a video game that one or more people can play.

3DO Interactive Multiplayer Video game console

The 3DO Interactive Multiplayer, often called the 3DO, is a home video game console developed by The 3DO Company. Conceived by entrepreneur and Electronic Arts founder Trip Hawkins, the 3DO was not a console manufactured by the company itself, but a series of specifications, originally designed by Dave Needle and R. J. Mical of New Technologies Group, that could be licensed by third parties. Panasonic produced the first models in 1993, and further renditions of the hardware were released in 1994 by GoldStar and in 1995 by Sanyo.

The fifth-generation era refers to computer and video games, video game consoles, and handheld gaming consoles dating from approximately October 4, 1993 to March 23, 2006. For home consoles, the best-selling console was the Sony PlayStation, followed by the Nintendo 64, and then the Sega Saturn. The PlayStation also had a redesigned version, the PSone, which was launched on July 7, 2000.

<i>Magic Carpet</i> (video game) video game

Magic Carpet is a 3D flying video game developed by Bullfrog Productions and published by Electronic Arts in 1994. Its graphics and gameplay were considered innovative and technically impressive at the time of its release.

<i>Batman Forever: The Arcade Game</i> 1996 arcade video game

Batman Forever: The Arcade Game is a beat 'em up video game based on the movie Batman Forever. The subtitle is used to differentiate it from Batman Forever, another beat 'em up published by Acclaim at around the same time. One or two players, playing as Batman and Robin, fight Two-Face, the Riddler, and numerous henchmen.

<i>Pitfall: The Mayan Adventure</i> 1994 video game

Pitfall: The Mayan Adventure is a side-scrolling action-platform video game developed by Activision in conjunction with Kroyer Films and originally published for the Sega Genesis on North America and Europe in 1994. The fourth installment in the Pitfall! franchise, players assume the role of Pitfall Harry Junior as he embarks on a journey through the Mayan jungles of Central America in an attempt to rescue Pitfall Harry, his father and main protagonist of previous entries in the series, from the evil Mayan warrior spirit named Zakelua. Its gameplay mainly consists of action and platforming mixed with stage-based exploration using a main six-button configuration.

Atari Corporation computer and video game console manufacturer

Atari Corporation was an American manufacturer of computers and video game consoles from 1984 to 1996. Atari was founded in July 1984 when Warner Communications sold the home computing and game console divisions of Atari, Inc. to Jack Tramiel. Its chief products were the Atari ST, Atari XE, Atari 7800, Atari Lynx and Atari Jaguar.

<i>Fight for Life</i> (video game) video game

Fight for Life is a 1996 fighting video game developed and published by Atari Corporation in North America and Europe exclusively for the Atari Jaguar. It was the final game to be developed and published by Atari themselves before dropping support for the platform and merging with JT Storage in a reverse takeover on July 30th, 1996, and the last fighting title released for the console.

<i>Worms</i> (1995 video game) 1994 video game

Worms is a 2D artillery tactical video game developed by Team17 and released in 1995. It is the first game in the Worms series of video games. It is a turn based game where a player controls a team of worms against other teams of worms that are controlled by a computer or human opponent. The aim is to use various weapons to kill the worms on the other teams and have the last surviving worm(s).

<i>T-MEK</i> 1994 video game

T-MEK is a two-player, sit-down, virtual reality fighting arcade game developed by Atari Games and published by Time Warner Interactive in 1994. Each player can choose their MEK. One player can play against 6 AI players and the occasional boss, or two players can play against each other and 4 AI players. There is a special tournament mode where two players can go one on one. Up to three T-MEK cabinets can be linked for six-player competitions. T-MEK was later ported to MS-DOS and the Sega 32X; rather than linking multiple systems together, the home versions featured split-screen multiplayer for two players.

<i>Brett Hull Hockey</i> 1994 ice hockey video games

Brett Hull Hockey is an ice hockey video game developed by Radical Entertainment and originally published by Accolade for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System in North America on January 1994. It prominently features former Canadian-American NHL player Brett Hull and is officially licensed from the NHL Players' Association.

<i>Head-On Soccer</i> video game

Head-On Soccer is a soccer video game originally developed and published by U.S. Gold for the Sega Genesis in 1995.

Atari Jaguar CD Peripheral for the Atari Jaguar video game console

The Atari Jaguar CD or Jag CD is a CD-ROM peripheral for the Atari Jaguar video game console.


  1. 1 2 "Atari Ships Jaguar For New York And San Francisco Markets; World's First 64-bit Interactive Multimedia Home Entertainment System Available". PR Newswire. November 23, 1993. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
  2. Humphreys, Andrew (August 1994). "Jaguar - Reality Bites?". Hyper . No. 9. Next Media Pty Ltd. pp. 20–25.
  3. 1 2 Euer Video Games Team (September 1994). "Warpzone - Jaguar - Jaguar in Deutschland!". Video Games . No. 34. Future-Verlag. p. 38.
  4. "Scene - Next Generation Battle - Japan". Mega Fun . No. 30. CT Computec Verlag GmbH & Co. KG. March 1995. p. 28.[ permanent dead link ]
  5. 1 2 "¿Qué Consola Comprar?". Hobby Consolas . No. 51. Axel Springer SE. December 1995. pp. 36–37.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 Blake Snow (May 4, 2007). "The 10 Worst-Selling Consoles of All Time". Archived from the original on September 5, 2008. Retrieved August 1, 2008.
  7. "CVG News - Get Your Jaguars Now, Folks - The Cat Set Free At Last". Computer and Video Games . No. 152. Future plc. July 1994. p. 9.[ permanent dead link ]
  8. "Letters - Jag & 3DO Queries". Hyper . No. 11. Next Media Pty Ltd. October 1994. p. 81.[ permanent dead link ]
  9. "Jaguar: Coup De Griffe Sur Le Japan!". Consoles + . No. 39. M.E.R.7. January 1995. pp. 26–27.
  10. 1 2 ATARI CORP Annual Report (Regulation S-K, item 405) (10-K405) Item 7. Management's Discussion And Analysis Of Financial Condition And Results Of Operations
  11. "Jaguar: mass market machine". Edge . No. 22 Supplementary. Future plc. July 1995. p. 5. Archived from the original on August 29, 2018. Retrieved July 13, 2018.
  12. 1 2 "AtariAge - Atari Jaguar History".
  13. "Once and Future Kings". GamePro . IDG (80): 28–30. May 1995.
  14. 1 2 Johnston, Chris (April 8, 2000). "Atari Goes to Hasbro". GameSpot.
  15. 1 2 "Hasbro Releases Jaguar Publishing Rights". Hasbro Interactive. Retrieved May 14, 2008. Beverly, MA (May 14, 1999) – Leading entertainment software publisher, Hasbro Interactive announced today it has released all rights that it may have to the vintage Atari hardware platform, the Jaguar.
  16. 1 2 Goss, Patrick. "Redundant gadgets (Atari Jaguar entry)". Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved October 23, 2007.
  17. "Atari: From Boom to Bust and Back Again". Next Generation . No. 4. Imagine Media. April 1995. p. 39.
  18. "Letters". Next Generation . No. 4. Imagine Media. April 1995. p. 107. The fact is that occasionally products do launch in some 'test' markets before making it national. Atari's Jaguar is a prime example (it was available in San Francisco and New York six months before anywhere else).
  19. Miller, Chuck; Dille, H. E.; Wilson, Johnny L. (January 1994). "Battle Of The New Machines". Computer Gaming World. pp. 64–76.
  20. Atari Corporation Annual Report, 1993. pp 14.
  21. Atari Corporation Annual Report. pp 11.
  22. 1 2 3 Thomas, Don (December 1996). "Atari's Historic Road to Nowhere". Next Generation . No. 24. Imagine Media. pp. 97–104.
  23. "Atari's President Talks Back". Next Generation . No. 7. July 1995. pp. 6–12.
  24. "Letters". Next Generation . No. 10. Imagine Media. October 1995. p. 140.
  25. Atari Corporation Annual Report, 1993. pp 3.
  26. "Atari Drops Jaguar?". Next Generation . No. 13. Imagine Media. January 1996. p. 21. Then in November, UK newspaper The Sunday Times ... put forward that Atari plans to give up on the Jaguar in favor of PC development ... The Sunday Times article is not the only piece of speculation regarding Atari's commitment to hardware to have appeared in the media over the last two weeks.
  27. "Atari Teeters on Grave's Edge". GamePro . No. 91. IDG. April 1996. p. 16.
  28. "Crumbling Atari Still Defiant". Next Generation . No. 16. Imagine Media. April 1996. pp. 16–17.
  29. "Stop Press: Ashes to Ashes...". Next Generation . No. 19. Imagine Media. July 1996. p. 17.
  30. "Atari and JT Storage Reorganisation Plan". One Cle. Archived from the original on December 9, 2006. Retrieved November 25, 2006.
  31. "Video Game Timeline". Electronic Gaming Monthly . No. 102. Ziff Davis. January 1998. p. 137.
  32. "A History of JT Storage / JTS (including the Atari division)". Retrieved May 31, 2020.
  33. 1 2 Joe Venor (2009). "What's this "Lay off the 68k" and "GPU in Main" Malarkey? (TECHNICAL)". The Owl Project. Retrieved February 18, 2018.
  34. "The Hot Number: 112". Electronic Gaming Monthly . No. 71. Sendai Publishing. June 1995. p. 30.
  35. 1 2 "Which Game System is the Best!?". Next Generation . No. 12. Imagine Media. December 1995. pp. 36–85.
  36. Atari Corp. (1995). Jaguar Software Reference Manual - Version 2.4 (PDF). Atari Corp. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 15, 2013. Retrieved November 26, 2012.
  37. Atari Jaguar Software Reference Manual, Atari Corp. 1995, Pg 2
  38. Atari Jaguar Order, Atari, 1994
  39. "WCES: The Calm Before the Storm". Next Generation . Imagine Media (3): 19. March 1995.
  40. Edwards, Benj (May 14, 2011). "10 Unreleased Video Game Consoles - Atari Jaguar Duo (1995) - Slideshow from". Retrieved November 24, 2013.
  41. "Atari's 64-bit Jaguar Stalks the Competition". GamePro . IDG (51): 16–17. October 1993.
  42. "Atari Jaguar Unveiled—Stalks 3DO". Computer Gaming World. November 1993. pp. 10–11. Retrieved March 28, 2016.
  43. 1 2 3 4 "Feline Friends". GamePro . No. 89. IDG. February 1996. p. 22.
  44. 1 2 "Atari Team Tap Multi-Player Adapter". The Centre for Computing History . Retrieved June 11, 2015.
  45. "NBA Jam Tournament Edition (Jaguar) - Manual". AtariAge . [Original publisher: Midway Games]. February 1995. Archived from the original on April 25, 2015. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
  46. Vinciguerra, Robert. "A Complete History of Online Console Gaming in the United States". The Rev. Rob Times. Archived from the original on October 14, 2014. Retrieved December 5, 2007.
  47. Minter, Jeff. "VLM - History". Llamasoft . Retrieved June 11, 2015.
  48. Wolf, Mark J. P. (2003). "Abstraction in the Video Game" (PDF). Retrieved June 11, 2015.
  49. "Atari Memory Track - User Manual" (PDF). Atari Corporation. 1995. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 9, 2015. Retrieved June 12, 2015.
  50. Todd, Mowatt (May 1995). "Atari to Unleash New Jaguar CD and Jaguar III". Electronic Gaming Monthly . Ziff Davis (70): 28.
  51. Edwards, Benj (May 14, 2011). "10 Unreleased Video Game Consoles - Atari Jaguar Duo (1995)". PC Magazine . Ziff Davis LLC . Retrieved June 11, 2015.
  52. Iida, Keita; Goldberg, Marty. "Atari Jaguar VR Headset". AGH Museum. Atari Gaming Headquarters. Retrieved June 10, 2015.
  53. "Nintendo introduces video game players to three-dimensional worlds with new virtual reality video game system". Business Wire / Planet Virtual Boy. November 14, 1994. Retrieved June 10, 2015.
  54. Dye, Lee (February 22, 1995). "The Cutting Edge: COMPUTING / TECHNOLOGY / INNOVATION : Virtual Reality Applications Expand : Imaging: Technology is finding important places in medicine, engineering and many other realms". Los Angeles Times . Retrieved June 10, 2015.
  55. "Quartermann" (May 1995). "Gaming Gossip". Electronic Gaming Monthly . Ziff Davis (70): 54.
  56. "1995: The Calm Before the Storm?". Next Generation . Imagine Media (13): 56. January 1996.
  57. 1 2 Thompson, Clint. "Jaguar VR". JagCube. Retrieved June 10, 2015.
  58. "Incredibly Rare Working Prototype 'Atari Jaguar Virtual Reality Headset' Hardware Surfaces On eBay". RetroCollect. January 23, 2015. Archived from the original on March 23, 2019. Retrieved June 10, 2015.
  59. Plafke, James (January 23, 2013). "Atari Jaguar had a VR headset?! One of the two left intact is up for auction". . Ziff Davis Media . Retrieved June 10, 2015.
  60. "Jaguar's Cat Box". GamePro . IDG (69): 184–186. June 1994.
  61. 1 2 "No Litterbox". GamePro . IDG (83): 108. August 1995.
  62. Official CatBox Manual - Final Version 1.01c - May 8, 1996
  63. "System Shopper". GamePro . No. 63. IDG. December 1993. pp. 46–49.
  64. "GameFan's 2nd Annual Megawards". GameFan . No. Volume 2, Issue 2. Shinno Media. January 1994. p. 58. Best New System: Winner: The Atari Jaguar
  65. Atari Jaguar History . AtariAge. Retrieved December 9, 2008.
  66. Atari Corporation 1994 annual report, p. 3.
  67. "ProReview: Alien vs. Predator". GamePro . No. 75. IDG. December 1994. pp. 180–181.
  68. 1 2 "System Analysis: Jaguar / Jaguar CD". Game Players . No. 79. Signal Research. Holiday 1995. p. 68.Check date values in: |date= (help)
  69. Greg Orlando (May 15, 2007). "Console Portraits: A 40-Year Pictorial History of Gaming". Wired News . Condé Nast Publications . Retrieved March 23, 2008.
  70. Mark Langshaw. "Atari retrospective: The rise and fall of a gaming giant". Digital Spy, January 27, 2013.
  71. "Top 10 Tuesday: Worst Game Controllers". IGN. February 21, 2006. Archived from the original on January 14, 2007. Retrieved August 7, 2009.
  72. "Review Crew: Syndicate". Electronic Gaming Monthly . No. 69. Sendai Publishing. April 1995. p. 38.
  73. "Buyers Beware". GamePro . No. 89. IDG. February 1996. p. 14.
  74. Bruiser (April 4, 2012). "5 Reasons Why the Atari Jaguar Isn't So Bad". Leftover Culture Review. LOCR. Retrieved February 1, 2018.
  75. Clarke, Bruce (February 18, 2007). "Dragon: The Bruce Lee Story". The Atari Times. TAT. Retrieved February 1, 2018.
  76. "Tidbits...". Electronic Gaming Monthly . No. 94. Ziff Davis. May 1997. p. 24. Atari Jaguar game maker Telegames refuses to desert loyal owners of the 64-Bit machine ... and remains the lone third-party publisher. The company has six new games in the works, according to its online site ...
  77. "Infogrames to Acquire Hasbro Interactive". IGN . December 6, 2000. Archived from the original on November 19, 2001. Retrieved September 30, 2019.
  78. "Infogrames completes Hasbro Interactive acquisition". GameSpot. January 29, 2001.
  79. "Atari Jaguar Revived As Dental Camera". 1UP. January 1, 2010. Retrieved October 24, 2010.
  80. "HotRod" (PDF). Imagin. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 17, 2010. Retrieved October 24, 2010.
  81. "Home". July 3, 2015. Archived from the original on July 3, 2015. Retrieved December 27, 2016.
  82. "Home". January 14, 2016. Archived from the original on January 14, 2016. Retrieved December 27, 2016.
  83. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 29, 2015. Retrieved 2015-07-31.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  84. Purchese, Robert (April 5, 2016). "Coleco Chameleon boss: "I am officially tabling the console venture for good"". Eurogamer. Retrieved December 27, 2016.
  85. Life, Nintendo (March 9, 2016). "Coleco Removes Its Name From The Chameleon Console, But Aims To Produce "New Products" In The Future". Nintendo Life. Retrieved December 27, 2016.
  86. "Coleco Chameleon .... hardware speculations? - Page 318 - Modern Gaming". AtariAge Forums. Retrieved December 27, 2016.