A talk show or chat show is a television programming or radio programming genre structured around the act of spontaneous conversation.A talk show is distinguished from other television programs by certain common attributes. In a talk show, one person (or group of people or guests) discusses various topics put forth by a talk show host. This discussion can be in the form of an interview or a simple conversation about important social, political or religious issues and events. The personality of the host shapes the tone of the show, which also defines the "trademark" of the show. A common feature or unwritten rule of talk shows is to be based on "fresh talk", which is talk that is spontaneous or has the appearance of spontaneity.
The history of the talk show spans back from the 1950s to current.
Talk shows can also have several different subgenres, which all have unique material and can air at different times of the day via different avenues.
Amongst the inclusion of a host, a guest(s), and a studio or call-in audience, talk shows make up a distinguished category of television programming based on specific attributes.
There are several major formats of talk shows. Generally, each subgenre predominates during a specific programming block during the broadcast day.
These formats are not absolute; some afternoon programs have similar structures to late-night talk shows. These formats may vary across different countries or markets. Late night talk shows are especially significant in the United States. Breakfast television is a staple of British television. The daytime talk format has become popular in Latin America as well as the United States.
These genres also do not represent "generic" talk show genres. "Generic" genres are categorized based on the audiences' social views of talks shows derived through their cultural identities, fondness, preferences and character judgements of the talk shows in question.The subgenres listed above are based on television programming and broadly defined based on the TV guide rather than on the more specific categorizations of talk show viewers. However, there is a lack of research on "generic" genres, making it difficult to list them here. According to Mittell, "generic" genres is of significant importance in further identifying talk show genres because with such differentiation in cultural preferences within the subgenres, a further distinction of genres would better represent and target the audience.
Talk-radio host Howard Stern also hosted a talk show that was syndicated nationally in the USA, then moved to satellite radio's Sirius. The tabloid talk show genre, pioneered by Phil Donahuein 1967 but popularized by Oprah Winfrey was extremely popular during the last two decades of the 20th century.
Politics are hardly the only subject of American talk shows, however. Other radio talk show subjects include Car Talk hosted by NPR and Coast to Coast AM hosted by Art Bell and George Noory which discusses topics of the paranormal, conspiracy theories, fringe science, and the just plain weird. Sports talk shows are also very popular ranging from high-budget shows like The Best Damn Sports Show Period to Max Kellerman's original public-access television cable TV show Max on Boxing.
Talk shows have been broadcast on television since the earliest days of the medium. Joe Franklin, an American radio and television personality, hosted the first television talk show. The show began in 1951 on WJZ-TV (later WABC-TV) and moved to WOR-TV (later WWOR-TV) from 1962 to 1993.
NBC's The Tonight Show is the world's longest-running talk show; having debuted in 1954, it continues to this day. The show underwent some minor title changes until settling on its current title in 1962, and despite a brief foray into a more news-style program in 1957 and then reverting that same year, it has remained a talk show. Ireland's The Late Late Show is the second-longest running talk show in television history, and the longest running talk show in Europe, having debuted in 1962.
Steve Allen was the first host of The Tonight Show, which began as a local New York show, being picked up by the NBC network in 1954. It in turn had evolved from his late-night radio talk show in Los Angeles. Allen pioneered the format of late night network TV talk shows, originating such talk show staples as an opening monologue, celebrity interviews, audience participation, and comedy bits in which cameras were taken outside the studio, as well as music, although the series' popularity was cemented by second host Jack Paar, who took over after Allen had left and the show had ceased to exist.
TV news pioneer Edward R. Murrow hosted a talk show entitled Small World in the late 1950s and since then, political TV talk shows have predominantly aired on Sunday mornings.
Syndicated daily talk shows began to gain more popularity during the mid-1970s and reached their height of popularity with the rise of the tabloid talk show. Morning talk shows gradually replaced earlier forms of programming — there were a plethora of morning game shows during the 1960s and early to mid-1970s, and some stations formerly showed a morning movie in the time slot that many talk shows now occupy.
Current late night talk shows such as The Tonight Show Starring Jimmy Fallon, Conan and The Late Show with Stephen Colbert have aired featuring celebrity guests and comedy sketches. Syndicated daily talk shows range from tabloid talk shows, such as Jerry Springer and Maury to celebrity interview shows like Live with Kelly and Ryan , The Better Show , The Wendy Williams Show , Steve Wilkos , The Ellen DeGeneres Show and The Kelly Clarkson Show to industry leader The Oprah Winfrey Show which popularized the former genre and has been evolving towards the latter. On November 10, 2010, Oprah Winfrey invited several of the most prominent American talk show hosts - Phil Donahue, Sally Jessy Raphael, Geraldo Rivera, Ricki Lake, and Montel Williams - to join her as guests on her show. The 1990s in particular saw a spike in the number of "tabloid" talk shows, most of which were short-lived and are now replaced by a more universally appealing "interview" or "lifestyle TV" format.
Talk shows have more recently started to appear on Internet radio. Also, several Internet blogs are in talk show format including the Baugh Experience.[ citation needed ]
The current world record for the longest talk show is held by Rabi Lamichhane from Nepal by staying on air for 62 hours from April 11 to 13, 2013 breaking the previous record set by two Ukrainians by airing the show for 52 hours in 2011.
Rabi Lamichhane from Nepal holds the present world record for longest ever talk show.
In Japan, panel shows — called "tooku bangumi" (トーク番組）in Japanese — are very commonplace, accounting for about 30% of daytime and prime-time programming on the four main television stations. Due to language and cultural differences, Japanese TV stations could not freely use syndicated programs (mostly from Europe and North America) and therefore turned to panel shows, which could be produced cheaply and easily, to fill time during daytime programming.
Japanese panel shows are distinct in generally not employing regular panelists but instead having a panel made up of different freelance comedians and celebrities each program, although the program is generally hosted by the same compere. Talk shows evolved in tandem with the Japanese variety show and it is very common for talk shows to borrow variety elements, typically by having celebrity guests attempt some kind of amusingly incongruous activity. Often, one of the guests will be a gaijin tarento (foreign talent) in order to provide comedy or to comment on matters related to Western culture. Comedic material is commonly written and rehearsed before tapings with or without a live audience.
Korean and Taiwanese talk shows have used the panel format similar to Japanese programs and rely on famous celebrities and comedic banter than topics. Their programs often shorten interviews from lengthy tapings.
In Brazil, Jô Soares inaugurated the genre with Jô Soares Onze e Meia ("Jô Soares Eleven Thirty") from 1988 to 1999. In 2000, Soares took his show's format to Rede Globo, where it was then called Programa do Jô, and hosts the program until the present day. Jô's main competitors are Danilo Gentili and Fábio Porchat. Weesibe Bbiri on Delta TV Uganda, hosted by Moses Wamala
The fear of the spread of the coronavirus lead to large changes in the operation of many talk shows in year 2020. In an effort to minimize the spread of COVID-19, many talk shows discontinued the use of live audiences to ensure adherence to the rules of social distancing.
In March of 2020, several daytime talk shows, including On Air with Ryan Seacrest , began filming without a studio audience. Late-night talk shows, such as The Late Show With Stephen Colbert, The Tonight Show Starring Jimmy Fallon, Late Night with Seth Meyers , The Daily Show With Trevor Noah followed suite with a no-audience broadcast. Amongst the list of late-night talk shows were also those who only aired once a week, including Last Week Tonight with John Oliver and Full Frontal. Syndicated talk shows such as The View and Live With Kelly and Ryan carried on conversations without viewer participation. Even self-help or lifestyle talk shows such as Dr. Phil were amongst the talk shows that made the decision to eliminate an audience. Following the trend were game show talk shows with usually highly interactive audiences such as, Wheel of Fortune and Jeopardy, which also went forward without studio audiences. Furthermore, gossip tabloid talk shows such as The Wendy Williams Show broadcast in the absence of an audience.
The inclusion of a live, participating audience is one of the attributes that contribute to the defining characteristics of talk shows.Operating without the interaction of viewers created difficult moments and awkward silences to hosts who usually used the responses from viewers’ laughs, boos, and applause to transition the conversations. This lack of participation had a negative effect on many talk shows.
The Oprah Winfrey Show, often referred to as The Oprah Show or simply Oprah, is an American daytime syndicated talk show that aired nationally for 25 seasons from September 8, 1986, to May 25, 2011, in Chicago, Illinois. Produced and hosted by its namesake, Oprah Winfrey, it remains one of the highest-rated daytime talk shows in American television history.
Ricki Lake is a daytime tabloid talk show hosted by American actress Ricki Lake. The series debuted in syndication on September 13, 1993 and ended first-run episodes on May 21, 2004, though the series continued in reruns through the summer until August 27, 2004.
Ricki Pamela Lake is an American actress, television presenter and producer. Lake is best known for her lead role as Tracy Turnblad in the 1988 film Hairspray. She is also known for her tabloid talk show which was broadcast internationally from September 1993 until May 2004. When Lake's show debuted, she was 24 and credited as being the youngest person to host a syndicated talk show at the time. In autumn 2012, Lake embarked on a second syndicated talk show project The Ricki Lake Show, which aired on weekdays. The series was canceled in 2013 after a single season, but Lake won her first Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Talk Show Host.
Phillip John Donahue is an American media personality, writer, film producer and the creator and host of The Phil Donahue Show. The television program, later known as Donahue, was the first talk show format that included audience participation. The show had a 29-year run on national television in America that began in Dayton, Ohio in 1967 and ended in New York City in 1996.
Variety shows, also known as variety arts or variety entertainment, is entertainment made up of a variety of acts including musical performances, sketch comedy, magic, acrobatics, juggling, and ventriloquism. It is normally introduced by a compère or host. The variety format made its way from Victorian era stage to radio and then television. Variety shows were a staple of English language television from the late 1940s into the 1980s.
Night Stand with Dick Dietrick is an American television comedy show that satirized American tabloid talk shows. The series was originally broadcast in first-run syndication from 1995 to 1997, as well as on the E! Entertainment Television network. Night Stand was co-created by Paul Abeyta, Peter Kaikko and actor/writer Timothy Stack, who also starred as the show's host Dick Dietrick. The show benefited from contributions by writer/friends of the creators, namely co-exec producer Larry Strawther and the long-time comedy writing team of Bob Iles and Jim Stein.
Larry King Live is an American television talk show that was hosted by Larry King on CNN from 1985 to 2010. It was CNN's most watched and longest-running program, with over one million viewers nightly.
Sally Lowenthal, better known as Sally Jessy Raphael, is an American former tabloid talk show host known for her program Sally.
The Ellen DeGeneres Show is an American daytime television variety comedy talk show that is hosted by Ellen DeGeneres. Debuting on September 8, 2003, it is produced by Telepictures and airs in syndication, including stations owned by NBCUniversal. For its first five seasons, the show was taped in Studio 11 at NBC Studios in Burbank, California. From season 6 onwards, the show moved to being taped at Stage 1 on the nearby Warner Bros. lot. Since the beginning of the sixth season, Ellen has been broadcast in high definition.
Late night television in the United States is the block of television programming airing after 11:00 p.m. and usually through 2:00 a.m. Traditionally, this type of programming airs after the late local news and is most notable for being the daypart used for a particular genre of programming that falls somewhere between a variety show and a talk show.
Daytime television is the general term for television shows produced for airing during the daytime hours on weekdays. The hours and days for daytime television in the United States usually run from 6:00am to 8:00pm ET, Monday through Friday; although it may vary depending on time zone, region, networks and local stations. This article is only about American daytime television; for information about international daytime television, see Daytime television.
The Phil Donahue Show, also known as Donahue, is an American television talk show hosted by Phil Donahue that ran for 26 years on national television. Its run was preceded by three years of local broadcast on WLWD in Dayton, Ohio, and it was broadcast nationwide between 1970 and 1996.
A tabloid talk show is a subgenre of the talk show genre that emphasizes controversial and sensationalistic topical subject matter. The subgenre originated in the United States and achieved peak viewership from the mid-1980s through the end of the 1990s. Airing mostly during the day and distributed mostly through television syndication, tabloid talk shows originated in the 1960s and early 1970s with series hosted by Joe Pyne, Les Crane, and Phil Donahue; the format was popularized by personal confession-filled The Oprah Winfrey Show, which debuted nationally in 1986. The format has since been emulated outside the United States, with the United Kingdom, Latin America and the Philippines all having popular shows that fit the format.
Attitudes is an American television talk show on Lifetime that aired from 1985 to 1991. Hosted originally by Linda Dano and Nancy Glass, it was taped before a live studio audience at EUE Screen Gems Studios, 222 East 44th Street in New York City. Glass was replaced by singer Dee Kelly following the show's second season, as Glass left to host the nationally syndicated primetime magazine show This Evening. The show then moved to Kaufman Astoria Studios in Queens. Dano's co-host later changed once more, with Jerry Penacoli, who is now host of Extra. The show by this time had evolved into more of a tabloid talk format. Dano, uncomfortable with the changes, left the show. Penacoli was subsequently fired from the show. Both were replaced with Dorothy Lucey and Rolonda Watts as the new co-hosts. The show's audience, unable to accept the loss of Dano as well as disliking the change in format, quickly dropped off and Attitudes was canceled soon after.
The Pat Sajak Show is an American late-night television talk show that aired on CBS from January 9, 1989 to April 13, 1990.
Oprah Gail Winfrey is an American talk show host, actress, television producer, media executive, and philanthropist. She is best known for her talk show, The Oprah Winfrey Show, broadcast from Chicago, which was the highest-rated television program of its kind in history and ran in national syndication for 25 years from 1986 to 2011. Dubbed the "Queen of All Media", she was the richest African American of the 20th century and North America's first black multi-billionaire, and she has been ranked the greatest black philanthropist in American history. By 2007, she was sometimes ranked as the most influential woman in the world.
Gandang Gabi, Vice! is a Philippine late-night comedy talk show broadcast by ABS-CBN, hosted by Vice Ganda. The program premiered from May 22, 2011, and aired every Sunday from 9:30 PM to 10:30 PM, on the network's Yes Weekend! block. The talk show focuses on comedic interviews and interactive segments with celebrity guests, and from time to time, also features live acts from various performers.
The Rosie Show was an American evening television talk show starring and produced by Rosie O'Donnell, airing on OWN: Oprah Winfrey Network. The first episode premiered on October 10, 2011, on the stage that was formerly home to The Oprah Winfrey Show at Harpo Studios in Chicago. It was announced on March 6, 2012 that the show would be moving to New York in the near future. On March 16, 2012, OWN announced that The Rosie Show would be canceled after only one season and ninety-four episodes due to low ratings, with the final episode airing on Thursday March 29, 2012.
The Richard Bey Show is a syndicated American talk show hosted by Richard Bey which aired from September 28, 1992 to December 27, 1996. The program was originally produced from and aired on WWOR-TV in Secaucus, New Jersey, from 1992 to late 1996. It was nationally syndicated by All American Television from January 2, 1995 to December 27, 1996. The talk show was executive produced by Bob Woodruff and David Sittenfeld.
Windy City Live (WCL) is a local daytime talk show that is broadcast on WLS-TV and based in Chicago, Illinois. It premiered on May 26, 2011 as a replacement of The Oprah Winfrey Show which retired that month and is produced by WLS-TV ABC7. The talk show is filmed in front of a live audience weekdays at the ABC7 Studios in the Chicago Loop on State Street. Current and original hosts are Val Warner and Ryan Chiaverini.