2001 Census of India

Last updated

14th Census of India

  1991 2001 (2001) 2011  

General information
Total population1,028,737,436 (21.5%)
Most populous region Uttar Pradesh (166,053,600)
Least populous region Sikkim (541,902)

The 2001 Census of India was the 14th in a series of censuses held in India every decade since 1871. [1]


The population of India was counted as 1,028,737,436 consisting of 532,223,090 males and 496,514,346 females. [2] Total population increased by 182,310,397, 21.5% more than the 846,427,039 people counted during the 1991 census. [2]

Religious demographics

Hindus comprise 82.75 crore (80.45%) and Muslims were 13.8 crore (13.4%) in 2001 census. [3] [4] Census 2001 showed 108 faiths under the head "Other Religions and Persuasion" (ORP) in India. [5] 700,000 people did not state their religion. [6]

Population trends for major religious groups in India(2001)
% 2001
Hindu 80.45%
Muslim 13.4%
Christian 2.34%
Sikh 1.89%
Buddhist 0.74%
Animist, others0.43%
Jain 0.46%

Language demographics

Hindi is the most widely spoken language in northern parts of India. The Indian census takes the widest possible definition of "Hindi" as a broad variety of "Hindi languages". According to 2001 Census, 53.6% of Indian population know Hindi, in which 41% of them have declared Hindi as their native language or mother tongue. [7] [8] [9] English is known to 12.18% Indians in the 2001 census. The number of bilingual speakers in India is 25.50 crore, which is 24.8% of the population in 2001. [10] India (780) has the world's second highest number of languages, after Papua New Guinea (839). [11]

First, second, and third languages by number of speakers in India (2001 Census)
LanguageFirst language
speakers [12] [13]
First language
speakers as a percentage

of total population [14]

Second language
speakers [13]
Third language
speakers [13]
Total speakers [15] [13] Total speakers as a percentage of total population [14]
Hindi 422,048,64241.0398,207,18031,160,696551,416,51853.60
English 226,4490.0286,125,22138,993,066125,344,73612.18
Bengali 83,369,7698.106,637,2221,108,08891,115,0798.86
Telugu 74,002,8567.199,723,6261,266,01984,992,5018.26
Marathi 71,936,8946.999,546,4142,701,49884,184,8068.18
Tamil 60,793,8145.914,992,253956,33566,742,4026.49
Urdu 51,536,1115.016,535,4891,007,91259,079,5125.74
Kannada 37,924,0113.6911,455,2871,396,42850,775,7264.94
Gujarati 46,091,6174.483,476,355703,98950,271,9614.89
Odia 33,017,4463.213,272,151319,52536,609,1223.56
Malayalam 33,066,3923.21499,188195,88533,761,4653.28
Sanskrit 14,135<0.011,234,9313,742,2234,991,2890.49

Graphical summaries

See also

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