2001 Census of India

Last updated

14th Census of India


General information
Total population1,028,737,436 (21.5%)

The 2001 Census of India was the 14th in a series of censuses held in India every decade since 1871. [1]


The population of India was counted as 1,028,737,436 consisting of 532,223,090 males and 496,514,346 females. [2] Total population increased by 182,310,397, 21.5% more than the 846,427,039 people counted during the 1991 census. [3]

Religious demographics

Hindus comprise 82.75 crore (80.45%) and Muslims were 13.8 crore (13.4%) in 2001 census. [4] [5] Census 2001 showed 108 faiths under the head "Other Religions and Persuasion" (ORP) in India. [6] 700,000 people did not state their religion. [7]

Population trends for major religious groups in India(2001)
% 2001
Hindu 80.45%
Muslim 13.4%
Christian 2.34%
Sikh 1.89%
Buddhist 0.74%
Animist, others0.43%
Jain 0.46%

Language demographics

Hindi is the most widely spoken language in northern parts of India. The Indian census takes the widest possible definition of "Hindi" as a broad variety of "Hindi languages". According to 2001 Census, 53.6% of Indian population know Hindi, in which 41% of them have declared Hindi as their native language or mother tongue. [8] [9] [10] English is known to 12.18% Indians in the 2001 census. The number of bilingual speakers in India is 25.50 crore, which is 24.8% of the population in 2001. [11] India (780) has the world's second highest number of languages, after Papua New Guinea (839). [12]

First, second, and third languages by number of speakers in India (2001 Census)
LanguageFirst language
speakers [13] [14]
First language
speakers as a percentage

of total population [15]

Second language
speakers [14]
Third language
speakers [14]
Total speakers [16] [14] Total speakers as a percentage of total population [15]
Hindi 422,048,64241.0398,207,18031,160,696551,416,51853.60
English 226,4490.0286,125,22138,993,066125,344,73612.18
Bengali 83,369,7698.106,637,2221,108,08891,115,0798.86
Telugu 74,002,8567.199,723,6261,266,01984,992,5018.26
Marathi 71,936,8946.999,546,4142,701,49884,184,8068.18
Tamil 60,793,8145.914,992,253956,33566,742,4026.49
Urdu 51,536,1115.016,535,4891,007,91259,079,5125.74
Kannada 37,924,0113.6911,455,2871,396,42850,775,7264.94
Gujarati 46,091,6174.483,476,355703,98950,271,9614.89
Odia 33,017,4463.213,272,151319,52536,609,1223.56
Malayalam 33,066,3923.21499,188195,88533,761,4653.28
Sanskrit 14,135<0.011,234,9313,742,2234,991,2890.49

Graphical summaries

See also

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  2. "Home/Census Data 2001/India at a glance". New Delhi: Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India, Ministry of Home Affairs. 2001. Retrieved 8 November 2013.
  3. "Home/Census Data 2001/India at a glance". New Delhi: Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India, Ministry of Home Affairs. 2001. Retrieved 8 November 2013.
  4. Abantika Ghosh , Vijaita Singh (24 January 2015). "Census: Hindu share dips below 80%, Muslim share grows but slower". Indian Express.
  5. "With current trends, it will take 220 years for India's Muslim population to equal Hindu numbers".
  6. "Fewer minor faiths in India now, finds Census; number of their adherents up".
  7. "Indian rationalism, Charvaka to Narendra Dabholkar".
  8. "These four charts break down India's complex relationship with Hindi".
  9. "Nearly 60% of Indians speak a language other than Hindi".
  10. 2001 census data
  11. "Hindi migrants speaking Marathi rise to 60 lakh".
  12. "Seven decades after Independence, many small languages in India face extinction threat".
  13. ORGI. "Census of India: Comparative speaker's strength of Scheduled Languages-1971, 1981, 1991 and 2001".
  14. 1 2 3 4 S, Rukmini. "Sanskrit and English: there's no competition".
  15. 1 2 http://www.censusindia.gov.in/Census_Data_2001/India_at_glance/popu1.aspx
  16. "Indiaspeak: English is our 2nd language". The Times of India.