James Raine (1791–1858) was an English antiquarian and topographer. A Church of England clergyman from the 1810s, he held a variety of positions, including librarian to the dean and chapter of Durham and rector of Meldon in Northumberland.
A friend of Robert Surtees, whom he assisted in his work, he founded the Surtees Society in Robert's honour after the latter's death in 1834. Raine served as secretary for the society, and by the time of his death in 1858 he had edited seventeen volumes for it, in addition to numerous other published works.
James Raine was the son of James Raine, by his wife Anne, daughter of William Moore. He was born at Ovington in the parish of Wycliffe on 23 January 1791. He was educated at Kirby Hill School, and subsequently at Richmond Grammar School. From 1812 to 1827 he was second master of Durham School. Raine was ordained deacon on 25 September 1814, and priest on 20 September 1818. In 1816 he became librarian to the dean and chapter of Durham, and in 1822 he was presented by that body to the rectory of Meldon in Northumberland.
Protracted litigation concerning the tithe at Meldon harassed Raine for many years; but in 1846 the House of Lords decided the dispute in his favour. In 1825 he was instituted principal surrogate in the consistory court, and in 1828 to the living of St Mary in the South Bailey in the city of Durham. These several preferments he held until his death. The degree of M. A. was conferred upon him by the archbishop of Canterbury, at the request of Bishop Barrington, in November 1825. He was incorporated ad eundem gradum in the university of Durham, and the same body conferred upon him the degree of D. C. L. in 1857, in recognition of his literary eminence and of his long service as judge of the ecclesiastical court.
Raine formed in 1812 an acquaintance with Robert Surtees, lasting until the death of Surtees in 1834. He began by helping friends with topographical works. The county historians, John Hodgson, Cuthbert Sharp, and Surtees, all recorded their debts; Surtees stated that the History of Durham would never have been finished without Raine (Introduction to History of Durham, vol. i. p. x).
Raine subsequently became literary executor to his friend, with the duty of arranging and editing the fourth volume of the History of Durham. This volume appeared in 1840. In 1827 he had performed a similar service for his friend Hodgson, having edited vol. iii. of part 2 of the History of Northumberland during the absence of the author abroad. In 1828 Raine published his first independent work of importance—a monograph dealing with the position of the burial-place of St Cuthbert. It established his position as an antiquarian.
In 1830 the first part of his History of North Durham appeared; the second part, completing the volume, was not published until 1852. This important work, undertaken at the suggestion of Surtees, and begun shortly after the appearance of Surtees's first volume, is the complement of the latter's History of Durham. It embraces the history of certain outlying and detached districts, including Norhamshire and Holy Island, which, when the book was first undertaken, formed a part of the county of Durham, but some of which were subsequently annexed by statute to the county of Northumberland.
On the death of Surtees in 1834 the idea of founding a society to maintain his memory and name originated with Raine. The object of the society as originally devised was "to publish such unedited manuscripts as illustrate the intellectual, moral, religious, and social conditions of those parts of England which lie between the Humber and the Firth of Forth, and on the west from the Mersey to the Clyde, from the earliest period to the Restoration". The Surtees Society was constituted on 27 May 1834, at a meeting held at Durham, and Raine was appointed its first secretary. From this time he devoted great energy and industry to the interests of the society, editing for it seventeen volumes, and establishing it on a permanent basis. It proved the pioneer of many similar societies, which adopted its rules and methods.
Raine died at Crook Hall, near Durham, on 6 December 1858, and was buried in Durham Cathedral yard. Raine married, on 28 January 1828, Margaret, the eldest daughter of the Reverend Thomas Peacock and sister of George Peacock (1791–1858), dean of Ely, and had by her three daughters and one son, the Reverend James Raine, chancellor and canon-residentiary of York. One of the three daughters became the famous novelist Margaret Hunt. A portrait of Raine, engraved by W. Walker, after a picture by Clement Burlison, is prefixed to his History of North Durham.
Raine edited for the Surtees Society the following volumes:
Cuthbert of Lindisfarne was a Catholic Anglo-Saxon saint of the early Northumbrian church in the Celtic tradition. He was a monk, bishop and hermit, associated with the monasteries of Melrose and Lindisfarne in the Kingdom of Northumbria, today in north eastern England and South Eastern Scotland. Both during his life and after his death he became a popular medieval saint of Northern England, with a cult centred on his tomb at Durham Cathedral. Cuthbert is regarded as the patron saint of Northumbria. His feast days are 20 March and 4 September.
Symeonof Durham was an English chronicler and a monk of Durham Priory.
Richard of Hexham was an English chronicler. He became prior of Hexham about 1141, and died between 1155 and 1167.
Robert Surtees was a celebrated English historian and antiquary of his native County Durham.
The Durham Rite is a historical fusion of the Roman Rite and the Gallican Rite in the English bishopric of Durham.
Joseph Stevenson was an English Catholic priest, archivist and editor of historical texts.
The Surtees Society is a text publication society and registered charity based in Durham in northern England. The society was established on 27 May 1834 by James Raine, following the death of the renowned County Durham antiquarian Robert Surtees. Raine and other former friends of Surtees created the society to honour his memory and carry on his legacy, with the focus on publishing documents relating to the region between the River Humber and Firth of Forth in the east and the River Mersey and the River Clyde in the west, the region that had once constituted the kingdom of Northumbria. Membership of the Society is by annual subscription. Members receive the book published for the year of subscription.
Lawrence of Durham was a 12th-century English prelate, Latin poet and hagiographer. Born in southern England, at Waltham in Essex, Lawrence was given a religious education, and excelled at singing and poetry composition. In his youth Lawrence joined Durham Cathedral Priory and became a Benedictine monk. In the 1130s Lawrence became a courtier of Geoffrey Rufus, bishop of Durham.
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Sir Cuthbert Sharp (1781–1849) was an English soldier, official and antiquary.
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The palatine courts of Durham were a set of courts that exercised jurisdiction within the County Palatine of Durham. The bishop purchased the wapentake of Sadberge in 1189, and Sadberge's initially separate institutions were eventually merged with those of the County Palatine.
George Ornsby (1809–1886) was an English cleric and antiquarian
Brigadier-General Sir Herbert Conyers Surtees was a British military leader, politician and historical author.
William Nicholas Darnell (1776–1865) was an English cleric, academic and antiquarian.
James Raine (1830–1896) was a British antiquarian and ecclesiast. He was a Canon and Chancellor of York Minster.
Bertram Anderson was an English merchant, landowner and politician who represented Newcastle-upon-Tyne and served once as Sheriff, three times as Mayor and was elected five times as MP in the House of Commons between 1553 and 1563 and was also Governor of the Merchant Adventurers of Newcastle-upon-Tyne.