The Air Navigation and Transport Act is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom Parliament in 1920 which gave the British Empire the authority to control air navigation in the Commonwealth countries and territories. It also put into effect the International Commission for Air Navigation (ICAN).
An act of parliament, also called primary legislation, are statutes passed by a parliament (legislature). Act of the Oireachtas is an equivalent term used in the Republic of Ireland where the legislature is commonly known by its Irish name, Oireachtas. It is also comparable to an Act of Congress in the United States.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. It originated with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. At its height, it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power. By 1913, the British Empire held sway over 412 million people, 23% of the world population at the time, and by 1920, it covered 35,500,000 km2 (13,700,000 sq mi), 24% of the Earth's total land area. As a result, its political, legal, linguistic and cultural legacy is widespread. At the peak of its power, the phrase "the empire on which the sun never sets" was often used to describe the British Empire, because its expanse around the globe meant that the sun was always shining on at least one of its territories.
The basic principles of air navigation are identical to general navigation, which includes the process of planning, recording, and controlling the movement of a craft from one place to another.
The first attempts at international regulation of air navigation were made in 1910 in Paris, when representatives of 19 European countries attended an International Air Conference. The meeting was abandoned when agreement on the contents could not be reached. At a peace conference after World War I the regulation of air navigation was once again discussed. Because of the advances made in aviation during the war, all attending members agreed to hold an International Conference to draw up rules and international regulations for air traffic.
The Paris Convention of 1910, also known as the International Air Navigation Conference, Paris 1910 or Conférence internationale de navigation aérienne, was the first diplomatic conference to consider flight regulation, but no conclusion was reached.
World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.
Aviation, or air transport, refers to the activities surrounding mechanical flight and the aircraft industry. Aircraft includes fixed-wing and rotary-wing types, morphable wings, wing-less lifting bodies, as well as lighter-than-air craft such as balloons and airships.
On 25 February 1919, an Air Traffic Committee, of 36 states in the British Empire under the Council of Defence met for the first time. The Paris Convention was signed on 13 October 1919, by all attending representatives of the Commonwealth states.
The Paris Convention of 1919 was the first international convention to address the political difficulties and intricacies involved in international aerial navigation. The convention was concluded under the auspices of the International Commission for Air Navigation. It attempted to reduce the confusing patchwork of ideologies and regulations which differed by country by defining certain guiding principles and provisions, and was signed in Paris on October 13, 1919.
The Commonwealth of Nations, normally known as the Commonwealth, is a unique political association of 53 member states, nearly all of them former territories of the British Empire. The chief institutions of the organisation are the Commonwealth Secretariat, which focuses on intergovernmental aspects, and the Commonwealth Foundation, which focuses on non-governmental relations between member states.
Major General Legge, Chairman of the Committee, noted that "there should be only one regulatory air authority for Australia, working under a single legislature." At a Premiers’ Conference in May 1920 the Australian Prime Minister W.M. Hughes's recommendation that "each State should refer to the Commonwealth the control of air navigation, but in a way as to reserve to the States the right to own and use aircraft for the purpose of government departments and the police powers of the State" was carried, and the Commonwealth passed the Air Navigation Act in the widest possible terms.
Lieutenant General James Gordon Legge was an Australian Army senior officer who served in the First World War and was the Chief of the General Staff, Australia's highest ranking army officer between 1914 and 1915 and again between 1917 and 1920. His son, Stanley Ferguson Legge, reached the rank of major general.
William Morris Hughes, was an Australian politician who served as the seventh Prime Minister of Australia, in office from 1915 to 1923. He is best known for leading the country during World War I, but his influence on national politics spanned several decades. Hughes was a member of federal parliament from Federation in 1901 until his death, the only person to have served for more than 50 years. He represented six political parties during his career, leading five, outlasting four, and being expelled from three.
The Air Navigation Act of 1920 was granted assent on 2 December 1920, gazetted on 11 February 1921, came into force on 28 March 1921 and became law on 28 June 1921. Regulations under the Act provided for the registration of aircraft, licensing of aerodromes, licensing of personnel, periodic inspection and maintenance of aircraft, and rules of the air.
|Aviation Security Act 1982|
|Covers offences against the safety of aircraft; Protection of aircraft, aerodromes and air navigation installations against acts of violence; Policing of airports; and Funding|
|Status: In force|
The Aviation Security Act 1982 is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom Parliament which covers offences against the safety of aircraft; protection of aircraft, aerodromes, and air navigation installations against acts of violence; policing of airports; and funding.
In addition to murder and conspiracy, the defendants, at the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial, were accused of breaches of the 1982 Act.
The Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) is the statutory corporation which oversees and regulates all aspects of civil aviation in the United Kingdom. Its areas of responsibility include:
The Air Commerce Act of 1926 created an Aeronautic Branch of the United States Department of Commerce. Its functions included testing and licensing of pilots, certification of aircraft and investigation of accidents.
The Convention on International Civil Aviation, also known as the Chicago Convention, established the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), a specialized agency of the UN charged with coordinating and regulating international air travel. The Convention establishes rules of airspace, aircraft registration and safety, and details the rights of the signatories in relation to air travel. The Convention also exempts air fuels in transit from (double) taxation.
The Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) is the Australian national authority for the regulation of civil aviation. Although distinct from the government, it reports to the Federal Minister for Infrastructure and Transport.
ENAIRE is the air navigation manager in Spain and Western Sahara, certified for the provision of en route, approach and aerodrome control services. As a public corporate entity attached to the Ministry for Public Works, it is responsible for air traffic control, aeronautical information and the Communication, navigation and surveillance networks necessary so that air companies and their aircraft can fly safely, fluidly and in an orderly manner within Spanish airspace.
The European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation, commonly known as Eurocontrol, is an international organisation working to achieve safe and seamless air traffic management across Europe. Founded in 1960, Eurocontrol currently has 41 member states and is headquartered in Brussels, Belgium. The organisation employs approximately two thousand people and operates with an annual budget in excess of half a billion Euros.
In aviation, an Aeronautical Information Publication is defined by the International Civil Aviation Organization as a publication issued by or with the authority of a state and containing aeronautical information of a lasting character essential to air navigation. It is designed to be a manual containing thorough details of regulations, procedures and other information pertinent to flying aircraft in the particular country to which it relates. It is usually issued by or on behalf of the respective civil aviation administration.
The Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) are the rules that govern civil aviation in Canada.
The Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines is the national aviation authority of the Philippines and is responsible for implementing policies on civil aviation to assure safe, economic and efficient air travel. The agency also investigates aviation accidents via its Aircraft Accident Investigation and Inquiry Board. Formerly Air Transportation Office, it is an independent regulatory body attached to the Department of Transportation for the purpose of policy coordination.
A national aviation authority (NAA) or civil aviation authority is a government statutory authority in each country that maintains an aircraft register and oversees the approval and regulation of civil aviation.
Flight permits are permits or permission required by an aircraft to overfly, land or make a technical stop in any country's airspace. All countries have their own regulations regarding the issuance of flight permits as there is generally a payment involved. The charges normally payable would be the Route Navigation Facility Charges or RNFC for overflights and also landing and parking charges in case of aircraft making halts. The procedure for issuance of these permits also varies from country to country. More details regarding these can be taken from the respective country's civil aviation websites.
SESAR Joint Undertaking is the European public-private partnership that is managing the development phase of the Single European Sky ATM Research (SESAR) Programme that will give Europe a high-performance Air Traffic Management infrastructure which will enable the safe and environmentally friendly development of air transport.
The State Secretariat of Civil Aviation is an agency of the government of Cambodia in-charge of civil aviation including airports in the country. It is headquartered in the capital Phnom Penh. The SSCA oversees the operation of national airports and air traffic management system in Cambodia. In 2000, it granted lease to SAMART Corporation to operate and upgrade the country's air traffic control and air navigation system under a long-term concession. The Secretary of State in charge is Mao Havannall.
The Civil Aviation Authority of Fiji (CAAF) is the national aviation authority in the Republic of Fiji and is responsible for discharging functions on behalf of the Government of Fiji under the States responsibility to the Convention on International Civil Aviation, also known as the Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). CAAF regulates the activities of airport operators, air traffic control and air navigation service providers, airline operators, pilots and air traffic controllers, aircraft engineers, technicians, airports, airline contracting organisations and international air cargo operators in Fiji.
BULATSA is the Bulgarian Air Traffic Services Authority, a branch of the Bulgarian Civil Aviation Administration responsible for air traffic management within Bulgaria's airspace.