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Constant purchasing power accounting (CPPA) is an accounting model approved by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and the US Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) as an alternative to traditional historical cost accounting under hyper-inflationary environmentsand all other economic environments. Under this IFRS and US GAAP authorized system, financial capital maintenance is always measured in units of constant purchasing power (CPP) in terms of a Daily CPI (consumer price index) during low inflation, high inflation, hyperinflation and deflation; i.e., during all possible economic environments. During all economic environments it can also be measured in a monetized daily indexed unit of account (e.g. the Unidad de Fomento in Chile) or in terms of a daily relatively stable foreign currency parallel rate, particularly during hyperinflation when a government refuses to publish CPI data.
In the IASB's original Framework (1989), Par 104 (a), CPPA was authorized as an alternative to the traditional HCA model at all levels of inflation and deflation, including during hyperinflation as required in IAS 29. Income statement constant items like salaries, wages, rents, pensions, utilities, transport fees, etc. are normally valued in units of CPP during low inflation in most economies as an annual update. Payments in money for these items are normally inflation-adjusted by means of the consumer price index (CPI) to compensate for the erosion of the real value of money (the monetary medium of exchange) by inflation only on an annual not daily basis. "Inflation is always and everywhere a monetary phenomenon" and can only erode the real value of money (the functional currency inside an economy) and other monetary items. Inflation can not and does not erode the real value of non-monetary items. Inflation has no effect on the real value of non-monetary items.
Accountants have to calculate the net monetary loss or gain from holding monetary items when they choose the CMUCPP model and measure financial CMUCPP in the same way as the IASB currently requires its calculation and accounting during hyperinflation. The calculation and accounting of net monetary losses and gains during low inflation and deflation have thus been authorized in IFRS since 1989. There are net monetary losses and net monetary gains during low inflation too, but they are not required to be calculated when accountants choose the traditional HCA model.
Net constant item gains and losses are also calculated and accounted under CMUCPP.
IFRS authorize three basic accounting models:
1. Physical Capital Maintenance.
2. Financial capital maintenance in nominal monetary units or Historical cost accounting (see the Framework (1989), Par 104 (a)).
3. Constant Purchasing Power Accounting (see the Framework (1989), Par 104 (a)).
A. Under Historical cost accounting the underlying assumptions used in IFRS are:
The stable measuring unit assumption (traditional Historical Cost Accounting) during annual inflation of 26% for 3 years in a row would erode 100% of the real value of all constant real value non-monetary items not maintained under the Historical Cost paradigm.
B. Under Constant Purchasing Power Accounting the underlying assumptions in IFRS are:
A major difference between US GAAP and IFRS is the fact that three fundamentally different concepts of capital and capital maintenance are authorized in IFRS while US GAAP only authorize two capital and capital maintenance concepts during low inflation and deflation: (1) physical capital maintenance and (2) financial capital maintenance in nominal monetary units (traditional Historical Cost Accounting) as stated in Par 45 to 48 in the FASB Conceptual Statement Nº 5. US GAAP does not recognize the third concept of capital and capital maintenance during low inflation and deflation, namely, financial CMUCPP as authorized in IFRS in the framework, Par 104 (a) in 1989.
The three concepts of capital defined in IFRS during low inflation and deflation are:
The three concepts of capital maintenance authorized in IFRS during low inflation and deflation are:
In economics, hyperinflation is very high and typically accelerating inflation. It quickly erodes the real value of the local currency, as the prices of all goods increase. This causes people to minimize their holdings in that currency as they usually switch to more stable foreign currencies, in recent history often the US dollar. Prices typically remain stable in terms of other relatively stable currencies.
In economics, inflation is a general rise in the price level in an economy over a period of time. When the general price level rises, each unit of currency buys fewer goods and services; consequently, inflation reflects a reduction in the purchasing power per unit of money – a loss of real value in the medium of exchange and unit of account within the economy. The opposite of inflation is deflation, a sustained decrease in the general price level of goods and services. The common measure of inflation is the inflation rate, the annualized percentage change in a general price index, usually the consumer price index, over time.
Financial capital is any economic resource measured in terms of money used by entrepreneurs and businesses to buy what they need to make their products or to provide their services to the sector of the economy upon which their operation is based, i.e. retail, corporate, investment banking, etc. In other words, financial capital is internal retained earnings generated by the entity or funds provided by lenders to businesses in order to purchase real capital equipment or services for producing new goods and/or services.
In economics, deflation is a decrease in the general price level of goods and services. Deflation occurs when the inflation rate falls below 0%. Inflation reduces the value of currency over time, but sudden deflation increases it. This allows more goods and services to be bought than before with the same amount of currency. Deflation is distinct from disinflation, a slow-down in the inflation rate, i.e. when inflation declines to a lower rate but is still positive.
International Financial Reporting Standards, commonly called IFRS, are accounting standards issued by the IFRS Foundation and the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). They constitute a standardised way of describing the company’s financial performance and position so that company financial statements are understandable and comparable across international boundaries. They are particularly relevant for companies with shares or securities listed on a public stock exchange.
This aims to be a complete article list of economics topics:
In accounting, an economic item's historical cost is the original nominal monetary value of that item. Historical cost accounting involves reporting assets and liabilities at their historical costs, which are not updated for changes in the items' values. Consequently, the amounts reported for these balance sheet items often differ from their current economic or market values.
Monetary policy is the policy adopted by the monetary authority of a nation to control either the interest rate payable for very short-term borrowing or the money supply, often as an attempt to reduce inflation or the interest rate, to ensure price stability and general trust of the value and stability of the nation's currency.
In economics, unit of account is one of the functions of money. The value of something is measured in a specific currency. This allows different things to be compared against each other; for example, goods, services, assets, liabilities, labor, income, expenses. It lends meaning to profits, losses, liability and assets.
Financial accounting is the field of accounting concerned with the summary, analysis and reporting of financial transactions related to a business. This involves the preparation of financial statements available for public use. Stockholders, suppliers, banks, employees, government agencies, business owners, and other stakeholders are examples of people interested in receiving such information for decision making purposes.
The Friedman rule is a monetary policy rule proposed by Milton Friedman. Essentially, Friedman advocated setting the nominal interest rate at zero. According to the logic of the Friedman rule, the opportunity cost of holding money faced by private agents should equal the social cost of creating additional fiat money. It is assumed that the marginal cost of creating additional money is zero. Therefore, nominal rates of interest should be zero. In practice, this means that the central bank should seek a rate of deflation equal to the real interest rate on government bonds and other safe assets, to make the nominal interest rate zero.
The Daily Unidade Real de Valor, or URV, was a non-monetary reference currency created in March 1994, as part of the Plano Real in Brazil. It was the most theoretically sophisticated piece of the Plano Real and was based on a previous academic work by Pérsio Arida and André Lara Resende, the "Larida Plan", published in 1984.
The real interest rate is the rate of interest an investor, saver or lender receives after allowing for inflation. It can be described more formally by the Fisher equation, which states that the real interest rate is approximately the nominal interest rate minus the inflation rate.
In monetary economics, the demand for money is the desired holding of financial assets in the form of money: that is, cash or bank deposits rather than investments. It can refer to the demand for money narrowly defined as M1, or for money in the broader sense of M2 or M3.
Inflation accounting comprises a range of accounting models designed to correct problems arising from historical cost accounting in the presence of high inflation and hyperinflation. For example, in countries experiencing hyperinflation the International Accounting Standards Board requires corporations to implement financial capital maintenance in units of constant purchasing power in terms of the monthly published Consumer Price Index. This does not result in capital maintenance in units of constant purchasing power since that can only be achieved in terms of a daily index.
When a daily indexed unit of account or Daily Consumer Price Index or monetized daily indexed unit of account is used in contracts or in the Capital Maintenance in Units of Constant Purchasing Power accounting model, deferred payments and constant real value non-monetary items are indexed to the general price level in terms of a Daily Index such that changes in the inflation rate—in the case of monetary items—and the stable measuring unit assumption—in the case of constant real value non-monetary items—have no effect on the real value of these items. Non-indexed units, such as contracts written in nominal currency units and nominal monetary items, incur inflation or deflation risk in the case of monetary items. During all periods of inflation, the debtor pays less in real terms than what both the debtor and creditor agreed at the original time of the contract/sale. On the other hand, in periods of deflation, the debtor pays more in real terms than the original agreed value. The opposite is true for creditors. Contracts and constant real value non-monetary items accounted in daily indexed units of account, Daily CPI or monetized daily indexed units of account incur no inflation or deflation risk, as the real value of payments and outstanding capital amounts remain constant over time while the nominal values are inflation- or deflation-indexed daily.
In business accounting, the statement of change in financial position is a financial statement that outlines the sources and uses of funds and explains any changes in cash or working capital.
This glossary of economics is a list of definitions of terms and concepts used in economics, its sub-disciplines, and related fields.
A distributional effect is the effect of the redistribution of the final gains and costs derived from the direct gains and cost allocations of a project. A project has a direct-profit redistribution effect and a direct-cost redistribution effect. But whether it is profit or cost, the redistribution effect can be expressed as a benefit to a group of people or department or region, and the loss to another party. In theory, the indirect profit and indirect costs can also be derived from the redistribution effect, and valued.
Between 1992 and 1994, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) experienced the third-longest period of hyperinflation in world economic history. This period spanned 22 months, from March 1992 to January 1994. Inflation peaked at a monthly rate of 313 million percent in January 1994. Daily inflation was 62%, with an inflation rate of 2.03% in 1 hour being higher than the annual inflation rate of many developed countries. The inflation rate in January 1994, converted to annual levels, reached 116,545,906,563,330 percent (116.546 billion percent, or 1.16 × 1015 percent). During this period of hyperinflation in FR Yugoslavia, store prices were stated in conditional units – point, which was equal to the German mark. The conversion was made either in German marks or in dinars at the current "black market" exchange rate that often changed several times per day.