Joseph Kay QC (27 February 1821 – 9 October 1878) was an English economist and judge on the Northern Circuit.
A Queen's Counsel, or King's Counsel during the reign of a king, is an eminent lawyer who is appointed by the monarch to be one of "Her Majesty's Counsel learned in the law." The term is recognised as an honorific. The position exists in some Commonwealth jurisdictions around the world, but other Commonwealth countries have either abolished the position, or re-named it to eliminate monarchical connotations, such as "Senior Counsel" or "Senior Advocate". Queen's Counsel is an office, conferred by the Crown, that is recognised by courts. Members have the privilege of sitting within the bar of court.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to the west and Scotland to the north-northwest. The Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.
An economist is a practitioner in the social science discipline of economics.
Kay was born at Salford, Lancashire, the brother of Sir James Kay-Shuttleworth, 1st Baronet and Sir Edward Kay. Educated privately and at Trinity College, Cambridge, he was called to the bar at the Inner Temple in 1848.He was appointed judge of the Salford Hundred court of record in 1862 and in 1869 was made a Queen's Counsel. He is best known for a series of works on the social condition of the poor in France, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Germany, and Austria, the materials for which he gathered on a four years tour as travelling bachelor of his university. They were The Education of the Poor in England and Europe (London, 1846); The Social Condition of the People in England and Europe (London, 1850, 2 vols.); The Condition and Education of Poor Children in English and in German Towns (Manchester, 1853). He was also the author of The Law relating to Shipmasters and Seamen (London, 1875) and Free Trade in Land (1879, with a memoir).
Lancashire is a ceremonial county in North West England. The administrative centre is Preston. The county has a population of 1,449,300 and an area of 1,189 square miles (3,080 km2). People from Lancashire are known as Lancastrians.
Sir Edward Ebenezer Kay was a British jurist. He was an English High Court judge from 1881 to 1890, and a Lord Justice of Appeal from 1890, when he was made a Privy Councillor, until his retirement in January 1897.
Trinity College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in England. With around 600 undergraduates, 300 graduates, and over 180 fellows, it is the largest college in either of the Oxbridge universities by number of undergraduates. In terms of total student numbers, it is second only to Homerton College, Cambridge.
In 1863 Joseph married Mary Drummond, daughter of Maria Drummond and Thomas Drummond, his marriage lasting fifteen years until his eventual death at Fredley, near Dorking, Surrey in 1878.
Maria Kinnaird (1810–1891), born on St. Vincent, was orphaned by a volcanic eruption and was later adopted by the politician Richard Sharp, known as "Conversation Sharp". Sharp was once considered possibly to be the most popular man in London of his time. Through her adoptive father, she inherited not only a considerable fortune but a wide network of influential friends and contacts, particularly among Whig circles. She became a prominent socialite and leading hostess in London during the mid-Victorian period and was described as being an accomplished, attractive, and intelligent woman. In 1835, she married Thomas Drummond, who developed the use of Drummond Light in surveying. She would be her husband's mainstay during his final years as Under-Secretary for Ireland (1835–1840).
Captain Thomas Drummond, from Edinburgh, Scotland, was an army officer, civil engineer and senior public official. Drummond used the Drummond light which was employed in the trigonometrical survey of Great Britain and Ireland. He is sometimes mistakenly given credit for the invention of limelight, at the expense of Sir Goldsworthy Gurney. However, it was Drummond who realised their value in surveying.
Dorking is a market town in Surrey, England between Ranmore Common in the North Downs range of hills and Leith Hill in the Greensand Ridge, centred 21 miles (34 km) from London.
James Scarlett, 1st Baron Abinger, PC was an English lawyer, politician and judge.
Arnold Toynbee was a British economic historian also noted for his social commitment and desire to improve the living conditions of the working classes.
Sir James Phillips Kay-Shuttleworth, 1st Baronet of Gawthorpe Hall, Lancashire, was a British politician and educationist.
Thomas Denman, 1st Baron Denman, was a British lawyer, judge and politician. He served as Lord Chief Justice between 1832 and 1850.
Thomas O'Hagan, 1st Baron O'Hagan, KP, PC (Ire), QC, was an Irish lawyer and judge. He served as Lord Chancellor of Ireland from 1868 to 1874 and again from 1880 to 1881.
Charles Arthur Russell, Baron Russell of Killowen, was an Irish statesman of the 19th century, and Lord Chief Justice of England. He was the first Roman Catholic to serve as Lord Chief Justice since the Reformation.
Sir Edward Shepherd Creasy was an English historian and jurist.
Sir John Eldon Gorst was a British lawyer and politician. He served as Solicitor General for England and Wales from 1885 to 1886 and as Vice-President of the Committee on Education between 1895 and 1902.
Sir Henry Drummond Charles Wolff, known as Henry Drummond Wolff or H. Drummond Wolff, was an English diplomat and Conservative Party politician, who started as a clerk in the Foreign Office.
Richard Everard Webster, 1st Viscount Alverstone, was a British barrister, politician and judge who served in many high political and judicial offices.
Basil Champneys was an architect and author whose most notable buildings include Manchester's John Rylands Library, Somerville College Library (Oxford), Newnham College, Cambridge, Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford, Mansfield College, Oxford and Oriel College, Oxford's Rhodes Building.
Sir John Strachey was a British Indian civil servant.
Mary Carpenter was an English educational and social reformer. The daughter of a Unitarian minister, she founded a ragged school and reformatories, bringing previously unavailable educational opportunities to poor children and young offenders in Bristol.
Sir William Charles Windeyer was an Australian politician and judge.
James Pilkington (1520–1576), was born in Rivington, Lancashire, England. He became the first Protestant Bishop of Durham from 1561 until his death in 1576. He founded Rivington Grammar School and was an Elizabethan author and orator.
The Common Serjeant of London is an ancient British legal office, first recorded in 1291, and is the second most senior permanent judge of the Central Criminal Court after the Recorder of London, acting as deputy to that office, and sitting as a judge in the trial of criminal offences.
Sir (Robert) Arthur Arnold was a British Liberal politician and author.
Joseph Cotton Wigram was a British churchman, Archdeacon of Winchester and bishop of Rochester.
Sir Peter Ribblesdale Thornton QC is a former Senior Circuit Judge and former Chief Coroner of England and Wales.
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have expired, been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable.
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition (1910–11) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication. Some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, and many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic. Some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries.
John Archibald Russell
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