|3rd Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda|
24 August 2004 –13 June 2014
|Governor General|| James Carlisle |
|Preceded by||Lester Bird|
|Succeeded by||Gaston Browne|
|Minister of Foreign Affairs|
6 January 2005 –13 June 2014
|Preceded by||Harold Lovell|
|Succeeded by||Charles Fernandez|
|Born||Winston Baldwin Spencer|
8 October 1948
|Political party||United Progressive Party|
Winston Baldwin Spencer (born October 8, 1948) was the third Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda from 2004 to 2014.
Antigua and Barbuda is a country in the West Indies in the Americas, lying between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. It consists of two major islands, Antigua and Barbuda, and a number of smaller islands. The permanent population numbers about 81,800 and the capital and largest port and city is St. John's on Antigua. Lying near each other, Antigua and Barbuda are in the middle of the Leeward Islands, part of the Lesser Antilles, roughly at 17°N of the equator.
Spencer led the opposition United Progressive Party (UPP) to victory in the March 2004 parliamentary election. In addition to serving as Prime Minister, he became Minister of Foreign Affairs on January 6, 2005.
The United Progressive Party is a political party in Antigua and Barbuda. Led by Baldwin Spencer, it was the governing party from 2004 to 2014. It has been in opposition since the 2014 election.
A foreign minister or minister of foreign affairs is generally a cabinet minister in charge of a state's foreign policy and relations.
Spencer's party was swept from power in the June 2014 general election.
Baldwin Spencer is rooted in labour. For a quarter-century, he was a prominent labour leader with the Antigua and Barbuda Workers Union. He was first elected to Parliament in 1989 as the MP for the St. John's Rural West constituency.
In 1992, Spencer played an integral role in the formation of the United Progressive Party. He previously served as a leader with the United National Democratic Party and spearheaded collaborative meetings with the Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement that resulted in the formation of the United Progressive Party. Upon formation of the party, Spencer rose to become the political leader of the party and the Opposition Leader in the Parliament.
The United National Democratic Party was a political party in Antigua and Barbuda. It contested the 1989 general elections, winning 31% of the vote but only one seat. In 1992 it was one of three opposition parties to merge into the United Progressive Party.
Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement, a radical socialist and Pan-African political party in Antigua and Barbuda. ACLM was founded in 1968 by Tim Hector, the then chairman of the Progressive Labour Movement. The ideological inspiration for ACLM came from C.L.R. James.
As Opposition Leader Baldwin Spencer organized public demonstrations and went on a hunger strike to advocate for electoral reform after the widely criticized 1999 elections. His advocacy led to the formation of an independent Electoral Commission to oversee elections in Antigua and Barbuda. He also led the fight to ensure that opposition had access to state-owned media, such as the television station, Antigua Broadcasting Service (ABS). To that end, he filed a writ and took the Bird Government to court arguing that, in a democratic society, citizens have a right to hear an opposing political perspective on government airwaves.
In 2004, Baldwin Spencer led the United Progressive Party to a landslide victory in the general election. He defeated Lester Bird's ALP, which had ruled Antigua and Barbuda for the previous 28 years. In Government he moved to enact a trio of good government reforms: a nationwide school meals programme, raising the minimum wage and paying all civil servants.
Sir Lester Bryant Bird, KNH was the second Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda from 1994 to 2004 and a well-known athlete. He was chairman of the Antigua Labour Party (ALP) from 1971 to 1983, then became Prime Minister when his father, Sir Vere Bird, the previous Prime Minister, resigned.
Internationally Baldwin Spencer is known as a skilled diplomat who helped his country assume the leadership of the Group of 77 in 2008. He received the highest order of Cote d'Ivoire, the Commander of the National Order. He was also recognized by the United Nations for his leadership, receiving the Millennium Development Goals Achievement Award in recognition for his work advancing the cause of international development.
The Group of 77 (G77) at the United Nations is a coalition of 134 developing nations, designed to promote its members' collective economic interests and create an enhanced joint negotiating capacity in the United Nations. There were 77 founding members of the organization, but by November 2013 the organization had since expanded to 134 member countries. Since China participates in the G77 but does not consider itself to be a member, all official statements are issued in the name of The Group of 77 and China.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that was tasked to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international co-operation and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, and is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi, and Vienna. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development and upholding international law. The UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. In 24 October 1945, at the end of World War II, the organization was established with the aim of preventing future wars. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193. The UN is the successor of the ineffective League of Nations.
The UPP won the March 2009 election with a reduced majority of nine out of 17 seats. Spencer himself defeated ALP candidate Gail Christian in the St John's Rural West constituency, receiving 2,259 votes against 1,753 for Christian. Spencer said on this occasion that it would "not be business as usual", and he was promptly sworn in for another term as Prime Minister when vote counting was completed.
After 10 years in power, the UPP was defeated by the ALP in the general election held on 12 June 2014. Out of 17 seats, the UPP retained only three; Spencer won re-election to his own seat by a very narrow margin. Spencer accepted defeat, saying that the people had clearly chosen the ALP. He was succeeded as Prime Minister by ALP leader Gaston Browne on 13 June.
Spencer is married to Jacklyn Spencer and is the father of two children. On 16 August 2008, Spencer was inducted as an honorary member of the Pathfinder Club, a Seventh-day Adventist youth service organization, during a gathering of more than 3,000 Pathfinders from around the Caribbean.
The politics of Antigua and Barbuda takes place in a framework of a unitary parliamentary representative democratic monarchy, wherein the Sovereign of Antigua and Barbuda is the head of state, appointing a Governor-General to act as vice-regal representative in the nation. A Prime Minister is appointed by the Governor-General as the head of government, and of a multi-party system; the Prime Minister advises the Governor-General on the appointment of a Council of Ministers. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of the Parliament. The bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives.
Sir Vere Cornwall Bird Sr., KNH was the first Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda. His son, Lester Bryant Bird, succeeded him as Prime Minister. In 1994 he was declared a national hero.
The Antigua and Barbuda Labour Party (ABLP) is a political party in Antigua and Barbuda. The current leader of the party is Gaston Browne, who serves as the Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda. The party had previously been led by Lester Bird, who was chairman of the party since 1971, and became Prime Minister and political leader in 1994. The party was founded as the Antigua Labour Party (ALP) by Lester's father, V.C. Bird. The ABLP has traditionally largely been seen as the political arm of the Bird family. With the exception of five years in the 1970s, the ABLP ruled Antigua and Barbuda for over four decades. It was in opposition from 2004 to 2014, and it has been in power again since 2014 since winning a majority of the seats in the Legislature following the 2014 general election.
General elections were held in Antigua and Barbuda on 23 March 2004. The result was a victory for the opposition United Progressive Party (UPP), which defeated the incumbent Antigua Labour Party. Baldwin Spencer, leader of the UPP, replaced Lester Bird as Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda, with Bird being one of eight Labour MPs to lose his seat. Spencer became only the second Prime Minister from outside the Bird family or the Labour Party.
Elections in Antigua and Barbuda take place in the framework of a parliamentary democracy.
General elections were held in Antigua and Barbuda on 9 March 1999. The elections were won by the governing Antigua Labour Party. Lester Bird was re-elected Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda. Voter turnout was 63.6%.
Charlesworth Theophilus Samuel was an Antiguan politician.
General elections were held in Antigua and Barbuda on 8 March 1994. They were won by the governing Antigua Labour Party, under the leadership of Lester Bird. Bird had been appointed leader of the ALP before the election, after his father and predecessor Vere Bird announced his intention to retire. Lester Bird became Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda after the general election. Voter turnout was 62.3%. This was the first election contested by the United Progressive Party, under future Prime Minister Baldwin Spencer.
General elections were held in Antigua and Barbuda on 17 April 1984, the first after the country had become an independent Commonwealth realm in 1981.
Vere Bird Jr. was an Antiguan lawyer and politician who served as chairman of the Antigua Labour Party (ALP) and a government minister. He is the son of Vere Bird, the former Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda, and brother of Lester Bird, who later held the same position.
Robin Yearwood is an Antiguan politician and member of the Antigua Labour Party (ALP). Entering Parliament in 1976, Yearwood served as Minister of Agriculture, Land and Fisheries in the ALP administration until a cabinet reshuffle in 1987 saw him take over Vere Bird, Jr.'s portfolio for Aviation, Public Information and Public Utilities. Despite a failed attempt to oust the Prime Minister he retained this position, and kept it when he became Deputy Prime Minister on 9 September 2002 and Minister of Finance a year later. Following the ALP's loss in the 2004 election, Yearwood was one of only three ALP members left in the lower house, and became Leader of the Opposition. He held this position until 2006, when he was replaced with Steadroy Benjamin.
Molwyn Joseph is an Antiguan politician and Chairman of the Antigua Labour Party (ALP). First entering politics in 1984 when he was made a Minister without Portfolio in the government of Vere Bird, Joseph became Minister of Finance seven years later, renegotiating the Antiguan national debt and introducing fiscal reforms. After a 1996 scandal in which it was discovered he had used his position to import a 1930s Rolls Royce for a friend, bypassing normal import duties and taxes, he was dismissed from the Bird administration, returning 14 months later to serve as Minister for Planning, Implementation and the Environment. Following the 1999 general election he became Minister of Heath and Social Improvement before being made Minister of Tourism and the Environment a few months later. As Minister, Joseph attempted to improve the perception of Antigua as a tourist destination and invest in the industry, spending 2 million US dollars increasing the number of hotel rooms on the island and providing money for both Air Jamaica and Air Luxor to provide flights to the island.
Steadroy "Cutie" Benjamin is an Antiguan lawyer and politician, who is the current minister of Justice and Attorney General of Antigua and Barbuda. He previously served as Leader of the Opposition in the Parliament of Antigua and Barbuda.
General elections were held in Antigua and Barbuda on 12 June 2014. The vote was won by the opposition Antigua Labour Party, led by Gaston Browne. Following the election, Browne became the country's youngest Prime Minister.
Gaston Alfonso Browne is the Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda. He has been the island’s leader since 2014. Before entering politics, he was a banker and businessman.
Jacqui Quinn-Leandro is a communications specialist from Antigua. She was the first woman to be elected to the Lower House of Parliament for Antigua and Barbuda. In 2005, she served as the first female acting prime minister of Antigua and Barbuda during a temporary absence of Prime Minister Baldwin Spencer. After two terms as a Member of Parliament, she was appointed as senator.
General elections were held in Antigua and Barbuda on 21 March 2018 to elect members to House of Representatives of the 16th Antigua and Barbuda Parliament. Each of the 17 constituencies elected one Member of Parliament (MP).
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| Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda |
| Foreign Minister of Antigua and Barbuda |
6 January 2005 – 13 June 2014