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The location manager is a member of the film crew responsible for finding and securing locations to be used, obtaining all fire, police and other governmental permits, and coordinating the logistics for the production to complete its work. They are also the public face of the production, and responsible for addressing issues that arise due to the production's impact on the community. [ better source needed ]
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Historically, the duties of the Location Manager were the responsibility of the Assistant Director. As the film industry grew, a need was identified for greater oversight, to allow ADs to focus on the internal aspects of the set. A dedicated person focusing on external influences was first seen in the 1950s on large studio features, and became common in the industry by the late 1970s.
The first job of a location manager is managing the location scouting of a project, usually supervising several scouts and assistant managers during the course of a show. A location manager will work closely with the director and the production designer during preproduction to find and secure their creative vision, and oversee additional scouts to insure that all scripted locations are accounted for. The manager is also responsible for public relations at the locations used, and the safety of the crew during filming.
A "location scout" is responsible for the initial scouting of all the locations used in a film, and translates the writer and director's vision for the feel of the scene into a viable and appropriate location. An experienced location scout will take into account all the logistics necessary for the production to function.
Some items that a location scout must be aware of before submitting a location for approval are the budgetary restrictions of the production, local permitting fees and regulations, camera and lighting requirements, convenience to other locations, production services, crew and unit parking, and possibly incidental issues such as direction of the sun, traffic in and around the location, aircraft flight paths, weather patterns, road work, demonstrations, and even interest by local organized crime families.
Once a location has been determined to have the appropriate appearance, the location manager must schedule dates for preparation, wrap and strike, and negotiate with the property owner an appropriate fee as well as fees to neighbors and tenants that may be impacted by production. The location manager will also apply for the necessary permits through the local municipality and/or community and housing associations, arrange parking for trucks, equipment and crew, prepare temporary facilities for holding production, talent, crew and meals, and ensuring the security of the location, the safety of the crew while minimizing the impact to the surrounding community.
Good location managers are well-poised and able to think on their feet as they are constantly moving, usually preceding production at a location, and overseeing final strike and wrap. They are the first and last people the public sees that represent the production, and are responsible for ensuring that the location is returned to the condition in which it was received. The location manager is also to be aware of the possible copyright issues which may be an issue if the show is filmed in a public place where there is art work or such, and where the artist has to give consent to the creation being depicted or covered or replaced by other artwork.
They need to be aware of the production's needs and know how to best accommodate them while diplomatically ensuring that the requirements of all parties, from the property owners, line producer, director and production designer, to the grip and electric teams lighting and rigging the set, and their teamster brothers with their trucks, trailers and vans.
In Hollywood, they are represented by the International Brotherhood of Teamsters Local 399, and in New York and Chicago they are represented by the Directors Guild of America (DGA) for features and television work. In New York Commercials, they are represented by Teamsters Local 817. In Georgia, location managers are represented by the Teamsters Local 728. In New Mexico location managers are members of IATSE 480. Additionally, there is the Location Managers Guild International, a non-profit organization dedicated to the promotion and interests of their members and their relations with the general public, communities and industry partners.
Location Managers are commonly associated with production as being part of the management of a show and as such, are generally paid a weekly salary as opposed to an hourly wage. [ non-primary source needed ] The average salary can vary depending on the experience of the individual and can range from a couple hundred dollars a day on low-budget films to almost a thousand dollars a day on commercials.
The California Film Commission has recognized the work of Location Managers with the California On Location Awards (COLA) since 1995, producing an annual awards show celebrating the best Location Professional, Team, and Public Servant in Film, Television, and Commercials.
The Location Managers Guild held their inaugural awards show in 2014 to honor the outstanding creative contributions of location professionals around the world, currently held in conjunction with the AFCI Location Show in Los Angeles, CA.
A film crew is a group of people, hired by a production company, for the purpose of producing a film or motion picture. The crew is distinguished from the cast as the cast are understood to be the actors who appear in front of the camera or provide voices for characters in the film. The crew is also separate from the producers as the producers are the ones who own a portion of either the film studio or the film's intellectual property rights. A film crew is divided into different departments, each of which specializes in a specific aspect of the production. Film crew positions have evolved over the years, spurred by technological change, but many traditional jobs date from the early 20th century and are common across jurisdictions and filmmaking cultures.
Stage management is a broad field that is generally defined as the practice of organization and coordination of an event or theatrical production. Stage management may encompass a variety of activities including the overseeing of the rehearsal process and coordinating communications among various production teams and personnel. Stage management requires a general understanding of all aspects of production and offers organisational support to ensure the process runs smoothly and efficiently.
The Directors Guild of America (DGA) is an entertainment guild that represents the interests of film and television directors in the United States motion picture industry and abroad. Founded as the Screen Directors Guild in 1936, the group merged with the Radio and Television Directors Guild in 1960 to become the modern Directors Guild of America.
"Below-the-line" is a term derived from the top sheet of a film budget for motion pictures, television programs, industrial films, independent films, student films and documentaries as well as commercials. The "line" in "below-the-line" refers to the separation of production costs between script and story writers, producers, directors, actors, and casting and the rest of the crew, or production team.
In film and television, the production designer is the individual responsible for the overall aesthetic of the story. The production design gives the viewers a sense of the time period, the plot location, and character actions and feelings. Working directly with the director, cinematographer, and producer, production designers have a key creative role in the creation of motion pictures and television. The term production designer was coined by William Cameron Menzies while he was working on the film Gone with the Wind. Production designers are commonly confused with art directors as the roles have similar responsibilities. Production designers decide the visual concept and deal with the many and varied logistics of filmmaking including, schedules, budgets, and staffing. Art directors manage the process of making the visuals, which is done by graphic designers, set designers, costume designers, lighting designers, etc. The production designer and the art director lead a team of individuals to assist with the visual component of the film. Depending on the size of the production the rest of the team can include set decorators, buyers, dressers, runners, graphic designers, draftspeople, props makers, and set builders.
A production assistant, also known as a PA, is a member of the film crew and is a job title used in filmmaking and television for a person responsible for various aspects of a production. The job of a PA can vary greatly depending on the budget and specific requirements of a production as well as whether the production is unionized.
The role of an assistant director on a film includes tracking daily progress against the filming production schedule, arranging logistics, preparing daily call sheets, checking cast and crew, and maintaining order on the set. They also have to take care of the health and safety of the crew. The role of an assistant to the director is often confused with assistant director but the responsibilities are entirely different. The assistant to the director manages all of the directors in development, pre-production, while on set, through post-production and is often involved in both personal management as well as creative aspects of the production process.
A technical director (TD) is usually a senior technical person within e.g. a software company, engineering firm, film studio, theatre company or television studio. This person usually has the highest level of skill within a specific technical field.
Filmmaking is the process by which a film is made. It's a non-linear methodology that evolved from the practical experiences in its beginnings, which was framed by what technology would allow; initially cameras holding only 10 minutes of negative raw stock at a time yet easily mobile. The methodology allowed for shots to be repeated as often as necessary for best performance and scenes shot out of order for the advantage of convenience and economics. The process is used today in the making of theatrical films, films made for cable, terrestrial television, streaming platforms, and is a process familiar to making documentaries, music videos, and student films. Filmmaking involves a number of complex and discrete stages including an initial story, idea, or commission, through screenwriting, casting, shooting, sound recording and pre-production, editing, and screening the finished product before an audience that may result in a film release and an exhibition. Filmmaking takes place in many places around the world in a range of economic, social, and political contexts, and using a variety of technologies and cinematic techniques.
A production company, production house, production studio, or a production team is a business that provides the physical basis for works in the fields of performing arts, new media art, film, television, radio, comics, interactive arts, video games, websites, and video. Production teams consisting of technical staff to produce the media. Generally the term refers to all individuals responsible for the technical aspects of creating a particular product, regardless of where in the process their expertise is required, or how long they are involved in the project. For example, in a theatrical performance, the production team includes not only the running crew, but also the theatrical producer, designers and theatrical direction.
Television crew positions are derived from those of film crew, but with several differences.
The set decorator is the head of the set decoration department in the film and television industry, responsible for selecting, designing, fabricating, and sourcing the "set dressing" elements of each set in a Feature Film, Television, or New Media episode or commercial, in support of the story and characters of the script. The set decorator is responsible for each décor element inside the sets, from practical lighting, technology, art, furniture, drapery, floor coverings, books, collectables, to exterior furnishings such as satellite dishes, Old West water troughs, streetlamps, traffic lights, garden furniture and sculptures.
Location scouting is a vital process in the pre-production stage of filmmaking and commercial photography. Once scriptwriters, producers or directors have decided what general kind of scenery they require for the various parts of their work that is shot outside of the studio, the search for a suitable place or "location" outside the studio begins. Location scouts also look for generally spectacular or interesting locations beforehand, to have a database of locations in case of requests.
A tour manager is the person who helps to organize the administration for a schedule of appearances of a musical group (band) or artist at a sequence of venues. In general, road managers handle tour details for their specific band, while tour managers are used to oversee the logistics, finances and communications for tours as a holistic entity. So, on any given tour, you may have road managers taking care of each band as well as a Tour Manager responsible for caring for the entire tour. Very often, the Tour Manager is also the headlining band's road manager.
Film budgeting refers to the process by which a line producer, unit production manager, or production accountant prepares a budget for a film production. This document, which could be over 130 pages long, is used to secure financing for and lead to pre-production and production of the film. Multiple drafts of the budget may be required to whittle down costs. A budget is typically divided into four sections: above the line, below the line, post-production, and other The budget excludes film promotion and marketing, which is the responsibility of the film distributor. Film financing can be acquired from a private investor, sponsor, product placement, film studio, entertainment company, and out-of-pocket funds.
The Authors' Licensing and Collecting Society (ALCS) is a British organisation that works to ensure that writers are fairly compensated for any of their works that are copied, broadcast or recorded. It has operated in the United Kingdom since 1977. From that year to 2016, the ALCS distributed over £450 million to authors, and at the end of 2016 had in excess of 90,000 members.
In the cinema of the United States, a unit production manager (UPM) is the Directors Guild of America–approved title for the top below-the-line staff position, responsible for the administration of a feature film or television production. Non-DGA productions might call it the production manager or production supervisor. They work closely with the line producer. Sometimes the line producer is the UPM. A senior producer may assign a UPM more than one production at a time.
The Locations Managers Guild International (LMGI) is a professional organization of location managers, location scouts, assistant location managers, and affiliated business members, such as film commissions, location services, vendors, and filming venues.
A floor manager or floor director is a member of the crew of a television show. The floor manager is responsible for giving information from the director in the control room, to the crew on the studio floor, and then back to the director.
A line producer is a type of film producer who is the key manager during daily operations of a feature film, advertisement film, television film, or an episode of a TV program. A line producer usually works on one film at a time. They are responsible for human resources and handling any problems that come up during production. Line producers also manage the budget of a motion picture and day-to-day physical aspects of the film production.