Cash flow statement

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In financial accounting, a cash flow statement, also known as statement of cash flows, [1] is a financial statement that shows how changes in balance sheet accounts and income affect cash and cash equivalents, and breaks the analysis down to operating, investing, and financing activities. Essentially, the cash flow statement is concerned with the flow of cash in and out of the business. As an analytical tool, the statement of cash flows is useful in determining the short-term viability of a company, particularly its ability to pay bills. International Accounting Standard 7 (IAS 7) is the International Accounting Standard that deals with cash flow statements.

Contents

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Purpose

Statement of Cash Flow - Simple Example
for the period 1 Jan 2006 to 31 Dec 2006
Cash flow from operations$4,000
Cash flow from investing($1,000)
Cash flow from financing($2,000)
Net cash flow$1,000
Parentheses indicate negative values

The cash flow statement was previously known as the flow of funds statement. [2] The cash flow statement reflects a firm's liquidity.

The statement of financial position is a snapshot of a firm's financial resources and obligations at a single point in time, and the income statement summarizes a firm's financial transactions over an interval of time. These two financial statements reflect the accrual basis accounting used by firms to match revenues with the expenses associated with generating those revenues. The cash flow statement includes only inflows and outflows of cash and cash equivalents; it excludes transactions that do not directly affect cash receipts and payments. These non-cash transactions include depreciation or write-offs on bad debts or credit losses to name a few. [3] The cash flow statement is a cash basis report on three types of financial activities: operating activities, investing activities, and financing activities. Non-cash activities are usually reported in footnotes.

The cash flow statement is intended to [4]

  1. provide information on a firm's liquidity and solvency and its ability to change cash flows in future circumstances
  2. provide additional information for evaluating changes in assets, liabilities and equity
  3. improve the comparability of different firms' operating performance by eliminating the effects of different accounting methods
  4. indicate the amount, timing and probability of future cash flows

The cash flow statement has been adopted as a standard financial statement because it eliminates allocations, which might be derived from different accounting methods, such as various timeframes for depreciating fixed assets. [5]

History and variations

Cash basis financial statements were very common before accrual basis financial statements. The "flow of funds" statements of the past were cash flow statements.

In 1863, the Dowlais Iron Company had recovered from a business slump, but had no cash to invest for a new blast furnace, despite having made a profit. To explain why there were no funds to invest, the manager made a new financial statement that was called a comparison balance sheet, which showed that the company was holding too much inventory. This new financial statement was the genesis of the cash flow statement that is used today. [6]

In the United States in 1973, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) defined rules that made it mandatory under Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (US GAAP) to report sources and uses of funds, but the definition of "funds" was not clear. Net working capital might be cash or might be the difference between current assets and current liabilities. From the late 1970 to the mid-1980s, the FASB discussed the usefulness of predicting future cash flows. [7] In 1987, FASB Statement No. 95 (FAS 95) mandated that firms provide cash flow statements. [8] In 1992, the International Accounting Standards Board issued International Accounting Standard 7 (IAS 7), Cash Flow Statement, which became effective in 1994, mandating that firms provide cash flow statements. [9]

US GAAP and IAS 7 rules for cash flow statements are similar, but some of the differences are:

Cash flow activities

The cash flow statement is partitioned into three segments, namely:

  1. cash flow resulting from operating activities;
  2. cash flow resulting from investing activities;
  3. cash flow resulting from financing activities.

The money coming into the business is called cash inflow, and money going out from the business is called cash outflow.

Operating activities

Operating activities include the production, sales and delivery of the company's product as well as collecting payment from its customers. This could include purchasing raw materials, building inventory, advertising, and shipping the product.

Under IAS 7, operating cash flows include: [11]

Items which are added back to [or subtracted from, as appropriate] the net income figure (which is found on the Income Statement) to arrive at cash flows from operations generally include:

Investing activities

Examples of Investing activities are

Financing activities

Financing activities include the inflow of cash from investors such as banks and shareholders, as well as the outflow of cash to shareholders as dividends as the company generates income. Other activities which impact the long-term liabilities and equity of the company are also listed in the financing activities section of the cash flow statement.

Under IAS 7,

Items under the financing activities section include:

Disclosure of non-cash activities

Under IAS 7, non-cash investing and financing activities are disclosed in footnotes to the financial statements. Under US General Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP), non-cash activities may be disclosed in a footnote or within the cash flow statement itself. Non-cash financing activities may include [11]

Preparation methods

The direct method of preparing a cash flow statement results in a more easily understood report. [12] The indirect method is almost universally used, because FAS 95 requires a supplementary report similar to the indirect method if a company chooses to use the direct method.

Direct method

The direct method for creating a cash flow statement reports major classes of gross cash receipts and payments. Under IAS 7, dividends received may be reported under operating activities or under investing activities. If taxes paid are directly linked to operating activities, they are reported under operating activities; if the taxes are directly linked to investing activities or financing activities, they are reported under investing or financing activities. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) vary from International Financial Reporting Standards in that under GAAP rules, dividends received from a company's investing activities is reported as an "operating activity," not an "investing activity." [13]

Sample cash flow statement using the direct method [14]

Cash flows from (used in) operating activities
  Cash receipts from customers9,500
  Cash paid to suppliers and employees(2,000)
  Cash generated from operations (sum)7,500
  Interest paid(2,000)
  Income taxes paid(3,000)
  Net cash flows from operating activities2,500
Cash flows from (used in) investing activities
  Proceeds from the sale of equipment7,500
  Dividends received3,000
  Net cash flows from investing activities10,500
Cash flows from (used in) financing activities
  Dividends paid(2,500)
  Net cash flows used in financing activities(2,500)
.
Net increase in cash and cash equivalents10,500
Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of year1,000
Cash and cash equivalents, end of year$11,500

Indirect method

The indirect method uses net-income as a starting point, makes adjustments for all transactions for non-cash items, then adjusts from all cash-based transactions. An increase in an asset account is subtracted from net income, and an increase in a liability account is added back to net income. This method converts accrual-basis net income (or loss) into cash flow by using a series of additions and deductions. [15]

Rules (operating activities)

*Non-cash expenses must be added back to NI. Such expenses may be represented on the balance sheet as decreases in long term asset accounts. Thus decreases in fixed assets increase NI.
To Find Cash Flows
from Operating Activities
using the Balance Sheet and Net Income
For Increases inNet Inc Adj
Current Assets (Non-Cash)Decrease
Current LiabilitiesIncrease
For All Non-Cash...
*Expenses (Decreases in Fixed Assets)Increase

The following rules can be followed to calculate Cash Flows from Operating Activities when given only a two-year comparative balance sheet and the Net Income figure. Cash Flows from Operating Activities can be found by adjusting Net Income relative to the change in beginning and ending balances of Current Assets, Current Liabilities, and sometimes Long Term Assets. When comparing the change in long term assets over a year, the accountant must be certain that these changes were caused entirely by their devaluation rather than purchases or sales (i.e. they must be operating items not providing or using cash) or if they are non-operating items. [16]

  • Decrease in non-cash current assets are added to net income
  • Increase in non-cash current asset are subtracted from net income
  • Increase in current liabilities are added to net income
  • Decrease in current liabilities are subtracted from net income
  • Expenses with no cash outflows are added back to net income (depreciation and/or amortization expense are the only operating items that have no effect on cash flows in the period)
  • Revenues with no cash inflows are subtracted from net income
  • Non operating losses are added back to net income
  • Non operating gains are subtracted from net income

The intricacies of this procedure might be seen as,

For example, consider a company that has a net income of $100 this year, and its A/R increased by $25 since the beginning of the year. If the balances of all other current assets, long term assets and current liabilities did not change over the year, the cash flows could be determined by the rules above as $100 – $25 = Cash Flows from Operating Activities = $75. The logic is that, if the company made $100 that year (net income), and they are using the accrual accounting system (not cash based) then any income they generated that year which has not yet been paid for in cash should be subtracted from the net income figure in order to find cash flows from operating activities. And the increase in A/R meant that $25 of sales occurred on credit and have not yet been paid for in cash.

In the case of finding Cash Flows when there is a change in a fixed asset account, say the Buildings and Equipment account decreases, the change is added back to Net Income. The reasoning behind this is that because Net Income is calculated by, Net Income = Rev - Cogs - Depreciation Exp - Other Exp then the Net Income figure will be decreased by the building's depreciation that year. This depreciation is not associated with an exchange of cash, therefore the depreciation is added back into net income to remove the non-cash activity.

Rules (financing activities)

Finding the Cash Flows from Financing Activities is much more intuitive and needs little explanation. Generally, the things to account for are financing activities:

  • Include as outflows, reductions of long term notes payable (as would represent the cash repayment of debt on the balance sheet)
  • Or as inflows, the issuance of new notes payable
  • Include as outflows, all dividends paid by the entity to outside parties
  • Or as inflows, dividend payments received from outside parties
  • Include as outflows, the purchase of notes stocks or bonds
  • Or as inflows, the receipt of payments on such financing vehicles.[ citation needed ]

In the case of more advanced accounting situations, such as when dealing with subsidiaries, the accountant must

  • Exclude intra-company dividend payments.
  • Exclude intra-company bond interest.[ citation needed ]

A traditional equation for this might look something like,

Example: cash flow of XYZ: [17] [18] [19]

XYZ co. Ltd. Cash Flow Statement
(all numbers in millions of Rs.)
Period ending31 Mar 201031 Mar 200931 Mar 2008
Net income21,53824,58917,046
Operating activities, cash flows provided by or used in:
Depreciation and amortization2,7902,5922,747
Adjustments to net income4,6176212,910
Decrease (increase) in accounts receivable12,50317,236--
Increase (decrease) in liabilities (A/P, taxes payable)131,62219,82237,856
Decrease (increase) in inventories------
Increase (decrease) in other operating activities(173,057)(33,061)(62,963)
    Net cash flow from operating activities1331,799(2,404)
Investing activities, cash flows provided by or used in:
Capital expenditures(4,035)(3,724)(3,011)
Investments(201,777)(71,710)(75,649)
Other cash flows from investing activities1,60617,009(571)
    Net cash flows from investing activities(204,206)(58,425)(79,231)
Financing activities, cash flows provided by or used in:
Dividends paid(9,826)(9,188)(8,375)
Sale (repurchase) of stock(5,327)(12,090)133
Increase (decrease) in debt101,12226,65121,204
Other cash flows from financing activities120,46127,91070,349
    Net cash flows from financing activities206,43033,28383,311
Effect of exchange rate changes645(1,840)731
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents2,8824,8172,407

See also

Notes and references

  1. Helfert, Erich A. "The Nature of Financial Statements: The Cash Flow Statement". Financial Analysis - Tools and Techniques - A Guide for Managers.
  2. Bodie, Zane; Alex Kane; Alan J. Marcus (2004). Essentials of Investments, 5th ed. McGraw-Hill Irwin. p. 455. ISBN   0-07-251077-3.
  3. Epstein, Barry J.; Eva K. Jermakowicz (2007). Interpretation and Application of International Financial Reporting Standards. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 91–97. ISBN   978-0-471-79823-1.
  4. Epstein, pp.90-91.
  5. 1 2 Epstein, p. 91.
  6. Watanabe, Izumi: The evolution of Income Accounting in Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Britain, Osaka University of Economics, Vol.57, No. 5, January 2007, p.27-30
  7. Epstein, p. 90.
  8. Bodie, p.454.
  9. Epstein, p. 88
  10. Epstein, p. 92.
  11. 1 2 3 Epstein, p. 93.
  12. Epstein, p. 95.
  13. "Operating Activity on Dividends in GAAP". chron.com. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
  14. Epstein, p. 101
  15. Epstein, p. 94.
  16. Wild, John Paul. Fundamental Accounting Principles (18th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Companies. pp. 630–633. ISBN   0-07-299653-6.
  17. Yahoo finance report on Citigroup
  18. Citigroup finance report
  19. Bodie, p. 455.

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