L'ange de Nisida

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L'ange de Nisida (The Angel of Nisida) is an opera semiseria in four acts by Italian composer Gaetano Donizetti, from a libretto by Alphonse Royer and Gustave Vaëz.

Opera semiseria is an Italian genre of opera, popular in the early and middle 19th century.

Gaetano Donizetti 19th-century Italian opera composer

Domenico Gaetano Maria Donizetti was an Italian composer. Along with Gioachino Rossini and Vincenzo Bellini, Donizetti was a leading composer of the bel canto opera style during the first half of the nineteenth century. Donizetti's close association with the bel canto style was undoubtedly an influence on other composers such as Giuseppe Verdi.

Libretto text used for an extended musical work

A libretto is the text used in, or intended for, an extended musical work such as an opera, operetta, masque, oratorio, cantata or musical. The term libretto is also sometimes used to refer to the text of major liturgical works, such as the Mass, requiem and sacred cantata, or the story line of a ballet.

Contents

Parts of the libretto are considered analogous with the libretto for Giovanni Pacini's Adelaide e Comingio, and the final scene is based on the François-Thomas-Marie de Baculard d'Arnaud play Les Amants malheureux, ou le comte de Comminges. Donizetti worked on the opera in late 1839—its final page is dated 27 December 1839. Because the subject matter involved the mistress of a Neapolitan king, and may thus have caused difficulties with the Italian censors, Donizetti decided that the opera should be presented in France. The theater company Donizetti contracted went bankrupt; the opera was reworked as La favorite in September 1840. L'ange finally received its premiere in its original form in 2018 in a concert performance at London's Royal Opera House.

Giovanni Pacini Italian composer

Giovanni Pacini was an Italian composer, best known for his operas. Pacini was born in Catania, Sicily, the son of the buffo Luigi Pacini, who was to appear in the premieres of many of Giovanni's operas. The family was of Tuscan origin, living in Catania when the composer was born.

François-Thomas-Marie de Baculard dArnaud French writer

François-Thomas-Marie de Baculard d'Arnaud was a French writer and dramatist. A practitioner of the roman noir. His series of novellas Les Épreuves du sentiment inspired Bellini's opera Adelson e Salvini.

Kingdom of Naples Former state in Italy

The Kingdom of Naples comprised that part of the Italian Peninsula south of the Papal States between 1282 and 1816. It was created as a result of the War of the Sicilian Vespers (1282–1302), when the island of Sicily revolted and was conquered by the Crown of Aragon, becoming a separate Kingdom of Sicily. Naples continued to be officially known as the Kingdom of Sicily, the name of the formerly unified kingdom. For much of its existence, the realm was contested between French and Spanish dynasties. In 1816, it was reunified with the island kingdom of Sicily once again to form the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.

Composition history

Sources

L'ange de Nisida incorporated many of the manuscript pages from Adelaide, an unfinished score that Italian composer Gaetano Donizetti was probably working on in 1834, from a libretto of unknown origin. This libretto contained elements from the 1790 Parisian play Les Amants malheureux, ou le comte de Comminges by François-Thomas-Marie de Baculard d'Arnaud. [1] In his book Donizetti and his Operas, musicologist William Ashbrook states that the Adelaide libretto has similarities to that of the Giovanni Pacini opera Adelaide e Comingio, whose libretto was written by Gaetano Rossi. Donizetti is believed to have taken the manuscript for Adelaide to Paris in 1838. Because the subject matter of L'ange involved the mistress of a Neapolitan king, and may thus have caused difficulties with the Italian censors, Donizetti decided that the opera should be presented in France. [2] Additionally, in September 1839, the French press had announced La Fiancée du Tyrol, a translation of Donizetti's 1833 opera Il furioso all'isola di San Domingo. [3] In October 1839, he wrote to a friend in Naples: "La Fiancée du Tyrol will be Il furioso amplified, L'ange de Nisida will be new." [4] Donizetti began work on L'ange shortly thereafter; [1] La Fiancée du Tyrol never materialized. [3]

William Ashbrook was an American musicologist, writer, journalist, and academic. He was perhaps best noted as a historian, researcher and popularizer of the works of Italian opera composer Gaetano Donizetti.

Gaetano Rossi was an Italian opera librettist for several of the well-known bel canto-era composers including Gioachino Rossini, Gaetano Donizetti, and Saverio Mercadante in Italy and Giacomo Meyerbeer in one of his early Italian successes. Other composers with whom he worked included Simon Mayr, a composer and Donizetti's teacher, as well as the prolific Giovanni Pacini.

Composition

Donizetti completed L'ange de Nisida on 27 December 1839, the date on the final page of the autograph score. [5] He had been working on Le duc d'Albe , but postponed work on the half-completed score in favor of L'ange and La fille du régiment . [6]

Autograph handwritten signature of a famous person

An autograph is a person's own signature or handwriting. The term is used particularly in connection with the collecting of autographs of celebrities; the hobby of collecting autographs is known as "philography".

<i>Le duc dAlbe</i> opera by Gaetano Donizetti

Le duc d'Albe or Il duca d'Alba is an opera in three acts originally composed by Gaetano Donizetti in 1839 to a French language libretto by Eugène Scribe and Charles Duveyrier. Its title, which translates as The Duke of Alba, refers to its protagonist Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba. The work was intended for performance at the Paris Opéra. However, William Ashbrook notes that "Rosine Stoltz, the director's mistress, disliked her intended role of Hélène and Donizetti put the work aside when it was half completed".

<i>La fille du régiment</i> Opéra-comique in two acts by Gaetano Donizetti

La fille du régiment is an opéra comique in two acts by Gaetano Donizetti, set to a French libretto by Jules-Henri Vernoy de Saint-Georges and Jean-François Bayard. It was first performed on 11 February 1840 by the Paris Opéra-Comique at the Salle de la Bourse.

Although Donizetti noted in correspondence to his close friend Tommaso Persico in Naples that L'ange was "an opera in three acts", [7] both the autograph score and Donizetti's contract with Anténor Joly, the owner of the theater company Donizetti contracted, make clear that L'ange had four acts. Regardless, Donizetti's letter has caused confusion among opera journalists and scholars. For example, The Musical Times journalist Winton Dean wrote of the Italian version of La favorite in 1979: "[I]t was expanded from an unperformed three-act French opera, L'ange de Nisida." [8] Ashbrook speculates that Donizetti may have considered the first two acts as one. [9]

The Musical Times is an academic journal of classical music edited and produced in the United Kingdom and currently the oldest such journal still being published in that country. It was originally published as The Musical Times and Singing Class Circular from 1844 until 1903. Its title was shortened to its present name from January 1904. The journal originally appeared monthly but is now a quarterly publication. It is also available online at JSTOR and RILM Abstracts of Music Literature Full Text.

Winton Basil Dean was an English musicologist of the 20th century, most famous for his research concerning the life and works—in particular the operas and oratorios—of George Frideric Handel, as detailed in his book Handel's Dramatic Oratorios and Masques (1959).

Contract and cancellation

On 5 January 1840, Donizetti signed a rehearsal and performance contract with his librettists and Anténor Joly, [7] who was operating a company named Théâtre de la Renaissance and giving performances at the Salle Ventadour in Paris. [10] Théâtre de la Renaissance chose L'ange over Richard Wagner's Das Liebesverbot . [11] Joly's company had premiered the French version of Donizetti's Lucia di Lammermoor the previous year, and L'ange was meant to be its successor. [12] The contract, which is on display at the Bibliothèque-Musée de l'Opéra National de Paris, stipulates that L'ange be performed uninterrupted twenty times unless three consecutive performances sold poorly, and that Joly could not premiere any other opera until the revenue from L'ange started to decline. The contract contains nothing about Donizetti's compensation; therefore, it is possible that another contract existed. [9] L'ange was set to begin rehearsal on 1 February 1840. Donizetti had two other operas in various stages of preparation at other theaters during this time: Les martyrs and La fille du régiment. [7]

Théâtre de la Renaissance theater in Paris

The name Théâtre de la Renaissance has been used successively for three distinct Parisian theatre companies. The first two companies, which were short-lived enterprises in the 19th century, used the Salle Ventadour, now an office building on the Rue Méhul in the 2nd arrondissement.

Salle Ventadour

The Salle Ventadour, a former Parisian theatre in the rue Neuve-Ventadour, now the rue Méhul, was built between 1826 and 1829 for the Opéra-Comique, to designs by Jacques-Marie Huvé, a prominent architect. The original theatre had a capacity of 1,106, but was subsequently taken over by the Théâtre-Italien and expanded to a capacity of 1,295 in 1841, thereafter becoming perhaps most noteworthy as the theatre in which the majority of the operas of the Italian composer Giuseppe Verdi were first performed in France. When the Théâtre-Italien company went out of business in 1878, the theatre was converted to offices.

Richard Wagner German composer

Wilhelm Richard Wagner was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is chiefly known for his operas. Unlike most opera composers, Wagner wrote both the libretto and the music for each of his stage works. Initially establishing his reputation as a composer of works in the romantic vein of Carl Maria von Weber and Giacomo Meyerbeer, Wagner revolutionised opera through his concept of the Gesamtkunstwerk, by which he sought to synthesise the poetic, visual, musical and dramatic arts, with music subsidiary to drama. He described this vision in a series of essays published between 1849 and 1852. Wagner realised these ideas most fully in the first half of the four-opera cycle Der Ring des Nibelungen.

Later in January, Joly terminated all opera productions of the Théâtre de la Renaissance company due to financial hardship, despite a reported 5,000-franc loan from Donizetti. Joly tried to keep the operation afloat by staging ballets, but it closed completely in May 1840. [7] He filed for bankruptcy and therefore avoided paying Donizetti the large fee owed for backing out of the production. [7] Writing for the Cambridge Opera Journal, Mark Everist referred to L'ange as one of "the most spectacular casualties of the collapse of music drama at the Théâtre de la Renaissance". [3]

Reworked as La favorite

Donizetti managed to retrieve the score of L'ange de Nisida from Joly's company [12] and reworked it as La favorite (now more commonly known by its Italian title, La favorita) in September 1840 for a December premiere in Italy. [13] To circumvent the Italian censors Donizetti agreed to plot modifications; La favorite is about a medieval King of Castile. [12]

A souvenir libretto from La favorita Lafavorita.jpg
A souvenir libretto from La favorita

The presence and influence of L'ange is evident in Donizetti's autograph score of La favorite, which features "large chunks" of L'ange "cut up and interleaved" in which new character names and text for La favorite overwrite the old. The final page of L'ange was used as the final page of La favorite; therefore, both operas bear the same finish date on the last page. [14] Donizetti's contract for La favorite demanded a 1 December 1840 premiere, leaving him little time for dramatic changes. [15] In his 1965 biography Donizetti, Ashbrook surmises that this tight deadline gave rise to the legend that Donizetti actually composed the last act of La favorite in a single night. [16] In fact, the libretto of L'ange and the autograph score of La favorite make clear that the final act of La favorite was completed long before Donizetti began the rest of it in September—Donizetti lifted it from L'ange with the exception of two solo passages. [17] He brought in librettist Eugène Scribe to oversee the new text, which also required the approval of starring mezzo-soprano Rosine Stoltz. The finished product was an amalgamation of the unfinished Adelaide, the never-performed L'ange de Nisida, and new material worked into the score by Donizetti and into the libretto by Scribe. [12] La favorite premiered on 2 December 1840. [17]

Ashbrook has compared the surviving autograph scores of L'ange de Nisida and La favorite to determine precisely how much material L'ange provided for the latter. While the events in L'ange are set in 1470 in Nisida and Naples, La favorite is set in Santiago de Compostela and Castile, both in Spain, prior to 1350. Donizetti made fundamental changes to the first half of La favorite and little remains of L'ange. [lower-alpha 1] The central conflict of the story involving the marriage and subsequent death is essentially the same from one opera to the other, and some of the character names are also similar or identical. [17]

A transcription of the L'ange libretto is kept at the Fondazione Donizetti library in Bergamo, [18] and was printed in a 2002 issue of the Italian-language journal for The Donizetti Society. [19]

2018 premiere

L'Ange de Nisida received its world premiere on 18 July 2018 in a concert performance at the Royal Opera House in London, in association with Opera Rara. The performance was conducted by Mark Elder with the title role sung by Joyce El-Khoury. [20] The score was reconstructed over a period of eight years by musicologist Candida Mantica from pages discovered in the Bibliothèque nationale de France which were scattered in 18 different folders as well as archive research in both Europe and the US. She eventually identified approximately 470 pages of the L'Ange de Nisida score written in Donizetti's hand. [21]

Roles

As the opera never got to the rehearsal stage, little is known about the intended cast. In a letter to his close friend Tommaso Persico, Donizetti expressed his desire to give the title role to Juliette Bourgeois, a temperamental soprano who requested a large sum of money to perform in France. (She was later to create the title role in Donizetti's La fille du régiment ) [2]

Role [17] Voice type [17] Corresponding role in La favorite [17]
Don Fernand d'Aragon, King of Naples baritone Alphonse XI of Castile
Don Gaspar, chamberlain of the King basso buffo Don Gaspar
Countess Sylvia de Linares soprano Léonor
Leone de Casaldi, a soldier tenor Fernand, a novice
The Monk bass Balthasar

Synopsis

A view of Nisida NisidaSeenFromPosillipo.jpg
A view of Nisida
Time: 1470
Place: Naples and Nisida

Leone de Casaldi is an exiled soldier who makes a forbidden journey to the island of Nisida, outside Naples, Italy, to see Sylvia, with whom he is infatuated. Leone knows she is a noble but little else. While on Nisida, Leone encounters Don Gaspar, Chamberlain to King Fernand of Naples. After hearing Leone's plight, Don Gaspar convinces him to travel to Naples to have his exile lifted. Leone and Sylvia meet in Naples, at which time Leone discovers that she is actually Sylvia de Linares, the King's mistress. She declares her love for Leone but implores him to abandon her and his plans in Naples. When he refuses, the King discovers him and orders Don Gaspar to arrest and imprison him.

The King expresses to Sylvia his desire that she wed him. However, agents of Rome have been plotting to banish the mistress from Naples. When the King, dismayed, offers to grant her any request, she asks that Leone be set free. A monk appears, brandishing the Papal bull and threatening to banish Sylvia if she remains a mistress to the King. The King plots with Don Gaspar to free Leone and wed him to Sylvia, although Leone would be sent away and Sylvia would remain the King's mistress. Leone and Sylvia marry, but when Leone discovers the plot, he breaks his sword in front of the King and leaves under the monk's escort.

Leone is preparing to take his vows as a monk when Sylvia appears, having followed him disguised as a novice. When she confronts Leone and asks for forgiveness, he realizes his feelings and attempts to flee with her. Sylvia, who has been near death, dies at Leone's feet despite his calls for help. [22]

Recordings

See La favorite for recordings based on much of the music from this opera.

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References

Notes

  1. Donizetti did take a line from the opening of L'ange, "Douce ange, une fée inconnue," ("Sweet angel, a fairy unknown") and place it in the first scene of La favorite with different music but almost identical text. Ashbrook 1982, p. 654.
  1. 1 2 Ashbrook 1982, p. 578.
  2. 1 2 Ashbrook 1982, p. 151.
  3. 1 2 3 Everist 2004, p. 158.
  4. Crutchfield 1984, p. 487.
  5. Ashbrook 1982, p. 144.
  6. Ashbrook 1982, p. 434.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 Ashbrook 1982, p. 145.
  8. Dean 1979, p. 41.
  9. 1 2 Ashbrook 1982, p. 650.
  10. Ashbrook 1982, p. 142.
  11. Fauser & Everist 2009, p. 233.
  12. 1 2 3 4 Marston 1998.
  13. Ashbrook 1982, p. 569.
  14. Ashbrook 1982, p. 654.
  15. Ashbrook 1982, p. 153.
  16. Dean 1965, p. 439.
  17. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Ashbrook 1982, p. 154.
  18. Fondazione Donizetti.
  19. Desniou & Lo Presti 2002, p. 2.
  20. Hall 2018.
  21. Alberge 2018.
  22. Ashbrook 1982, pp. 569–570.

Cited sources

Other sources