Joaquim Serra (born Joaquim Maria Serra Sobrinho) was a Brazilian journalist, professor, politician and playwright. He was born in São Luís, Maranhão on July 20, 1838, and died in Rio de Janeiro on October 29, 1888. He was the patron of Chair 21 at the Brazilian Academy of Letters, by choice of José do Patrocínio.
His father, Leonel Joaquim Serra, was active in politics and journalism, writing O Cometa (1835) and Crônica dos Cronistas (1838), in São Luís. Joaquim studied humanities in his native province. Between 1854 and 1858, he was in Rio de Janeiro for admission to the old Military School, a career he abandoned, returning to São Luís. Without further seeking a college degree, he embarked on a career in journalism and poetry.
His first writings (1858–60) were published in Publicador Maranhense , directed by Sotero dos Reis. In 1862, with some friends, he founded the newspaper Coalizão, which supported the Liberal Party in politics. In 1867, he founded Semanário Maranhense . He was professor of Grammar and Literature at the Liceu Maranhense, provincial deputy (1864–67), and secretary of the Government of Paraíba (1864–67). In 1868, he took up residence in Rio de Janeiro. He was part of the newsrooms of Reforma, Gazeta de Notícias, Folha Nova and O País, and he served as director of the Official Gazette (1878–82).
He was deputy general (1878–81) for Maranhão, and a tenacious combatant in the abolitionist campaign against slavery. He was among the most vocal of Brazilian abolitionists, according to André Rebouças. He also wrote for the theater, as an author and translator. His pieces, however, apparently never were printed. He adopted several pseudonyms: Amigo Ausente, Ignotus, Max Sedlitz, Pietro de Castellamare, Tragaldabas.
A few days after his burial, Machado de Assis praised him: “When the day of the abolitionist victory came, all of his brave battle companions gloriously mentioned the name of Joaquim Serra among the disciples of the first hour, among the most strenuous, strong and devoted.”
Maranhão is a state in Brazil. Located in the country's Northeast Region, it has a population of about 7 million and an area of 332,000 km2 (128,000 sq mi). Going clockwise from the north, it borders on the Atlantic Ocean and the states of Piauí, Tocantins and Pará. The people of Maranhão have a distinctive accent inside the common Northeastern Brazilian dialect. Maranhão is described in books such as The Land of the Palm Trees by Gonçalves Dias and Casa de Pensão by Aluísio Azevedo. The state has 3.4% of the Brazilian population and produces only 1.3% of the Brazilian GDP.
São Luís is the capital and largest city of the Brazilian state of Maranhão. The city is located on Upaon-açu Island or Ilha de São Luís, in the Baía de São Marcos, an extension of the Atlantic Ocean which forms the estuary of Pindaré, Mearim, Itapecuru and other rivers. Its coordinates are 2.53° south, 44.30° west. São Luís has the second largest maritime extension within Brazilian states. Its maritime extension is 640 km. The city proper has a population of some 1,108,975 people. The metropolitan area totals 1,605,305, ranked as the 15th largest in Brazil.
José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva was a Brazilian statesman, naturalist, mineralist, professor and poet, born in Santos, São Paulo, then part of the Portuguese Empire. He was one of the most important mentors of Brazilian independence, and his actions were decisive for the success of Emperor Pedro I. He supported public education, was an abolitionist and suggested that a new national capital be created in Brazil's underdeveloped interior. His career as naturalist was marked by the discovery of four new minerals.
Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, Duke of Caxias, nicknamed "the Peacemaker" and "Iron Duke", was an army officer, politician and monarchist of the Empire of Brazil. Like his father and uncles, Caxias pursued a military career. In 1823 he fought as a young officer in the Brazilian War for Independence against Portugal, then spent three years in Brazil's southernmost province, Cisplatina, as the government unsuccessfully resisted that province's secession in the Cisplatine War. Though his own father and uncles renounced Emperor Dom Pedro I during the protests of 1831, Caxias remained loyal. Pedro I abdicated in favor of his young son Dom Pedro II, whom Caxias instructed in swordsmanship and horsemanship and eventually befriended.
Henrique Maximiano Coelho Neto was a Brazilian writer and politician. He founded and occupied the second chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters, from 1897 until his death in 1934. He was also the president of the aforementioned Academy in 1926.
Republicans, formerly known as Brazilian Republican Party is a Brazilian political party. Its electoral number is 10 and it became a registered political party on August 25, 2005. Its founders included Bishop Marcelo Crivella, who had been elected in 2002 as a senator representing the Liberal Party, from the state of Rio de Janeiro.
The Balaiada was a social revolt between 1838 and 1841 in the interior of the Province of Maranhão, Brazil.
Afro-Brazilian literature has existed in Brazil since the mid-19th century with the publication of Maria Firmina dos Reis's novel Ursula in 1859. Other writers from the late 19th century and early 20th century include Machado de Assis, Cruz e Sousa and Lima Barreto. Yet, Afro-Brazilian literature as a genre that recognized the ethnic and cultural origins of the writer did not gain national prominence in Brazil until the 1970s with the revival of Black Consciousness politics known as the Movimento Negro.
Teófilo Odorico Dias de Mesquita was a Brazilian poet, journalist and lawyer, nephew of the famous Romantic author Gonçalves Dias.
João Carlos de Medeiros Pardal Mallet was a Brazilian journalist and novelist. He is the patron of the 30th chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters.
Luís Gonzaga Pinto da Gama was a Brazilian Romantic poet, journalist, lawyer, Republican and a prominent abolitionist.
Afonso Celso de Assis Figueiredo, the Viscount of Ouro Preto was a Brazilian politician, and the last Prime Minister of the Empire of Brazil.
Joaquim José Inácio, Viscount of Inhaúma, was a naval officer, politician and monarchist of the Empire of Brazil. He was born in the Kingdom of Portugal, and his family moved to Brazil two years later. After Brazilian independence in 1822, Inhaúma enlisted in the Brazilian navy. Early in his career during the latter half of the 1820s, he participated in the subduing of secessionist rebellions: first the Confederation of the Equator, and then the Cisplatine War, which precipitated a long international armed conflict with the United Provinces of the River Plate.
Maria Firmina dos Reis was a Brazilian abolitionist and author. Her novel Úrsula (1859) was a depiction of life for Afro-Brazilians under slavery.
Events in the year 1928 in Brazil.
The history of the book in Brazil focuses on the development of the access to publishing resources and acquisition of the book in the country, covering a period extending from the beginning of the editorial activity during colonization to today's publishing market, including the history of publishing and bookstores that allowed the modern accessibility to the book.
Afonso Celso de Assis Figueiredo Júnior, titled Count of Afonso Celso by the Holy See, better known as Afonso Celso, was a teacher, poet, historian and Brazilian politician. He is one of the founders of the Brazilian Academy of Letters, where he occupied the chair number 36.
Manuel Viriato Correia Baima do Lago Filho, or just Viriato Correia was a Brazilian journalist, writer, playwright and politician.
Josué de Sousa Montello was a Brazilian writer and diplomat and a former president of the Brazilian Academy of Letters. He was born in São Luís do Maranhão on August 21, 1917. He was the son of Antônio Bernardo Montello and Mância de Sousa Montello. He began his studies in São Luís do Maranhão, publishing his first literary works in A Mocidade, a journal at his school, the Liceu Maranhense.