Data processing

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Data processing is, generally, "the collection and manipulation of items of data to produce meaningful information." [1] In this sense it can be considered a subset of information processing , "the change (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer." [note 1]

Contents

The term Data Processing (DP) has also been used to refer to a department within an organization responsible for the operation of data processing applications. [2]

Data processing functions

Data processing may involve various processes, including:

History

The United States Census Bureau history illustrates the evolution of data processing from manual through electronic procedures.

Manual data processing

Although widespread use of the term data processing dates only from the nineteen-fifties, [3] data processing functions have been performed manually for millennia. For example, bookkeeping involves functions such as posting transactions and producing reports like the balance sheet and the cash flow statement. Completely manual methods were augmented by the application of mechanical or electronic calculators. A person whose job was to perform calculations manually or using a calculator was called a "computer."

The 1890 United States Census schedule was the first to gather data by individual rather than household. A number of questions could be answered by making a check in the appropriate box on the form. From 1850 through 1880 the Census Bureau employed "a system of tallying, which, by reason of the increasing number of combinations of classifications required, became increasingly complex. Only a limited number of combinations could be recorded in one tally, so it was necessary to handle the schedules 5 or 6 times, for as many independent tallies." [4] "It took over 7 years to publish the results of the 1880 census" [5] using manual processing methods.

Automatic data processing

The term automatic data processing was applied to operations performed by means of unit record equipment, such as Herman Hollerith's application of punched card equipment for the 1890 United States Census. "Using Hollerith's punchcard equipment, the Census Office was able to complete tabulating most of the 1890 census data in 2 to 3 years, compared with 7 to 8 years for the 1880 census.... It is estimated that using Hollerith's system saved some $5 million in processing costs" [5] in 1890 dollars even though there were twice as many questions as in 1880.

Electronic data processing

Computerized data processing, or Electronic data processing represents a later development, with a computer used instead of several independent pieces of equipment. The Census Bureau first made limited use of electronic computers for the 1950 United States Census, using a UNIVAC I system, [4] delivered in 1952..

Other developments

The term data processing has mostly been subsumed by the more general term information technology (IT). [6] The older term "data processing" is suggestive of older technologies. For example, in 1996 the Data Processing Management Association (DPMA) changed its name to the Association of Information Technology Professionals. Nevertheless, the terms are approximately synonymous.

Applications

Commercial data processing

Commercial data processing involves a large volume of input data, relatively few computational operations, and a large volume of output. For example, an insurance company needs to keep records on tens or hundreds of thousands of policies, print and mail bills, and receive and post payments.

Data analysis

In science and engineering, the terms data processing and information systems are considered too broad, and the term data processing is typically used for the initial stage followed by a data analysis in the second stage of the overall data handling.

Data analysis uses specialized algorithms and statistical calculations that are less often observed in a typical general business environment. For data analysis, software suites like SPSS or SAS, or their free counterparts such as DAP, gretl or PSPP are often used.

See also

Notes

  1. Data processing is distinct from word processing , which is manipulation of text specifically rather than data generally. "data processing". Webopedia. Retrieved June 24, 2013.

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Herman Hollerith American statistician and inventor

Herman Hollerith was an American businessman, inventor, and statistician who developed an electromechanical tabulating machine for punched cards to assist in summarizing information and, later, in accounting. His invention of the punched card tabulating machine, patented in 1884, marks the beginning of the era of semiautomatic data processing systems, and his concept dominated that landscape for nearly a century.

Punched card paper-based recording medium

A punched card or punch card is a piece of stiff paper that can be used to contain digital data represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions. Digital data can be used for data processing applications or used to directly control automated machinery.

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Powers Accounting Machine

The Powers Accounting Machine was an information processing device developed in the early 20th century for the U.S. Census Bureau. It was then produced and marketed by the Powers Accounting Machine Company, an information technology company founded by the machine's developer. The company thrived in the early 20th century as a producer of tabulating machines. It was a predecessor to the current Unisys corporation.

Unit record equipment electromechanical data processing machine

Starting at the end of the nineteenth century, well before the advent of electronic computers, data processing was performed using electromechanical machines called unit record equipment, electric accounting machines (EAM) or tabulating machines. Unit record machines came to be as ubiquitous in industry and government in the first two-thirds of the twentieth century as computers became in the last third. They allowed large volume, sophisticated data-processing tasks to be accomplished before electronic computers were invented and while they were still in their infancy. This data processing was accomplished by processing punched cards through various unit record machines in a carefully choreographed progression. This progression, or flow, from machine to machine was often planned and documented with detailed flowcharts that used standardized symbols for documents and the various machine functions. All but the earliest machines had high-speed mechanical feeders to process cards at rates from around 100 to 2,000 per minute, sensing punched holes with mechanical, electrical, or, later, optical sensors. The operation of many machines was directed by the use of a removable plugboard, control panel, or connection box. Initially all machines were manual or electromechanical. The first use of an electronic component was in 1937 when a photocell was used in a Social Security bill-feed machine. Electronic components were used on other machines beginning in the late 1940s.

Keypunch

A keypunch is a device for precisely punching holes into stiff paper cards at specific locations as determined by keys struck by a human operator. Other devices included here for that same function include the gang punch, the pantograph punch, and the stamp.

Dehomag was a German subsidiary of IBM with monopoly in the German market before and during World War II. The word was an acronym for Deutsche Hollerith-Maschinen Gesellschaft mbH. Hollerith refers to the German-American inventor of the technology of punched cards, Herman Hollerith. In April 1949 the company name was changed to IBM Deutschland.

Tabulating machine electromechanical machine used to summarise information and perform accounting calculations

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The British Tabulating Machine Company (BTM) was a firm which manufactured and sold Hollerith unit record equipment and other data-processing equipment. During World War II, BTM constructed a number of "bombes", machines used at Bletchley Park to break the German Enigma machine ciphers.

1890 United States Census National census

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James Legrand Powers was a US inventor and entrepreneur, the founder of Powers Accounting Machine Company.

References

  1. French, Carl (1996). Data Processing and Information Technology (10th ed.). Thomson. p. 2. ISBN   1844801004.
  2. Illingworth, Valerie (11 December 1997). Dictionary of Computing . Oxford Paperback Reference (4th ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN   9780192800466.
  3. Google N gram viewer . Retrieved June 26, 2013.
  4. 1 2 Truesdell, Leon E. (1965). The development of punch card tabulation in the Bureau of the Census, 1890. United States Department of Commerce.
  5. 1 2 Bohme, Frederick; Wyatt, J. Paul; Curry, James P. (1991). 100 Years of Data Processing: The Punchcard Century. United States Bureau of the Census.
  6. Google N gram viewer . Retrieved April 28, 2018.

Further reading