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General Donato Guerra (1832-1876) was the leader of the Mexican Army during the time of La Reforma. Born in Jalisco, he participated in the Reform War and in the French intervention. He joined the Plan de la Noria and Tuxtepec.
The Mexican Army is the combined land and air branch and is the largest of the Mexican Armed Forces; it is also known as the National Defense Army.
La Reforma or the Liberal Reform was initiated in Mexico following the ousting of centralist president Antonio López de Santa Anna by a group of liberals under the 1854 Plan de Ayutla. From the liberals' narrow objective to remove a dictator and take power, they expanded their aims to a comprehensive program to remake Mexico governed by liberal principles as embodied by a series of Reform laws and then the Constitution of 1857. The major goals of this movement were to undermine the power of the Catholic Church in Mexico, separate church and state, reduce the power of the Mexican military, and integrate Mexico's large indigenous population as citizens of Mexico and not a protected class. Liberals envisioned secular education as a means to create a Mexican citizenry. The liberals' strategy was to sharply limit the traditional institutional privileges (fueros) of the Catholic Church and the army. The law prohibiting the ownership of land by corporations targeted the holdings of the Catholic Church and indigenous communities - confiscating Church land. Indigenous community lands were held by the community as a whole, not as individual parcels. Liberals sought to create a class of yeoman farmers that held land individually. No class of individualistic peasants developed with the Liberal program emerged, but many merchants acquired land. Many existing landowners expanded their holdings at the expense of peasants, and some upwardly mobile ranch owners, often mestizos, acquired land previously held by communities. Upon the promulgation of the liberal Constitution of 1857, conservatives refused to swear allegiance to it and, instead, formed a conservative government. The result was a civil war known as the Reform War or Three Years' War, waged between conservatives and liberals for three years, ending with the defeat of the conservatives on the battlefield. Victorious liberal president Benito Juárez could not implement the envisioned reforms due to a new political threat. Conservatives had sought another route to regaining power, resulting in their active collaboration with Napoleon III's plans to turn the Mexican Empire into the main American ally of the French empire. Mexican conservatives offered the crown of Mexico to Hapsburg archduke Maximilian. The French invasion and republican resistance to the French Intervention in Mexico lasted from 1862-67. With the defeat of the conservatives and the execution of Maximilian, Juárez again took up his duties as president. In this period from 1867 to 1876, often called the "Restored Republic" liberals had no credible opposition to their implementation of the laws of the Reform embodied in the 1857 Constitution.
Jalisco, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Jalisco, is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is located in Western Mexico and is bordered by six states which are Nayarit, Zacatecas, Aguascalientes, Guanajuato, Michoacán and Colima. Jalisco is divided into 125 municipalities, and its capital city is Guadalajara. Jalisco is one of the most important states in Mexico because of its natural resources as well as its history. Many of the characteristic traits of Mexican culture, particularly outside Mexico City, are originally from Jalisco, such as mariachi, ranchera music, birria, tequila, jaripeo, etc., hence the state's motto: "Jalisco es México." Economically, it is ranked third in the country, with industries centered in the Guadalajara metropolitan area, the second largest metropolitan area in Mexico. The state is home to two significant indigenous populations, the Huichols and the Nahuas. There is also a significant foreign population, mostly retirees from the United States and Canada, living in the Lake Chapala and Puerto Vallarta areas.
Guerra was an ally of Ángel Trías, during his anti-government campaign of June 1875, but was captured on 18 September of the same year, and incarcerated in Ávalos, a suburb of Chihuahua City. He was assassinated in Ávalos by lerdistas in 1876, and interred in the Panteón de Dolores on 27 May 1896.
Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada Corral was a jurist and Liberal president of Mexico, succeeding Benito Juárez who died of a heart attack in July 1872. Lerdo was elected to his own presidential term later in 1872 rather than remaining successor due to his previous office of Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Juárez's political rival liberal General Porfirio Díaz had attempted a coup against Juárez, but his Plan de la Noria failed and Díaz was eliminated as a political foe during Lerdo's 1872-76 term, giving Lerdo considerable leeway to pursue his program without political interference. Lerdo was more successful than Juárez in his final years as president in pacifying the country and strengthening the Mexican state. He ran for another term in 1876 and was elected, but was overthrown by Porfirio Díaz and his supporters under the Plan of Tuxtepec, which asserted the principle of no-reelection to the presidency. Lerdo died in exile in New York in 1889, but Díaz invited the return of his body to Mexico for burial with full honors. Not counting Miguel Miramón, an unrecognized president during the Reform War, he is the first president of the recognized presidents that was not born during Spanish colonial rule.
The Panteón Civil de Dolores is the largest cemetery in Mexico and contains the "Rotonda de las Personas Ilustres". It is located on Constituyentes Avenue in the Miguel Hidalgo borough of Mexico City, between sections two and three of Chapultepec Park.
The town of Donato Guerra in the State of Mexico is named for him.
Villa Donato Guerra is the municipal seat of the municipality called Donato Guerra in the State of Mexico, Mexico. The area is also known as Malacatepec and La Asunción Malacatepec. (Villa) Donato Guerra is located in the western part of the State of Mexico. In the region that is identified with Valle de Bravo. The town was named in 1880 in honor of Donato Guerra, a distinguished soldier of the War of La Reforma. It is located around 77 kilometers from Toluca which is the capital of the state, on Federal Highway number 35 Mexico City - Zitácuaro.
The State of Mexico is one of the 32 federal entities of Mexico. It is the most populous, as well as the most densely populated state. It is divided into 125 municipalities and its capital city is Toluca de Lerdo.
The Papaloapan River is one of the main rivers of the Mexican state of Veracruz. Its name comes from the Nahuatl papaloapan meaning "river of the butterflies".
The Governor of Querétaro is the chief executive of the Mexican state of Querétaro. According to the Constitution of the Free and Sovereign State of Queretaro, the exercise of executive power of the Mexican state, is deposited in one individual, it called the Constitutional Governor is elected for a period of six years no re-eligible for any reason. The governmental period begins on October 1 of the year of the election and ends on September 30 after six years have elapsed. Queretaro state was created in 1824, one of the original states of the federation, thus throughout its historical life has passed by all systems of governance found in Mexico, both federal system as the central system, so the name of the organization has varied between been and department; changing along with it, the name of the head of the Executive branch of government.
José Antonio de la Guerra y Noriega was a soldier and early settler of California.
In Mexican history, a plan was a declaration of principles announced in conjunction with a rebellion, usually armed, against the central government of the country. Mexican plans were often more formal than the pronunciamientos that were their equivalent elsewhere in Spanish America and Spain. Some were as detailed as the United States Declaration of Independence, though some plans merely announced that the current government was null and void and that the signer of the plan was the new president.
The porfiriato or porfirismo was a period in the history of Mexico when central power was held by Porfirio Díaz, between November 28, 1876, and May 25, 1911.
José María Iglesias Inzáurraga was a Mexican lawyer, professor, journalist and liberal politician. He is known as author of the Iglesias law, an anticlerical law regulating ecclesiastical fees and aimed at preventing the impoverishment of the Mexican peasantry. From 31 October 1876 to 23 January 1877, he claimed the interim presidency of Mexico. However, he was never undisputed president.
Alfred Robinson (1806–1895) was an American businessman and author in 19th century Alta California of Mexico and California of the United States. Robinson wrote Life in California in 1846, an influential early description of the region, and Juaneño Native American people.
Juan Nepomuceno Méndez was a Mexican general, a Liberal politician and confidante of Porfirio Díaz, and interim president of the Republic for a few months during the Porfiriato. He served from 6 December 1876 until 17 February 1877.
San Juan Bautista Tuxtepec, or simply referred to as Tuxtepec, is the head of the municipality by the same name and is the second most populous city of the Mexican state of Oaxaca. It is part of the Tuxtepec District of the Papaloapan Region. As of the 2005 census, the city is home to a population of 94,209 and 144,555 in the municipality, though census data are often under reported for various reasons. The municipality resides in the region called La Cuenca, is located 36 feet above sea level, and occupies an area of approximately 580 square miles (1,500 km2). The city itself is surrounded by the Papaloapan River, and lies a few kilometers south of the Cerro de Oro Dam on its tributary the Santo Domingo River. The municipality is bordered by the state of Veracruz in the north, the municipalities of Loma Bonita to the east and San José Chiltepec to the south. It is almost 100 miles (160 km) to the port of Veracruz, 130 miles (210 km) to Oaxaca City, the state capital, and 310 miles (500 km) to Mexico City.
In Mexican history, the Plan of Tuxtepec was a plan drafted by Porfirio Díaz in 1876 and proclaimed on 10 January 1876 in the Villa de Ojitlán municipality of San Lucas Ojitlán, Tuxtepec district, Oaxaca. It was signed by a group of military officers led by Colonel Hermenegildo Sarmiento and drafted by porfiristas Vicente Riva Palacio, Irineo Paz, and Protasio Tagle on the instigation of Díaz. Díaz signed the previous version of the plan in December 1875, which did not include the three most important articles that appointed Diaz as president. It disavowed Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada as President, while acknowledging the Constitution and the Reform laws, and proclaimed Díaz as the leader of the movement. Díaz later became the president of Mexico.
The indigenous community of San Juan Soconusco, is located in the municipality of Donato Guerra, in the State of Mexico in the country of Mexico. The town's economic initiatives have gained it recognition from the State of Mexico in 2007. Among these the establishment of agro-industry and fish farming in the area.
The Battle of Tecoac was a battle that was fought at Tecoac in the Mexican state of Tlaxcala on November 16, 1876, between the forces of Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada, then President of Mexico, and those of Porfirio Díaz. The battle was a victory for Díaz, who subsequently assumed the presidency himself; Lerdo went into exile in New York City.
Protasio Tagle was a Mexican soldier and politician who lived in the 19th century. He participated in the Reform War as a member of the liberal sector, and later led a republican division during the second French intervention in Mexico. He joined general Porfirio Díaz during the Revolution of Tuxtepec and, after Díaz won and became the president of Mexico, Tagle was appointed as the Secretary of the Interior. In 1879 there were possibilities for him to be the presidential candidate, but he was defeated by Manuel González and finally retired from political activities.
San Luis Acatlán is one of the 81 municipalities of Guerrero, in south-western Mexico. The municipal seat lies at San Luis Acatlán. The municipality covers an area of 704.4 km².
Guerra may refer to:
The Plan de la Noria was a revolutionary call to arms with the intent of ousting Mexican President Benito Juárez. The plan was drafted by Porfirio Díaz immediately following his defeat by Juárez in the presidential election of 1871. Neither Juárez, Díaz, nor the third candidate Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada won the majority of votes. The vote went to the Mexican Congress which, being full of Juáristas, elected Juárez to his fourth term. Díaz proclaimed himself in revolt and drafted the Plan de la Noria in which he demanded electoral freedom and no re-election. He gained few supporters and was temporarily defeated in Oaxaca, where his brother Felix was killed Benito Juárez died of a heart attack in July 1872 and Chief Justice Sebastián Lerdo succeeded the presidency, as per the stipulation laid forth in the constitution of 1857. Lerdo ran for re-election in 1876 which gave Díaz another chance to revolt, and this time successfully under the Plan de Tuxtepec.
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