Social studies

Last updated

In the United States education system, social studies is the integrated study of multiple fields of social science and the humanities, including history, geography, and political science. The term was first coined by American educators around the turn of the twentieth century as a catch-all for these subjects, as well as others which did not fit into the traditional models of lower education in the United States, such as philosophy and psychology. [1]

Education in the United States is provided in public, private, and home schools.

Social science is a category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society. Social science as a whole has many branches. These social sciences include, but are not limited to: anthropology, archaeology, communication studies, economics, history, musicology, human geography, jurisprudence, linguistics, political science, psychology, public health, and sociology. The term is also sometimes used to refer specifically to the field of sociology, the original "science of society", established in the 19th century. For a more detailed list of sub-disciplines within the social sciences see: Outline of social science.

Humanities academic disciplines that study human culture

Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture. In the Renaissance, the term contrasted with divinity and referred to what is now called classics, the main area of secular study in universities at the time. Today, the humanities are more frequently contrasted with natural, and sometimes social, sciences as well as professional training.

Contents

In 1912, the Bureau of Education (not to be confused with its successor agency, the United States Department of Education) was tasked by then Secretary of the Interior Franklin Knight Lane with completely restructuring the American education system for the twentieth century. In response, the Bureau of Education, together with the National Education Association, created the Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education. The Commission was made up of 16 committees (a 17th was established two years later, in 1916), each one tasked with the reform of a specific aspect of the American Education system. Notable among these was the Committee on Social Studies, which was created to consolidate and standardize various subjects which did not fit within normal school curricula into a new subject, to be called "the social studies." [2]

The Office of Education, at times known as the Department of Education and the Bureau of Education, was a small unit in the Federal Government of the United States within the U.S. Department of the Interior from 1867 to 1972.

United States Department of Education United States government department

The United States Department of Education, also referred to as the ED for (the) Education Department, is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government. It began operating on May 4, 1980, having been created after the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare was split into the Department of Education and the Department of Health and Human Services by the Department of Education Organization Act, which President Jimmy Carter signed into law on October 17, 1979.

United States Secretary of the Interior head of the Department of the Interior in the United States government

The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior. The Department of the Interior in the United States is responsible for the management and conservation of most federal land and natural resources; it oversees such agencies as the Bureau of Land Management, the United States Geological Survey, and the National Park Service. The Secretary also serves on and appoints the private citizens on the National Park Foundation board. The Secretary is a member of the President's Cabinet. The U.S. Department of the Interior should not be confused with the Ministries of the Interior as used in many other countries. Ministries of the Interior in these other countries correspond primarily to the Department of Homeland Security in the U.S. Cabinet and secondarily to the Department of Justice.

Bulletin No. 28

In 1920, the work done by the Committee on Social Studies culminated in the publication and release of Bulletin No. 28 (also called "The Committee on Social Studies Report, 1916"). [2] The 66-page bulletin published and distributed by the Bureau of Education is believed to be the first written work dedicated entirely to the subject. It was designed to introduce the concept to American educators and serve as a guide for the creation of nationwide curricula based around social studies. The bulletin proposed many ideas which were considered radical at the time, and it is regarded by many educators as one the most controversial educational resources of the early twentieth century. [1] [3]

In the years after its release, the bulletin received criticism from educators on its vagueness, especially in regards to the definition of Social Studies itself. [1] Critics often point to Section 1 of the report, which vaguely defines Social Studies as "...understood to be those whose subject matter relates directly to the organization and development of human society, and to man as a member of social groups." [2]

Related Research Articles

Home economics

Home economics, domestic science or home science is a field of study that deals with the relationship between individuals, families, communities, and the environment in which they live. Home economics courses are offered internationally and across multiple educational levels. Home economics courses have been important throughout history because it gave women the opportunity to pursue higher education and vocational training in a world where only men were able to learn in such environments. In modern times, home economics teaches both men and women important life skills, such as cooking, sewing, and finances. With the stigma the term “home economics” has earned over the years, the course is now often referred to by different terms, such as “family and consumer science.”

Science education is the field concerned with sharing science content and process with individuals not traditionally considered part of the scientific community. The learners may be children, college students, or adults within the general public; the field of science education includes work in science content, science process, some social science, and some teaching pedagogy. The standards for science education provide expectations for the development of understanding for students through the entire course of their K-12 education and beyond. The traditional subjects included in the standards are physical, life, earth, space, and human sciences.

In secular usage, religious education (RE) is the teaching of a particular religion and its varied aspects: its beliefs, doctrines, rituals, customs, rites, and personal roles. In Western and secular culture, religious education implies a type of education which is largely separate from academia, and which (generally) regards religious belief as a fundamental tenet and operating modality, as well as a prerequisite for attendance.

Teacher person who helps others to acquire knowledge, competences or values

A teacher is a person who helps others to acquire knowledge, competence or virtue.

Curriculum Educational plan

In education, a curriculum is broadly defined as the totality of student experiences that occur in the educational process. The term often refers specifically to a planned sequence of instruction, or to a view of the student's experiences in terms of the educator's or school's instructional goals. In a 2003 study, Reys, Reys, Lapan, Holliday, and Wasman refer to curriculum as a set of learning goals articulated across grades that outline the intended mathematics content and process goals at particular points in time throughout the K–12 school program. Curriculum may incorporate the planned interaction of pupils with instructional content, materials, resources, and processes for evaluating the attainment of educational objectives. Curriculum is split into several categories: the explicit, the implicit, the excluded, and the extracurricular.

The National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) is a United States professional organization dedicated to "improving the teaching and learning of English and the language arts at all levels of education. Since 1911, NCTE has provided a forum for the profession, an array of opportunities for teachers to continue their professional growth throughout their careers, and a framework for cooperation to deal with issues that affect the teaching of English." In addition, the NCTE describes its mission as follows:

The Council promotes the development of literacy, the use of language to construct personal and public worlds and to achieve full participation in society, through the learning and teaching of English and the related arts and sciences of language.

Abraham Flexner American educator

Abraham Flexner was an American educator, best known for his role in the 20th century reform of medical and higher education in the United States and Canada.

Health education is a profession of educating people about health. Areas within this profession encompass environmental health, physical health, social health, emotional health, intellectual health, and spiritual health, as well as sexual and reproductive health education.

A liberal education is a system or course of education suitable for the cultivation of a free human being. It is based on the medieval concept of the liberal arts or, more commonly now, the liberalism of the Age of Enlightenment. It has been described as "a philosophy of education that empowers individuals with broad knowledge and transferable skills, and a stronger sense of values, ethics, and civic engagement ... characterised by challenging encounters with important issues, and more a way of studying than a specific course or field of study" by the Association of American Colleges and Universities. Usually global and pluralistic in scope, it can include a general education curriculum which provides broad exposure to multiple disciplines and learning strategies in addition to in-depth study in at least one academic area.

The American Educational Research Association, or AERA ("A-E-R-A"), is a professional organization representing education researchers in the United States and around the world. As a nonprofit serving the education research field, AERA strives to advance knowledge about education and promote the use of research in practice.

History of education in Japan history of education in Japan

The history of education in Japan dates back at least to the sixth century, when Chinese learning was introduced at the Yamato court. Foreign civilizations have often provided new ideas for the development of Japan's own culture.

Teacher education (TE) or teacher training refers to the policies, procedures, and provision designed to equip (prospective) teachers with the knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and skills they require to perform their tasks effectively in the classroom, school, and wider community. The professionals who engage in this activity are called teacher educators.

Department of Education (Philippines) Philippine government department

The Department of Education is the executive department of the Philippine government responsible for ensuring access to, promoting equity in, and improving the quality of basic education. It is the main agency tasked to manage and govern the Philippine system of basic education. It is the chief formulator of Philippine education policy and responsible for the Philippine primary and secondary school systems. It has its headquarters at the DepEd Complex in Meralco Avenue, Pasig City.

Pakistan studies

Pakistan studies curriculum is the name of a curriculum of academic research and study that encompasses the culture, demographics, geography, history, and politics of Pakistan. The subject is widely researched in and outside the country. Several universities in Pakistan have departments and research centers dedicated to the subject, whereas many independent research institutes carry out multidisciplinary research on Pakistan Studies. There are also a number of international organizations that are engaged in collaborative teaching, research, and exchange activities on the subject.

The Committee of Ten was a working group of educators that, in 1892, recommended the standardization of American high school curriculum.

The Marquette University College of Education is one of the primary colleges at Marquette University, located in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The college oversees curricula related to the training of current and future educators, offering both undergraduate- and graduate-level courses and degrees.

Elementary school (United States) primary education in the United States

An elementary school is the main point of delivery of primary education in the United States, for children between the ages of 4–11 and coming between pre-kindergarten and secondary education.

Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education were secondary education objectives created by the Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education (CRSE) of the National Education Association (NEA) in the United States in 1918 as one approach to reforming secondary schools in the U.S. by segmenting topics. The work on identifying objectives had been started in 1915. This report represents the end of a series of reports addressing standardization of education that began with the Committee of Ten report in the 1890s. The report was subsequently published as a Bulletin by the U.S. Bureau of Education.

Louisiana Tech University College of Education

The College of Education at Louisiana Tech University is one of the five colleges comprising Louisiana Tech University. The mission of the College traces back to the origins of Louisiana Tech in 1894, where the preparation of teachers was a mission of the institution. Today, the College of Education consists of three separate departments awarding thirty-five different academic degrees ranging from the baccalaureate to the doctoral levels.

References

  1. 1 2 3 David Warren Saxe. "On the Alleged Demise of Social Studies: The Eclectic Curriculum in times of Standardization—A Historical Sketch" (PDF). Eric.ed.gov. Retrieved January 20, 2018.
  2. 1 2 3 "The Social Studies in Secondary Education: A Six-Year Program Adapted Both to the 6-3-3 and the 8-4 Plans of Organization. Report of the Committee on Social Studies of the Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education of the National Education Association. Bulletin, 1916, No. 28" (PDF). Committee on Social Studies. Bureau of Education. January 1, 1916. Retrieved January 20, 2018.
  3. Nelson, Murray R. (August 23, 1988). "The Social Contexts of the Committee on Social Studies Report of 1916" (PDF). National Education Association. Institute of Education Resources. Retrieved January 20, 2018.