|Latin: Congregatio pro Clericis|
Palazzo delle Congregazioni in Piazza Pio XII (in front of St. Peter's Square) is the workplace for most congregations of the Roman Curia
|Formed||August 2, 1564|
|Headquarters||Palazzo delle Congregazioni, Piazza Pio XII, Rome, Italy|
|Part of a series on the|
The Congregation for the Clergy (Latin : Congregatio pro Clericis; formerly the Sacred Congregation for the Clergy and Sacred Congregation of the Council) is the congregation of the Roman Curia responsible for overseeing matters regarding priests and deacons not belonging to religious orders. The Congregation for the Clergy handles requests for dispensation from active priestly ministry, as well as the legislation governing presbyteral councils and other organisations of priests around the world. The Congregation does not deal with clerical sexual abuse cases, as those are handled exclusively by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.
It was first set up as the Sacra Congregatio Cardinalium pro executione et interpretatione concilii Tridentini interpretum by Pope Pius IV in the apostolic constitution Alias Nos of 2 August 1564 to oversee the proper application and observation of the disciplinary decrees of the Council of Trent throughout the Catholic Church. It was commonly known as the Sacred Congregation of the Council. Pope Sixtus V's Apostolic Constitution Immensa aeterni Dei of 22 January 1587 expanded the Congregation's functions, entrusting it with the proper interpretation of the canons of the Council of Trent, resolving controversial questions relating to it, and monitoring provincial councils. It later lost many of its powers, retaining only those relating to disciplining secular clergy, but still held onto its original name prior to Pope Paul VI's apostolic constitution Regimini Ecclesiae Universae of 31 December 1967, which renamed it the "Congregation for the Clergy."
By 2009, Pope Benedict XVI made the Congregation responsible for managing the guidelines concerning clergy who maintained their clerical status after violating their vows of celibacy.On 25 January 2012, Pope Benedict XVI gave it responsibility for regulating Catholic seminaries, which until then was the responsibility of the Congregation for Catholic Education.
In January 2013, the motu proprio Fides per doctrinam transferred the competency on Catechesis from the Congregation for the Clergy to the Pontifical Council for the Promotion of the New Evangelisation.
In February 2019, Cardinal Beniamino Stella, Prefect of the Congregation, said that the Congregation manages the cases of priests who violate their vows of celibacy for approximately ten years. He said that "In such cases there are, unfortunately, Bishops and Superiors who think that, after having provided economically for the children, or after having transferred the priest, the cleric could continue to exercise the ministry."In February 2020, the Congregation made public its guidelines for managing cases of priests who have fathered children. The guidelines were previously secret, though in 2019 the Congregation offered to provide then to a bishops conference upon request.
On 3 June 2021, Pope Francis tasked Egidio Miragoli, Bishop of Mondovì, with conducting a review of the Congregation in anticipation of the replacement of its prefect in August. He expected it would take at least the month of June to complete.
Since 21 September 2013, the Prefect of the Congregation has been Cardinal Beniamino Stella.The Secretary of the Congregation is the French Archbishop Joël Mercier. Jorge Carlos Patrón Wong is the Secretary for Seminaries. The under secretary is Fr. Andrea Ripa, a former professor of matrimonial and canon law for the Higher Institute of Religious Sciences in Rimini and of the “General Norms” at the Lugano Faculty of Theology and the Pontifical Lateran University and licensed canon law and Roman Rota lawyer, and a former judge and vicar of the Ecclesiastical Tribunal of Flaminio in Bologna.
On June 11, 2021, Pope Francis appointed Lazarus You Heung-sik, bishop of Daejeon, South Korea, as prefect after accepting the resignation of Cardinal Stella. However, Cardinal Stella remains "in charge" of the Congregation "until the new Prefect takes office."
|Prefect of Congregation for the Clergy|
|Congregation for the Clergy|
|Member of||Roman Curia|
|Reports to||The Pope|
|Constituting instrument||Alias Nos|
|Formation||2 August 1564|
|First holder||Carlo Borromeo|
|1||Carlo Borromeo||1564||1565||Pius IV|
|3||Filippo Boncompagni||1580||1586||Gregory XIII|
|4||Antonio Carafa||1586||1591||Sixtus V|
|6||Paolo Emilio Zacchia||1604||1605||Clement VIII|
|7||Francesco Maria del Monte||1606||1616||Paul V|
|8||Orazio Lancellotti||1616||1620||Paul V|
|10||Cosimo de Torres||1623||1626|
|11|| Bonifazio Bevilacqua|
|12||Fabrizio Verospi||1627||1639||Urban VIII|
|13||Giambattista Pamphilj||1639||1644||Urban VIII|
|14|| Francesco Cennini|
|15||Pier Luigi Carafa||1645||1655||Innocent X|
|17||Giulio Cesare Sacchetti||1661||1663||Alexander VII|
|18||Angelo Celsi||1664||1671||Alexander VII|
|19|| Paluzzo Paluzzi Altieri|
|20||Vincenzo Maria Orsini, O.P.||1673||1675||Clement X|
|21||Federico Baldeschi Colonna||1675||1691||Clement X|
|22||Galeazzo Marescotti||1692||1695||Innocent XII|
|23||Giuseppe Sacripante||1696||1700||Innocent XII|
|25||Pier Marcellino Corradini||1718||1721||Clement XI|
|27||Antonio Saverio Gentili||1737||1753||Clement XII|
|28||Mario Millini||1753||1756||Benedict XIV|
|29||Giovanni Giacomo Millo||1756||1757||Benedict XIV|
|30||Clemente Argenvilliers||1757||1758||Benedict XIV|
|31||Ferdinando Maria de' Rossi||1759||1775||Clement XIII|
|32|| Carlo Vittorio Amedeo|
|33||Guglielmo Pallotta||1785||1795||Pius VI|
|34||Tommaso Antici||1795||1798||Pius VI|
|36||Giulio Gabrielli||1814||1820||Pius VII|
|37||Emmanuele De Gregorio||1820||1834||Pius VII|
|38||Vincenzo Macchi||1834||1841||Gregory XVI|
|39||Paolo Polidori||1841||1847||Gregory XVI|
|40||Pietro Ostini||1847||1849||Pius IX|
|41||Angelo Mai||1851||1853||Pius IX|
|42|| Antonio Maria Cagiano|
|43||Prospero Caterini||1860||1881||Pius IX|
|44||Lorenzo Nina||1881||1885||Leo XIII|
|45||Luigi Serafini||1885||1893||Leo XIII|
|46||Angelo Di Pietro||1893||1902||Leo XIII|
|47||Vincenzo Vannutelli||1902||1908||Leo XIII|
|48||Casimiro Gennari||1908||1914||Pius X|
|49||Francesco di Paola Cassetta||1914||1919|
|50||Donato Raffaele Sbarretti||1919||1930||Benedict XV|
|51||Giulio Serafini||1930||1938||Pius XI|
|52||Luigi Maglione||1938||1939||Pius XI|
|54||Giuseppe Bruno||1949||1954||Pius XII|
|55||Pietro Ciriaci||1954||1966||Pius XII|
|57||John Joseph Wright||1969||1979||Paul VI|
|58||Silvio Oddi||1979||1986||John Paul II|
|59||Antonio Innocenti||1986||1991||John Paul II|
|60||José Tomás Sánchez||1991||1996||John Paul II|
|61||Darío Castrillón Hoyos||1996|
|1998||John Paul II|
|62||Cláudio Hummes||2006||2010||Benedict XVI|
|63||Mauro Piacenza||2010||2013||Benedict XVI|
The Roman Curia comprises the administrative institutions of the Holy See and the central body through which the affairs of the Catholic Church are conducted. It acts in the pope's name and with his authority for the good and for the service of the particular churches and provides the central organization for the church to advance its objectives.
The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith is the oldest among the nine congregations of the Roman Curia, seated at the Palace of the Holy Office in Rome. It was founded to defend the church from heresy; today, it is the body responsible for promulgating and defending Catholic doctrine. Formerly known as the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, it is informally known in many Catholic countries as the Holy Office, and between 1908 and 1965 was officially known as the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office.
Giovanni Battista Re is an Italian cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church whose service has been primarily in the Roman Curia. He was elevated to the rank of cardinal in 2001. He was prefect of the Congregation for Bishops from 2000 to 2010. As the senior cardinal-bishop in attendance, he chaired the March 2013 papal conclave to elect Pope Benedict XVI's successor. Pope Francis approved his election as Dean of the College of Cardinals on 18 January 2020.
The Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments is the congregation of the Roman Curia that handles most affairs relating to liturgical practices of the Latin Church as distinct from the Eastern Catholic Churches and also some technical matters relating to the sacraments. Its functions were originally exercised by the Sacred Congregation of Rites, set up in January 1588 by Pope Sixtus V.
The Congregation for Catholic Education is the pontifical congregation of the Roman Curia responsible for: (1) universities, faculties, institutes and higher schools of study, either ecclesial or non-ecclesiastical dependent on ecclesial persons; and (2) schools and educational institutes depending on ecclesiastical authorities.
The Congregation for Bishops is the department of the Roman Curia that oversees the selection of most new bishops. Its proposals require papal approval to take effect, but are usually followed. The Congregation schedules the visits at five-year intervals that bishops are required to make to Rome, when they meet with the pope and various departments of the Curia. It also manages the formation of new dioceses. It is one of the more influential Congregations, since it strongly influences the human resources policy of the church.
The Congregation for the Oriental Churches is a dicastery of the Roman Curia, and the curial congregation responsible for contact with the Eastern Catholic Churches for the sake of assisting their development and protecting their rights. It also maintains whole and entire in the one Catholic Church, alongside the liturgical, disciplinary, and spiritual patrimony of the Latin Rite, the heritage and Eastern Catholic canon law of the various Eastern Catholic traditions. It has exclusive authority over the following regions: Egypt and the Sinai Peninsula, Eritrea and northern Ethiopia, southern Albania and Bulgaria, Cyprus, Greece, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Israel, Syria, Jordan and Turkey, and also oversees jurisdictions based in Romania, Southern Italy, Hungary, India and Ukraine. It was founded by the Motu Proprio Dei Providentis of Pope Benedict XV as the "Sacred Congregation for the Oriental Church" on 1 May 1917 and "considers those matters, whether concerning persons or things, affecting the Catholic Oriental Churches."
The Section for Relations with States or Second Section of the Secretariat of State is the body within the Roman Curia charged with dealing with matters that involve relations with civil governments. It has been part of the Vatican Secretariat of State since 1909.
Pastor bonus is an apostolic constitution promulgated by Pope John Paul II on 28 June 1988. It instituted a number of reforms in the process of running the central government of the Roman Catholic Church, as article 1 states "The Roman Curia is the complex of dicasteries and institutes which help the Roman Pontiff in the exercise of his supreme pastoral office for the good and service of the whole Church and of the particular Churches. It thus strengthens the unity of the faith and the communion of the people of God and promotes the mission proper to the Church in the world".
Mauro Piacenza JCD is an Italian prelate of the Catholic Church. A cardinal since 2010, he has served as Penitentiary Major of the Apostolic Penitentiary since his appointment by Pope Francis on 21 September 2013. He was Prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy from 7 October 2010 to 21 September 2013. where he had been Secretary since 2007. At that Congregation, Pope Benedict XVI, according to one report, valued "his efficiency and in-depth knowledge of how the Congregation worked and its problems" and "his traditionalist ecclesiastical line of thought".
Fernando Filoni is a Cardinal prelate of the Roman Catholic Church who serves as Grand Master of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre. He was Prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples from 2011 to 2019. He is an expert in Chinese affairs and on the Middle East.
Angelo Amato, S.D.B. is an Italian cardinal of the Catholic Church who served as the Prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints between 2008 and 2018. He served as Secretary of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith from 2002 to 2008 and became a cardinal in 2010.
The history of the Roman Curia, the administrative apparatus responsible for managing the affairs of the Holy See and the Catholic Church, can be traced to the 11th century when informal methods of administration began to take on a more organized structure and eventual a bureaucratic form. The Curia has undergone a series of renewals and reforms, including a major overhaul following the loss of the Papal States, which fundamentally altered the range and nature of the Curia's responsibilities, removing many of an entirely secular nature.
Giuseppe Versaldi is the Cardinal Prefect of the Congregation for Catholic Education, since his appointment, by Pope Francis on 31 March 2015. Previously, Versaldi served as President of the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See since 21 September 2011. Versaldi had served before that as Bishop of Alessandria. Pope Benedict XVI elevated him to the rank of cardinal on 18 February 2012.
João Braz de Aviz is a prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. He has served as the prefect of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life since his appointment by Pope Benedict XVI in 2011. He began his career working for twenty years as a parish priest and seminary teacher. He became a bishop in 1994 and was bishop of Ponta Grossa from 1998 to 2002, archbishop of Maringá from 2002 to 2004, and archbishop of Brasília from 2004 to 2011.
Beniamino Stella is an Italian prelate of the Catholic Church who has been Prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy since 2013 and a cardinal since 2014. He began working in the diplomatic service of the Holy See in 1970, was made an archbishop in 1987, and served as a nuncio in several countries between 1987 to 2007. He led the Vatican's training program for its diplomats, the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, from 2007 to 2013.
The Secretariat for the Economy is a dicastery of the Roman Curia with authority over all economic activities of the Holy See and the Vatican City State.
Egidio Miragoli is an Italian prelate of the Catholic Church who has been bishop of Mondovì since September 2017.
Children of the Ordained is a term the Vatican uses to describe the offspring of ordained Catholic priests who have taken a vow of clerical celibacy. The children are a "result of affairs involving laywomen or nuns - other abuse or rape." Not many of these children are known, but the most famous is probably Vincent Doyle, who has started a support group, Coping International.
Lazarus You Heung-sik is a South Korean prelate of the Catholic Church who has served as the bishop of the Diocese of Daejeon since 2005 after two years as coadjutor bishop. He has been named as the Prefect-designate of the Congregation for the Clergy on 11 June 2021. He is the first Korean named to head a department of the Roman Curia.