Iranian Cultural Revolution

Last updated

The Cultural Revolution (1980–1983) (Persian : انقلاب فرهنگی: Enqelābe Farhangi) was a period following the Iranian Revolution, when the academia of Iran was purged of Western and non-Islamic influences (even traditionalist unpolitical Islamic doctrines) to bring it in line with the revolutionary and Political Islam. [1] [ clarification needed ] The official name used by the Islamic Republic is "Cultural Revolution".

Persian language Western Iranian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is a pluricentric language primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.

Iranian Revolution Revolution in Iran to overthrow the Shah replace him with Ayatollah Khomeini.

The Iranian Revolution, also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution, was a series of events that involved the overthrow of the last monarch of Iran, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, and the replacement of his government with an Islamic republic under the Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, a leader of one of the factions in the revolt. The movement against the United States-backed monarchy was supported by various leftist and Islamist organizations and student movements.

Political Islam neologism

Political Islam is a term that denotes any interpretation of Islam as a source of political identity and action. It can refer to a wide range of individuals and groups who advocate the transformation of state and society according to what they see as Islamic principles. It can also refer to use of Islam as a source of concepts and metaphors for articulating political positions. Political Islam represents one aspect of the Islamic revival that began in the 20th century, and not all forms of political activity by Muslims are discussed under the rubric of political Islam. Some academic authors use the term Islamism to describe the same phenomenon or use the two terms interchangeably.

Contents

Directed by the Cultural Revolutionary Headquarters and later by the Supreme Cultural Revolution Council, the revolution initially closed universities for three years (1980–1983) and after reopening banned many books and purged thousands of students and lecturers from the schools. [2] The cultural revolution sometimes involved violence in taking over the university campuses. Higher education in Iran had many leftist forces who were opposed to Ayatollah Khomeini's Islamic state in Iran. The resistance of Khomeiniist control at many universities was largely unsuccessful. How many students or faculty were killed is not known. [1] [3] [4]

Islamic state type of government in which the primary basis for government is sharia (Islamic law)

The term Islamic state has been used to describe various historical polities and theories of governance in the Islamic world. As translation of the Arabic term dawlah islāmiyyah it refers to a modern notion associated with political Islam (Islamism).

The government's process of censoring foreign influences has not been without conflict. In addition to interrupting the freedom, education and professional livelihood of many, and striking "a major blow to Iran's cultural and intellectual life and achievement", [5] it contributed to the emigration of many teachers and technocrats. The loss of job skills and capital has weakened Iran's economy.

Officials and founders

Some 700 University professors from Iran's academic institutions in a short time. [6] [7] [ citation needed ]

NameTitle
Ruhollah Khomeini Co-founder
Ali Khamenei Co-founder and head of the council
Mohammad Javad Bahonar Council members
Ahmad Ahmadi
Jalaleddin Farsi
Mehdi Golshani
Hassan Habibi
Ali Shariatmadari
Abdolkarim Soroush
Mostafa Moin Minister of Science
Hassan Arefi

Islamization of universities

The shutdown of the universities was preceded by attacks on foreign forces on university campuses. On April 18, 1980 after Friday prayers, Khomeini gave a speech harshly attacking the universities.

We are not afraid of economic sanctions or military intervention. What we are afraid of is Western universities and the training of our youth in the interests of West or East.

[ citation needed ]

His remarks are thought to have "served as a signal for an attack that evening on the Tehran Teachers Training College" by his supporters, the Hezbollahi. One student was reportedly lynched, and according to a British correspondent, the campus was left looking like `a combat zone.` The next day, hezbollahis ransacked left-wing student offices at Shiraz University. Some 300 students required hospital treatment. Attacks on student groups also took place at Mashad and Isfahan Universities." [8] Attacks continued April 21 and "the next day at the Universities at Ahwaz and Rasht. Over 20 people lost their lives in these university confrontations. ... The universities closed soon after the April confrontation for Islamization`. They were not to open for another two years." [8]

Isfahan City in Iran

Isfahan is a city in Iran. It is located 406 kilometres south of Tehran, and is the capital of Isfahan Province.

The main theme of the movement was to purify the universities and education system of foreign influences. In his original letter, Ayatollah Khomeini wrote: Set yourselves free from any " –ism" and " –ist" belonging to the East and the West. Be self-dependent and do not expect any help from the foreigners. [9]

Ruhollah Khomeini 20th-century Iranian religious leader and politician

Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini, known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian politician and marja. He was the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution that saw the overthrow of the last Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, and the end of 2,500 years of Persian monarchy. Following the revolution, Khomeini became the country's Supreme Leader, a position created in the constitution of the Islamic Republic as the highest-ranking political and religious authority of the nation, which he held until his death. He was succeeded by Ali Khamenei on 4 June 1989.

After shutting down the universities on 12 June 1980, [10] Khomeini issued a letter, stating:[ citation needed ]

The need for Cultural Revolution which is an Islamic issue and demand of the Muslim nation has been recognized for sometimes but so far no effective effort has been made to respond to this need and the Muslim nation and the devoted and faithful students in particular are concerned and are worried of the machinations of plotters, which every now and then become evident and the Muslim nation are worried that God forbidden the opportunity is missed and no positive action is taken and the culture remains the same as the time of the corrupt regime which the acultured officials put these important centers under the disposal of colonialists. Continuation of this disaster which is unfortunately the objective of some the foreign oriented groups would deal a heavy blow to Islamic Revolution and Islamic Republic and any indifference towards this vital issue would be great treason against Islam and the Islamic country.

[10]

The "Committee for Islamization of Universities" carried out the task by ensuring an "Islamic atmosphere" for every subject from engineering to the humanities. [10] [11] The headquarters deleted certain courses such as music as "fake knowledge," and committees "came to similar conclusions concerning all subjects in the humanities such as law, political sciences, economy, psychology, education and sociology". [2]

When the institutions reopened, purges continued for five more years with special focus on "Islam’s enemies". [12] Students were screened by committees and those found unfit were not allowed to continue their studies. [13] Students in the University instructor program, for example, "were required to be practicing Muslims, to declare their loyalty to ... the doctrine of the vice regency of the faqih. Non-Muslims were required to refrain from behavior `offensive to Muslims,` and were excluded from all fields of study except accounting and foreign languages." [14]

Outside of the universities, the Cultural Revolution affected some non-academic cultural and scientific figures who it publicly denounced, and the broadcasts of Iranian radio and television, which were now limited to religious and official programs. [15]

Influence

The Cultural Revolution united the theological schools in Qom with state universities and brought secular teachers to Qom for a time. This had the unexpected result of exposing many students in Qom to Western thought, so that it is possible to find "clerics and teachers of theology who know something of contemporary Western thought and philosophy."

Another aspect was that many teachers, engineers, economists, doctors, and technocrats left Iran to escape the Cultural Revolution. [16] While the revolution achieved its goal of ridding the universities of Western influence, it also greatly weakened Iran in the fields of science and technology needed for development. [17]

Institutions

The Cultural Revolution Headquarters was established June 12, 1980 and charged by Ayatollah Khomeini with making sure that the cultural policy of the universities was based on Islam, that selected professors were "efficient, committed and vigilant," and dealing with other issues relevant to the Islamic academic revolution. [18]

It was continued by the Supreme Cultural Revolution Council [19] [ citation needed ] in the December of 1984. It was described as "the highest body for making policies and decisions in connection with cultural, educational and research activities within the framework of the general policies of the system and considered its approvals indispensable." The body is not stipulated in the Constitution but "was formed under the special circumstances that were prevailing in the early stages of the revolution. The council took its legitimacy from the 9 December 1984 decree of the founder of the Islamic Republic." [2]

This group of seven (in 1980-83) and then 17 (in 1984) that was later expanded to 36 in 1999 was expected to compile and organize all the cultural policies of the country. Hojjatol-Islam Mohammad Khatami was appointed as a member of the High Council for Cultural Revolution [20] in 1996 [21] [ citation needed ] and became its head in 1997. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad became the head of the Council in 2005, succeeding Khatami; Grand Ayatollah Ali Khamenei has oversight over the Council.

The Council had been active in repressing the student movement of 1983-1989, "banning many books and purging thousands of students and lecturers." The council controls the affairs of the universities and their students through supervising the selection of applicants to the university and by controlling the formation of collegiate institutions. [2]

Since 2001, the Council has frequently called for or demanded either outright state control or governmental filtering of the internet to prevent the dissemination of blasphemy, insults to Iran's Supreme Leader, opposition to the Constitution, the creation of "pessimism and hopelessness among the people regarding the legitimacy and effectiveness of the [Islamic] system", and similar offensive content. [2]

Current work

The Cultural Council continues ensuring that the education and culture of Iran remain "100% Islamic," per Khomeini's mandate. In 2006, there was rumors of universities internally "bracing" for "tighter state control over student bodies and faculties and perhaps even the second ‘Cultural Revolution.'" [22] This came after Ahmadinejad was elected as Iran's president in 2005 and became the head of the Council. It has resulted in the either dismissal or compulsory retirement for veteran university faculty members and their replacement with younger professors more loyal to the Islamic Republic. [23] [ citation needed ] Many students have been harassed and occasionally incarcerated for writing against or speaking against the government and its policies. [24] The repressive focus on the academy stems from the history of Iranian schools and universities serving as the hotbeds of political opposition, particularly during the beginning of Reza Shah's government. [25]

The Council and its subordinate institutions have been adopting more progressive policies in a departure from certain instances the past. In the year 1987, there was the creation of the Social and Cultural Council of Women. This agency aggressively defended women's rights and eliminated restrictions that were previously imposed by the High Council of the Cultural Revolution. [26]

Members

The Cultural Council has 41 members, [27] [ citation needed ] most of whom hold other government posts as well.

See also

References and notes

  1. 1 2 Shahrzad Mojab (Summer 2004), "State-University Power Struggle at Times of Revolution and War in Iran", International Higher Education, archived from the original on 2004-06-22
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 Supreme Cultural Revolution Council GlobalSecurity.org
  3. Shahrzad Mojab (Summer 2004), "State-University Power Struggle at Times of Revolution and War in Iran", International Higher Education, archived from the original on 2004-06-22, the gangs wounded hundreds of students and killed at least 24
  4. Dr. Younus Shaikh, Islam and the Woman, Part 3, "There were 5,195 political and religious executions only in 1983 alone!
  5. Keddie, Modern Iran, (2006), p.250
  6. [http:/\le=Hammihan Newspaper http:/\le=Hammihan Newspaper] Check |url= value (help).Missing or empty |title= (help)
  7. ":: FARHANGSHAHR". Archived from the original on 2007-07-09.
  8. 1 2 Bakhash, Shaul (1984). The Reign of the Ayatollahs. Basic Books. p. 122.
  9. http://www.irib.ir/occasions/Enghelab-farhangi/En.htm
  10. 1 2 3 "History of SCCR". Archived from the original on 2007-10-15.
  11. "Philosophy in Tehran | Dissent Magazine". Dissent Magazine. Retrieved 2017-06-08.
  12. Foundation anniversary of the Islamic Propagation Organization (I.O.P) by Khomeini's order Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting
  13. Kimia Sanati. "Students Brace for Second 'Cultural Revolution'". ipsnews.net. Archived from the original on 2007-02-25.
  14. source: advertisement in Ettelaat (2 August 1982), Bakhash, Shaul The Reign of the Ayatollahs, Basic Books, (1984) p.226
  15. Keddie, Modern Iran (2003), p,290
  16. M.ibrahimn, Youssef. "INSIDE IRAN'S CULTURAL REVOLUTION" . Retrieved 2018-07-20.
  17. Keddie, Modern Iran, (2003), p.290
  18. John Pike. "Supreme Cultural Revolution Council (SCRC)". globalsecurity.org.
  19. "Objectives of the Supreme Council of the Cultural Revolution". Archived from the original on 2007-12-19.
  20. Another name for the Supreme Cultural Revolution Council.
  21. "President of I.R.Iran,Mohammad Khatami". Archived from the original on 2003-07-16.
  22. "Students Brace for Second 'Cultural Revolution'". ipsnews.net. Archived from the original on 2007-02-25.
  23. Ahmadinejad seeks purge of liberal profs AP via Yahoo! News 5 September 2006 [ dead link ]
  24. "'Cultural Revolution' Redux". FRONTLINE - Tehran Bureau. Retrieved 2018-07-20.
  25. Razavi, Reza (2009). "The Cultural Revolution in Iran, with Close Regard to the Universities, and Its Impact on the Student Movement". Middle Eastern Studies. 45 (1): 1–17. doi:10.1080/00263200802547586. JSTOR   40262639.
  26. Povey, Tara (2016). Women, Power and Politics in 21st Century Iran. Oxon: Routledge. p. 41. ISBN   9781409402046.
  27. "Members of SCCR -". Archived from the original on 2007-04-22.

Further reading

Related Research Articles

Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani Iranian politician, Shia cleric and Writer

Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani was an influential Iranian politician, writer and one of the founding fathers of the Islamic Republic who was the fourth President of Iran from 3 August 1989 until 3 August 1997. He was the head of the Assembly of Experts from 2007 until 2011, when he decided not to nominate himself for the post. He was also the chairman of the Expediency Discernment Council.

Hussein-Ali Montazeri Iranian Islamic theologian, Islamic democracy activist, writer and human rights activist

Hussein-Ali Montazeri was an Iranian Shia Islamic theologian, Islamic democracy advocate, writer and human rights activist. He was one of the leaders of the Iranian Revolution in 1979. He was once the designated successor to the revolution's Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khomeini, with whom he had a falling-out in 1989 over government policies that Montazeri claimed infringed on people's freedom and denied them their rights. Montazeri spent his later years in Qom, and remained politically influential in Iran, especially to the reformist movement. He was widely known as the most knowledgeable senior Islamic scholar in Iran and a Grand Marja of Shia Islam.

Mohammad Fazel Lankarani 20th-century Iranian grand ayatollah

Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Fazel Lankarani was an Iranian Twelver Shia Marja'. He was student of Grand Ayatollah Borujerdi. He was a child of a Persian mother and an Azerbaijani father.

Abdollah Nouri Iranian politician

Abdollah Noori is an Iranian cleric and reformist politician. Despite his "long history of service to the Islamic Republic," he became the most senior Islamic politician to be sentenced to prison since the Iranian Revolution when he was sentenced to five years in prison for political and religious dissent in 1999. He has been called the "bête noire" of Islamic conservatives in Iran.

Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi Iranian politician and cleric

Sayyid Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi was an Iranian Twelver Shia cleric and conservative politician who was the Chairman of the Expediency Discernment Council from 14 August 2017 until his death on 24 December 2018. He was previously the Chief Justice of Iran from 1999 to 2009.

Mohammad Reyshahri Iranian cleric and politician

Mohammad Reyshahri, also known as Mohammad Mohammadi-Nik,, best known as Reyshahri, is an Iranian politician and cleric who was the first Minister of Intelligence, served from 1984 to 1989 in cabinet of Prime Minister Mir-Hossein Mousavi.

Office for Strengthening Unity

The Office for Strengthening Unity, is an Iranian student organization created in 1979, and has been described as "the country's most well-known student organization," and "Iran's leading prodemocracy student group". Founded in 1979 as a conservative Islamist organization to combat leftist, more secular, student groups, the OSU has evolved to support democracy and reform in Iran and thus is now in opposition to the political heirs of its founders.

Mohammad-Taqi Mesbah-Yazdi Member of Irans Assembly of Experts

Ayatollah Taqi Misbah, commonly known as Muḥammad–Taqi Misbah Yazdi is an Iranian Twelver Shi'i cleric and principlist political activist who unofficially leads Front of Islamic Revolution Stability.

Mohammad Kazem Shariatmadari Iranian Shia faqih

Sayyid Mohammad Kazem Shariatmadari, also spelled Shariat-Madari, was an Iranian Grand Ayatollah. He favoured the traditional Shiite practice of keeping clerics away from governmental positions and was a critic of Supreme Leader Ruhollah Khomeini, denouncing the taking hostage of diplomats at the US embassy in Tehran. In 1982 he was accused of being part of a plot to bomb Khomeini's home and to overthrow the Islamic state, and he remained under house arrest until his death in 1986. His followers also opposed Ruhollah Khomeini.

Mohammad Mofatteh Iranian politician

Mohammad Mofatteh was an Iranian philosopher, theologian, and political activist, born in Famenin, Hamadan, Iran. After he finished his primary education in Hamadan, he left for the Islamic Seminary in Qom, where he was taught by reputable teachers such as Ayatollah Muhammad Hujjat Kuh-Kamari, Ayatollah Sayyed Hossein Tabatabei Borujerdi, Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini, Ayatollah Mohammad-Reza Golpaygani, Ayatollah Marashi, and Allameh Tabatabie. He continued his studies at seminary and at the same time studied philosophy at Tehran University, where he earned his PhD and became a professor and a dean of colleague.

Islamic Principlism in Iran

The history of Islamic Principlism in Iran covers the history of Islamic revivalism and the rise of political Islam in modern Iran. Today, there are basically three types of Islam in Iran: traditionalism, modernism, and a variety of forms of revivalism usually brought together as fundamentalism. Neo-fundamentalists in Iran are a subgroup of fundamentalists who have also borrowed from Western countercurrents of populism, fascism, anarchism, Jacobism and Marxism.

History of the Islamic Republic of Iran aspect of history

One of the most dramatic changes in government in Iran's history was seen with the 1979 Iranian Revolution where Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was overthrown and replaced by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. The patriotic monarchy was replaced by an Islamic Republic based on the principle of rule by Islamic jurists,, where clerics serve as head of state and in many powerful governmental roles. A pro-Western, pro-American foreign policy was exchanged for one of "neither east nor west", said to rest on the three "pillars" of mandatory veil (hijab) for women, and opposition to the United States and Israel. A rapidly modernizing, capitalist economy was replaced by a populist and Islamic economy and culture.

Society of Seminary Teachers of Qom

The Society of Seminary Teachers of Qom was founded in 1961 by the leading Muslim clerics of Qom, established by the students of Ayatollah Khomeini after his exile to Iraq in order to organize political activities of Khomeini's followers and promote his revolutionary interpretation of Islam such as the idea of Islamic government. Since the 1979 revolution, it has largely become the body to keep the regime's registrar of who counts as a grand ayatollah, an Ayatollah and a Hojjat ul Islam. It has a head who is appointed by the Supreme Leader of the Islamic Republic. It currently heads the Supreme Council of Qom Hawzas, and proposes judges to the judiciary system. The body gained international prominence when it announced in 1981 that Ayatollah Shariatmadati was no longer a source of emulation (marja'). It has demoted a number of clerics over the last three decades. A recent case was that of Ayatollah Yousef Saanei who for his solidarity with the green movement was demoted from marja' to hojatoleslam. The Society also include Ayatollah Sistani on its list.

Timeline of the Iranian Revolution

This article is a timeline of events relevant to the Islamic Revolution in Iran. For earlier events refer to Pahlavi dynasty and for later ones refer to History of the Islamic Republic of Iran. This article doesn't include the reasons of the events and further information is available in Islamic revolution of Iran.

Organizations of the Iranian Revolution

Many organizations, parties and guerrilla groups were involved in the Iranian Revolution. Some were part of Ayatollah Khomeini's network and supported the theocratic Islamic Republic movement, while others did not and were suppressed. Some groups were created after the fall of the Pahlavi Dynasty and still survive; others helped overthrow the Shah but no longer exist.

The consolidation of the Iranian Revolution refers to a turbulent process of Islamic Republic stabilization, following the completion of the revolution. After the Shah of Iran and his regime were overthrown by revolutionaries in February 1979, Iran was in a "revolutionary crisis mode" from this time until 1982 or 1983. Its economy and the apparatus of government collapsed. Military and security forces were in disarray.

Grand Ayatollah Ahmad Azari-Qomi-Bigdeli (1925–1999) was an Iranian cleric.

Supreme Council of the Cultural Revolution

The Supreme Council of the Cultural Revolution is a conservative-dominated body based in Qom, was set up at the time of Ayatollah Khomeini. Its decisions can only be overruled by Iran's Supreme Leader. Most of its members were appointed by Ali Khamenei, Khomeini's successor.
The President of Iran is ex officio the chairman of the Council.

Alireza Arafi

Alireza Arafi Iranian Shia cleric, Chairman of Al-Mustafa International University, Qom Friday prayer leader and head of Iran's Seminary.