Chiang Mai Province

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Chiang Mai
เชียงใหม่
Chedi Doi Inthanon Chiang Mai Thailand.jpg
Wachirathan Falls.jpg
Doi Inthanon, Wachirathan Falls
Flag Chiang Mai Province.png
Flag
Seal Chiang Mai.png
Seal
Motto(s): 
"ดอยสุเทพเป็นศรี ประเพณีเป็นสง่า บุปผชาติล้วนงามตา นามล้ำค่านครพิงค์" ("Doi Suthep is Sri, Tradition is elegant, Beautiful blossoms and Invaluable name of Nakornping")
Thailand Chiang Mai locator map.svg
  Chiang Mai in    Thailand
Coordinates: 18°50′14″N98°58′14″E / 18.83722°N 98.97056°E / 18.83722; 98.97056 Coordinates: 18°50′14″N98°58′14″E / 18.83722°N 98.97056°E / 18.83722; 98.97056
Founded by Mangrai
Capital Chiang Mai
Government
  GovernorCharoenrit Sanguansat
(since October 2019) [1]
Area
  Total20,107 km2 (7,763 sq mi)
Area rank Ranked 2nd
Population
 (2018) [2]
  Total1,763,742
  Rank Ranked 5th
  Density88/km2 (230/sq mi)
  Density rank Ranked 54th
Human Achievement Index
[3]
  HAI (2017)0.6159 
"somewhat high"
Ranked 21st
Time zone UTC+7 (ICT)
Postal code
50xxx
Calling code 052 & 053
ISO 3166 code TH-50
Vehicle registration เชียงใหม่
Accession into Siam (Thailand)1910
Website www.chiangmai.go.th

Chiang Mai (Thai : เชียงใหม่, pronounced [t͡ɕʰīa̯ŋ.màj] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); Northern Thai : Lanna-Chiang Mai.png , pronounced  [tɕiaŋ.màj] ) is the second-largest province ( changwat ) of Thailand. It lies in upper northern Thailand. It is bordered by Chiang Rai to the northeast, Lampang and Lamphun to the south, Tak to the southwest, Mae Hong Son to the west, and Shan State of Burma to the north. The capital, Chiang Mai, is 685 kilometres (426 mi) north of Bangkok.

Contents

Geography

Chiang Mai Province is about 685 km (426 mi) from Bangkok in the Mae Ping River basin and is on average at 300 m (1,000 ft) elevation. Surrounded by the mountain ranges of the Thai highlands, it covers an area of approximately 20,107 km2 (8,000 sq mi). The mountains of the Daen Lao Range (ทิวเขาแดนลาว) at the north end of the province, the Thanon Thong Chai Range (เทือกเขาถนนธงชัย) with the highest mountain in Thailand, Doi Inthanon at 2,565 metres (8,415 ft), stretching in a north-south direction, and the Khun Tan Range in the east of the province are covered by rain forest. The Mae Ping, one of the major tributaries of the Chao Phraya River, originates in the Daen Lao mountains. Several national parks are in the province: Doi Inthanon, [4] Doi Suthep-Pui, [5] Ob Luang, [6] Sri Lanna, [7] Huai Nam Dang, [8] Mae Wang, [9] and Pha Daeng. [10]

History

Chiang Mai the capital of Chiang Mai Province was capital of the Lanna Kingdom after its founding in 1296, during the same period of time as the establishment of the Sukhothai Kingdom. [11] From then, Chiang Mai not only became the capital and cultural core of the Lanna Kingdom, it was also the centre of Buddhism in northern Thailand and King Meng Rai built innumerable temples.

In 1599, the kingdom lost its independence and became part of the Ayutthaya Kingdom. This ended the dynasty founded by King Meng Rai, an era that last 300 years. The Burmese occupiers, had a powerful Burmese influence on the architecture which can still be seen today. It was only in the late 18th century that Burma was finally defeated with the leadership of King Taksin.

In 1932 the Chiang Mai province moved up to the second level subdivision of Thailand when the administrative unit of Monthon Phayap, the remains of the Lanna Kingdom, was dissolved.

Demographics

Hmong girls ThaiGirls.jpg
Hmong girls

13.4 percent of the population in the province are members of hill tribes:

Symbols

The "flame of the forest" Butea monosperma bij Tha Phae Gate, Chiang Mai P1040493a.jpg
The "flame of the forest"

The seal of the province shows a white elephant in a glass pavilion. The white elephant is a royal symbol in Thailand, and it is depicted to remember the offering of a white elephant by Thammalangka, a ruler of Chiang Mai, to his overlord, King Rama II of Bangkok. The pavilion symbolizes that Buddhism prospered in Chiang Mai, especially when in 1477 the teachings of Buddha, the Tripitaka, were reviewed. [12]

The provincial flower and tree is the "flame of the forest" ( Butea monosperma ). [12]

The provincial slogan is In the shadow of Mount Doi Suthep, blessed with rice customs and traditions, beautiful wild flowers, magnificent Nakhon Phing. [12]

Administrative divisions and postal codes

Map of 25 districts Amphoe Chiang Mai.svg
Map of 25 districts

Chiang Mai is subdivided into 25 districts ( amphoe ). The districts are further divided into 204 subdistricts ( tambon ) and 2,066 villages ( muban ).

Local government

As of 26 November 2019 there are: [14] one Chiang Mai Provincial Administration Organisation (ongkan borihan suan changwat) and 121 municipal (thesaban) areas in the province. Chiang Mai has city ( thesaban nakhon ) status. Mae Jo, Mae Hia, Mueang Kaen Phatthana and Ton Pao have town ( thesaban mueang ) status. Further 116 subdistrict municipalities ( thesaban tambon ). The non-municipal areas are administered by 89 Subdistrict Administrative Organisations - SAO (ongkan borihan suan tambon). [2]

Climate

Chiang Mai has a tropical wet and dry climate (Köppen Aw), tempered by the low latitude and moderate elevation, with warm to hot weather year-round, though nighttime conditions during the dry season can be cool and are much lower than daytime highs. The maximum temperature ever recorded is 42.4 °C (108.3 °F) in May 2005. [15]

Human achievement index 2017

HealthEducationEmploymentIncome
Health icon Thai.png Round Landmark School Icon - Transparent.svg Employment icon.png Numismatics and Notaphily icon.png
39105617
HousingFamilyTransportParticipation
586-house-with-garden.svg
Parents, enfants, famille.png
Groundtransport inv.svg Icon Sociopolitica y relaciones internacionales (wikiproyect, es.wp).png
39702611
Province Chiang Mai, with an HAI 2017 value of 0.6159 is "somewhat high", occupies place 21 in the ranking.

Since 2003, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in Thailand has tracked progress on human development at sub-national level using the Human achievement index (HAI), a composite index covering all the eight key areas of human development. National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB) has taken over this task since 2017. [3]

RankClassification
  1 - 15"high"
16 - 30"somewhat high"
31 - 45"average"
45 - 60"somewhat low"
61 - 77"low"

Transportation

Chiang Mai International Airport showing Doi Suthep temple in the upper left corner RTN Embraer ERJ 135LR beneath Wat Doi Suthep.jpg
Chiang Mai International Airport showing Doi Suthep temple in the upper left corner

Tourism

Chiang Mai Province is the tourist hub of the north and one of Thailand's most important tourist destinations.[ citation needed ]It is considered one of the most scenic provinces in the country due to its mountain ranges, valleys, flora, and fauna. For example, the Hang Dong Canyon is coveted as a great tourist attraction. Furthermore, unlike most of Thailand, in some months, the climate in the north and Chiang Mai is cool, fresh, and misty.

Health

Each amphoe of Chiang Mai has its own hospital, but among the largest are located in Mueang Chiang Mai District and include Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital and Nakornping Hospital.

Local products

Chiang Mai is a handicrafts centre, with a variety of antiques, silver jewellery, and embroidery, Thai silks and cottons, basketry, celadon, silverware, furniture, lacquerware, woodcarvings, and parasols. [17]

Local culture

The north of Thailand's culture is Lanna in origin and the people are proud of their northern roots. The region is home to distinctive foods, music, arts, way of life, and even language. Chiang Mai is home to various hill tribes and their own distinctive cultures.

Local Food

Khao soi Drumstick khao soy.JPG
Khao soi
  • Kaeng om is a spicy curry consisting of intestines
  • Kaeng khae is a spicy curry consisting mainly of vegetables.

Sports

Chiang Mai, Yi Peng Festival Chiang Mai, Yi Peng Festival 1.jpg
Chiang Mai, Yi Peng Festival
People floating krathong rafts during the Loi Krathong festival in Chiang Mai Loi Krathong 2010 John Shedrick.jpg
People floating krathong rafts during the Loi Krathong festival in Chiang Mai

There are two main sport stadia in Chiang Mai and its environs: 700th Anniversary Stadium and Province Stadium. 700th Anniversary Stadium is on Klongchonpratan Road, 7 km (4.3 mi) from Chiang Mai University. There are swimming pools, diving pool, basketball arena, and 11 tennis courts.

Sister cities

The province is twinned with eight provinces/states. [18]

Notable inhabitants

Thaksin Shinawatra with Vladimir Putin at APEC Thailand 2003, Thaksin was born in San Kamphaeng District Vladimir Putin in Thailand 21-22 October 2003-1.jpg
Thaksin Shinawatra with Vladimir Putin at APEC Thailand 2003, Thaksin was born in San Kamphaeng District

Notes

Reports (data) from Thai government are "not copyrightable" (Public Domain), Copyright Act 2537 (1994), section 7.

Related Research Articles

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Chiang Rai Province Province of Thailand

Chiang Rai is one of Thailand's seventy-six provinces, which lies in upper northern Thailand and is Thailand's northernmost province. It is bordered by the Shan State of Myanmar to the north, Bokeo Province of Laos to the east, Phayao to the south, Lampang to the southwest, and Chiang Mai to the west. The provinces is linked to Houayxay Laos by the Fourth Thai–Lao Friendship Bridge that spans the Mekong.

Doi Inthanon

Doi Inthanon is the highest mountain in Thailand. It is in Chom Thong District, Chiang Mai Province. This mountain is an ultra prominent peak, known in the past as Doi Luang or Doi Ang Ga, meaning the 'crow's pond top'. Near the mountain's base was a pond where many crows gathered. The name Doi Inthanon was given in honour of Inthawichayanon, last King of Chiang Mai, who was concerned about the forests in the north and tried to preserve them. He ordered that after his death his remains be interred at Doi Luang, which was then renamed in his honour.

Chiang Mai City in Thailand

Chiang Mai, sometimes written as Chiengmai or Chiangmai, is the largest city in northern Thailand and the capital of Chiang Mai Province. It is 700 km (435 mi) north of Bangkok near most of the highest mountains in the country, including Doi Suthep and Doi Inthanon.

Mae Hong Son Province Province of Thailand

Mae Hong Son Province, also spelled Maehongson, Mae Hong Sorn or Maehongsorn, is one of Thailand's seventy-six provinces (changwat) lies in upper northern Thailand and is the westernmost province. Neighboring provinces are Shan State of Myanmar, Chiang Mai and Tak. To the west, the province borders Kayin State and Kayah State of Myanmar. Mae Hong Son's nickname is "the city of three mists". It is hemmed in by the high mountain ranges of the Shan Hills and is the most mountainous province in Thailand, occupying 12,681 square kilometres (4,896 sq mi). The province is often covered with mist. Mae Hong Son town was originally established in the early 19th century as an elephant training camp as ordered by the then King of Chiang Mai. As of 2012 Mae Hong Son was the poorest province in Thailand.

Lampang Province Province of Thailand

Lampang is one of Thailand's seventy-six provinces (changwat), lies in upper northern Thailand. The old name of Lampang was Khelang Nakhon.

Lamphun Province Province of Thailand

Lamphun is one of Thailand's seventy-six provinces (changwat), lies in upper northern Thailand. Neighboring provinces are Chiang Mai, Lampang, and Tak.

Phayao Province Province of Thailand

Phayao is one of Thailand's seventy-six provinces (changwat) lies in upper northern Thailand. Neighboring provinces are Nan, Phrae, Lampang, and Chiang Rai. In the northeast it borders Xaignabouli of Laos.

Uttaradit Province Province of Thailand

Uttaradit is one of Thailand's seventy-six provinces (changwat), lies in upper northern Thailand. Neighboring provinces are Phitsanulok, Sukhothai, Phrae and Nan. To the east it borders Xaignabouli of Laos. Uttaradit is 488 km north of Bangkok, and 238 km southeast of Chiang Mai.

Larb

Larb is a type of Lao meat salad that is regarded as the unofficial national dish of Laos. It is also eaten in the Isan region, an area of Thailand where the majority of the population is of the Lao ethnicity, and among the Hmong people, an ethnic minority group in Laos and Thailand. Local variants of larb also feature in the cuisines of the Tai peoples of Shan State, Burma, and Yunnan province, China.

Thai curry Dishes in Thai cuisine made with curry paste

Thai curry refers both to dishes in Thai cuisine that are made with various types of curry paste and to the pastes themselves. A Thai curry dish is made from curry paste, coconut milk or water, meat, seafood, vegetables or fruit, and herbs. Curries in Thailand mainly differ from the curries in Indian cuisine in their use of ingredients such as herbs and aromatic leaves over a mix of spices.

Mueang Chiang Mai District District in Chiang Mai, Thailand

Mueang Chiang Mai is the capital district of Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand. The district contains the city of Chiang Mai.

Chiang Dao District District in Chiang Mai, Thailand

Chiang Dao is a district (amphoe) of Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand. It is nicknamed "little Tuscany" and several wines are produced in the area.

Pai District District in Mae Hong Son, Thailand

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Chiang Saen District District in Chiang Rai, Thailand

Chiang Saen is a district (amphoe) in the northern part of Chiang Rai Province, northern Thailand. Chiang Saen is an important entrepôt for Thailand's trade with other countries on the upper part of Mekong River.

Doi Suthep

Doi Suthep (ดอยสุเทพ), is a mountain ("doi") west of Chiang Mai, Thailand. It is 1,676 metres (5,499 ft) in elevation and is one of the twin peaks of a granite mountain. The other peak is known as Doi Pui and is slightly higher.

<i>Nam phrik</i> Thai chili sauce

Nam phrik is a type of Thai spicy chili sauce typical of Thai cuisine. Usual ingredients for nam phrik type sauces are fresh or dry chilies, garlic, shallots, lime juice and often some kind of fish or shrimp paste. In the traditional way of preparing these sauces, the ingredients are pounded together using a mortar and pestle, with either salt or fish sauce added to taste.

Thanon Thong Chai Range

The Thanon Thong Chai Range is a mountain range in northern Thailand. Its tallest peak is Doi Inthanon, the highest point in Thailand. Most of the range is in Chiang Mai Province, with parts in Mae Hong Son and Lamphun Provinces.

References

  1. "ประกาศสำนักนายกรัฐมนตรี เรื่อง แต่งตั้งข้าราชการพลเรือนสามัญ" [Announcement of the Prime Minister's Office regarding the appointment of civil servants](PDF). Royal Thai Government Gazette. 136 (Special 242 Ngor). 7. 28 September 2019. Retrieved 24 November 2019.
  2. 1 2 "รายงานสถิติจำนวนประชากรและบ้านประจำปี พ.ศ.2561" [Statistics, population and house statistics for the year 2018]. Registration Office Department of the Interior, Ministry of the Interior (in Thai). 31 December 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2019.
  3. 1 2 Human achievement index 2017 by National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB), pages 1-40, maps 1-9, retrieved 14 September 2019, ISBN 978-974-9769-33-1
  4. "Doi Inthanon National Park". Tourist Authority of Thailand (TAT). Archived from the original on 1 May 2015. Retrieved 21 Mar 2015.
  5. "Doi Suthep-Pui National Park". Department of National Parks (DNP) Thailand. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
  6. "Ob Luang National Park". Department of National Parks (DNP) Thailand. Archived from the original on 9 November 2013. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
  7. "Si Lanna National Park". Department of National Parks (DNP) Thailand. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
  8. "Huai Nam Dang National Park". Tourism Authority of Thailand (TAT). Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 21 Mar 2015.
  9. "Mae Wang National Park". Department of National Parks (DNP) Thailand. Archived from the original on 12 February 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
  10. "Pha Daeng National Park". Department of National Parks (DNP) Thailand. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
  11. "Chiang Mai". Tourism Authority of Thailand (TAT). Archived from the original on 30 March 2015. Retrieved 21 Mar 2015.
  12. 1 2 3 "Office of the Royal Society" (in Thai). Section เชียงใหม่.
  13. The code 25 was assigned to a planned district Wiang Kham, which however wasn't created.
  14. "Number of local government organizations by province". dla.go.th. Department of Local Administration (DLA). 26 November 2019. Retrieved 10 December 2019. 13 Chiang Mai: 1 PAO, 1 City mun., 4 Town mun., 116 Subdistrict mun., 89 SAO.
  15. "Daily Climate Weather Data Statistics". Geodata.us. Retrieved 2012-04-29.
  16. "Chiang Mai International Airport". Airports of Thailand Public Co., Ltd. Archived from the original on 4 December 2016. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
  17. "Shopping Chiang Mai". Tourism Authority of Thailand (TAT). Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
  18. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-23. Retrieved 2016-06-23.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  19. "MOU of the Establishment of Friendship between Province of Chiang Mai and Prefecture of Hokkaido" (PDF). Retrieved 2018-12-29.
  20. http://prachatai.com/journal/2014/10/55916