Dutch process chocolate

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Dutch process chocolate
Dutch process and natural cocoa.jpg
Dutch process cocoa (left) compared to natural cocoa (right)
Alternative namesDutched chocolate
Type Chocolate
Place of origin Netherlands
Created by Coenraad Johannes van Houten
Main ingredientsChocolate, alkalizing agent

Dutch process chocolate or Dutched chocolate [1] is chocolate that has been treated with an alkalizing agent to modify its color and give it a milder taste compared to "natural cocoa" extracted with the Broma process. [1] It forms the basis for much of modern chocolate, and is used in ice cream, hot cocoa, and baking.

Chocolate food produced from the seed of Theobroma cacao

Chocolate is a usually sweet, brown food preparation of roasted and ground cacao seeds. It is made in the form of a liquid, paste, or in a block, or used as a flavoring ingredient in other foods. The earliest evidence of use traces to the Olmecs (Mexico), with evidence of chocolate beverages dating to 1900 BC. The majority of Mesoamerican people made chocolate beverages, including the Maya and Aztecs. Indeed, the word "chocolate" is derived from the Classical Nahuatl word chocolātl.

In chemistry, an alkali is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element. An alkali also can be defined as a base that dissolves in water. A solution of a soluble base has a pH greater than 7.0. The adjective alkaline is commonly, and alkalescent less often, used in English as a synonym for basic, especially for bases soluble in water. This broad use of the term is likely to have come about because alkalis were the first bases known to obey the Arrhenius definition of a base, and they are still among the most common bases.

Broma process Method of extracting cocoa butter from roasted cocoa beans

In chocolate making, the Broma process, is a method of extracting cocoa butter from roasted cocoa beans. The Broma process consists of hanging bags of roasted cocoa beans in a very warm room, above the melting point of cocoa butter, and allowing the cocoa butter to drip off the beans, where it is collected. The Dutch process differs from the Broma process in that, after the cocoa butter has been drained off the beans as described above, the beans are then soaked in an alkaline solution to make them chemically neutral.

Contents

History

The Dutch process was developed in the early 19th century by Dutch chocolate maker Coenraad Johannes van Houten, whose father Casparus is responsible for the development of the method of removing fat from cacao beans by hydraulic press around 1828, forming the basis for cocoa powder. These developments greatly expanded the use of chocolate, which had been mostly used as a beverage in Europe until that time.[ citation needed ]

Netherlands Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Europe

The Netherlands is a country located mainly in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium, Germany and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian.

Coenraad Johannes van Houten Dutch businessman

Coenraad Johannes van Houten was a Dutch chemist and chocolate maker known for the treatment of cocoa mass with alkaline salts to remove the bitter taste and make cocoa solids more water-soluble; the resulting product is still called "Dutch process chocolate". He is also credited with introducing a method for pressing the fat from roasted cocoa beans, though this was in fact his father's invention.

Cocoa butter Pale-yellow, edible [[vegetable fat]] extracted from the [[cocoa bean]]

Cocoa butter, also called theobroma oil, is a pale-yellow, edible vegetable fat extracted from the cocoa bean. It is used to make chocolate, as well as some ointments, toiletries, and pharmaceuticals. Cocoa butter has a cocoa flavor and aroma. Its melting point is just below human body temperature.

Taste and cooking properties

Dutch processed cocoa has a neutral pH, and is not acidic like natural cocoa, so in recipes that use baking soda as the leavening agent—which relies on the acidity of the cocoa to activate it—buttermilk, yoghurt or sour milk should be substituted for the milk in the recipe, or a dash of cream of tartar can be used to provide some acidity in the batter. There is no need to add acidity when Dutch process cocoa is used in recipes that use baking powder instead of soda (UK: "bicarb") for leavening. [2]

pH measure of the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution

In chemistry, pH is a scale used to specify how acidic or basic a water-based solution is. Acidic solutions have a lower pH, basic solutions have a higher pH. At room temperature, pure water is neither acidic nor basic and has a pH of 7.

A leaven, often called a leavening agent, is any one of a number of substances used in doughs and batters that cause a foaming action that lightens and softens the mixture. An alternative or supplement to leavening agents is mechanical action by which air is incorporated. Leavening agents can be biological or synthetic chemical compounds. The gas produced is often carbon dioxide, or occasionally hydrogen.

Baking powder Dry chemical leavening agent

Baking powder is a dry chemical leavening agent, a mixture of a carbonate or bicarbonate and a weak acid. The base and acid are prevented from reacting prematurely by the inclusion of a buffer such as cornstarch. Baking powder is used to increase the volume and lighten the texture of baked goods. It works by releasing carbon dioxide gas into a batter or dough through an acid-base reaction, causing bubbles in the wet mixture to expand and thus leavening the mixture. The first single-acting baking powder was developed by food manufacturer Alfred Bird in England in 1843. The first double-acting baking powder was developed by Eben Norton Horsford in America in the 1860s.

The Dutch process: [1]

Acid type of chemical substance that reacts with a base

An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).

Reduction of antioxidants and flavonols

Compared to other processes, Dutch process chocolate contains lower amounts of flavonols (antioxidants). [3] The effect this has on nutritional value is disputed. Professor Dr. Irmgard Bitsch of the Institut für Ernährungswissenschaft, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen claims that the reduction of antioxidants due to the process is not significant and enough polyphenols and procyanids remain in the cocoa. [4] One study determined that 60% of natural cocoa's original antioxidants were destroyed by light dutching and 90% were destroyed by heavy dutching. [5] A new study found "...protection against synaptic deficits by Lavado cocoa extract, but not Dutched cocoa extract... since much of the polyphenol content is lost by the high alkalinity in the Dutching process." [6] However, natural cocoa has such high levels of antioxidants that even a 60% reduction leaves it high on the list of antioxidant-rich foods.[ citation needed ]

Flavonols A class of plant and fungus secondary metabolites.

Flavonols are a class of flavonoids that have the 3-hydroxyflavone backbone. Their diversity stems from the different positions of the phenolic -OH groups. They are distinct from flavanols such as catechin, another class of flavonoids.

University of Giessen German public university

University of Giessen, official name Justus Liebig University Giessen, is a large public research university in Giessen, Hesse, Germany. It is named after its most famous faculty member, Justus von Liebig, the founder of modern agricultural chemistry and inventor of artificial fertiliser. It covers the areas of arts/humanities, business, dentistry, economics, law, medicine, science, social sciences, and veterinary medicine. Its university hospital, which has two sites, Giessen and Marburg, is the only private university hospital in Germany.

Giessen Place in Hesse, Germany

Giessen, spelled Gießen in German (German pronunciation: [ˈɡiːsn̩]], is a town in the German federal state of Hesse, capital of both the district of Giessen and the administrative region of Giessen. The population is approximately 86,000, with roughly 24,000 university students.

See also

Related Research Articles

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References

  1. 1 2 3 "Art of Darkness II: Cocoa : Good Eats". Food Network. 2009-11-16. Archived from the original on 2008-09-17. Retrieved 2013-05-27.
  2. "Cocoa Powder". Joyofbaking.com. Retrieved 2013-05-27.
  3. "Chocolate Terms". Thenibble.com. Retrieved 2013-05-27.
  4. "Kakao und Schokolade: Die geheimen Gesundmacher". medizinauskunft.de. Retrieved 2016-10-01.
  5. "New study re-emphasizes natural cocoa powder has high antioxidant content". Eurekalert.org. 2008-10-08. Retrieved 2013-05-27.
  6. "Cocoa Extract May Counter Specific Mechanisms of Alzheimer's Disease". The Mount Sinai Hospital. Retrieved 2014-06-24.