List of enslaved people

Last updated

This and three other statues of chained slaves, placed at the base of the Monument of the Four Moors at Livorno, Italy, might have been made with actual slaves as models, whose names and circumstances remain unknown Livorno Quattro mori monument 07.JPG
This and three other statues of chained slaves, placed at the base of the Monument of the Four Moors at Livorno, Italy, might have been made with actual slaves as models, whose names and circumstances remain unknown

Slavery is a social-economic system under which persons are enslaved: deprived of personal freedom and forced to perform labor or services without compensation. These people are referred to as slaves.

Contents

The following is a list of historical people who were enslaved at some point during their lives, in alphabetical order by first name. Several names have been added under the letter representing the person's last name.

Some people traveled in groups, such as the Pearl incident (1848), Dover Eight (1857), Escape of 28 enslaved people from Maryland (1857), and Ann Maria Jackson, who traveled with her seven children age two to sixteen in November 1858.

A

Portrait of Ayuba Suleiman Diallo by William Hoare (1733) William Hoare of Bath - Portrait of Ayuba Suleiman Diallo, (1701-1773).jpg
Portrait of Ayuba Suleiman Diallo by William Hoare (1733)
Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca Cabeza de Vaca Portrait.jpg
Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca
Aesop in a Hellenistic statue claimed to be him, Art Collection of Villa Albani, Rome Aesop pushkin01.jpg
Aesop in a Hellenistic statue claimed to be him, Art Collection of Villa Albani, Rome
Portrait of Andrey Voronikhin. Engraving by V. A. Bobrov from the beginning of the 19th century. Voronikhin.jpg
Portrait of Andrey Voronikhin. Engraving by V. A. Bobrov from the beginning of the 19th century.
Abram Petrovich Gannibal, bust in Petrovskoe, Russia Petrovskoe. Biust A.P. Gannibala.jpg
Abram Petrovich Gannibal, bust in Petrovskoe, Russia

B

Baibars rsm lZhr bybrs.png
Baibars
Saint Brigid of Kildare as depicted in Saint Non's chapel, St Davids, Wales Saint Non's Chapel - Fenster 3 St.Bride.jpg
Saint Brigid of Kildare as depicted in Saint Non's chapel, St Davids, Wales

C

Charlotte Aisse Aisse.jpg
Charlotte Aïssé
Cezayirli Gazi Hasan Pasha bust at Mersin Naval Museum Cezayirli Gazi Hasan Pasa bustu.JPG
Cezayirli Gazi Hasan Pasha bust at Mersin Naval Museum

D

Dred Scott, who lost a legal suit for his freedom in the United States Supreme Court in 1857 Dred Scott photograph (circa 1857).jpg
Dred Scott, who lost a legal suit for his freedom in the United States Supreme Court in 1857

E

Florence, Lady Baker c. 1875. A Romanian sold as a slave as an orphan, was bought by Samuel Baker, who married her. Baker, Lady Florence, Maull & Co., BNF Gallica.jpg
Florence, Lady Baker c. 1875. A Romanian sold as a slave as an orphan, was bought by Samuel Baker, who married her.

F

Frederick Douglass, the foremost African-American abolitionist of the 19th century Frederick Douglass (circa 1879).jpg
Frederick Douglass, the foremost African-American abolitionist of the 19th century
Self-portrait by Fyodor Slavyansky (1850s, Russian museum) Self-portrait by F.Slavyanskiy (1850s, Russian museum).JPG
Self-portrait by Fyodor Slavyansky (1850s, Russian museum)

G

Medical examination photo of Gordon showing his scourged back, widely distributed by abolitionists to expose the brutality of slavery Gordon, scourged back, NPG, 1863.jpg
Medical examination photo of Gordon showing his scourged back, widely distributed by abolitionists to expose the brutality of slavery
Portrait of Gulnus Sultan Portrait of Rabia Gulnus.jpg
Portrait of Gülnuş Sultan

H

Hurrem Sultan, an Eastern European slave girl bought by the Ottoman Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent, who married her. Tizian 123.jpg
Hurrem Sultan, an Eastern European slave girl bought by the Ottoman Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent, who married her.

I

Ibrahim Pasha Pargali Ibrahim Pasa.jpg
İbrahim Pasha
Ivan Argunov. Self-portrait (late 1750s). Argunov-self.jpg
Ivan Argunov. Self-portrait (late 1750s).

J

Jean Parisot de Valette JPDV.jpg
Jean Parisot de Valette
St. Josephine Margaret Bakhita, F.D.C.C. Bakhita Szent Jozefina.jpeg
St. Josephine Margaret Bakhita, F.D.C.C.

K

Kosem Sultan (1589-1651), slave concubine like all other inmates of the Imperial Harem Kosem Sultana (cropped) (cropped).jpg
Kösem Sultan (1589–1651), slave concubine like all other inmates of the Imperial Harem

L

Laurens de Graaf Graff Lorens.jpg
Laurens de Graaf

M

Mikhail Shchepkin Mikhail Shchepkin.jpg
Mikhail Shchepkin

N

O

Omar ibn Said, a Senegalese Islamic scholar enslaved in North Carolina for more than 50 years, circa 1850 Uncle Marian - crop & levels.jpg
Omar ibn Said, a Senegalese Islamic scholar enslaved in North Carolina for more than 50 years, circa 1850

P

Portrait of Juan de Pareja by Diego Velazquez (c. 1650) Retrato de Juan Pareja, by Diego Velazquez.jpg
Portrait of Juan de Pareja by Diego Velázquez (c. 1650)
Praskovia Kovalyova-Zhemchugova in a scenic costume for Les mariages samnites by Andre Ernest Modeste Gretry ZhemchugovaSamnites2.jpg
Praskovia Kovalyova-Zhemchugova in a scenic costume for Les mariages samnites by André Ernest Modeste Grétry

Q

R

Portrait of Roustam Raza, the mamluck of Napoleon by Horace Vernet (1810) Roustam - Vernet.jpg
Portrait of Roustam Raza, the mamluck of Napoleon by Horace Vernet (1810)

S

Solomon Northup from Twelve Years a Slave Solomon Northup 001.jpg
Solomon Northup from Twelve Years a Slave
Silas Chandler (right) and his master, Sergeant A.M. Chandler of the 44th Mississippi Infantry Regiment Sergeant A.M. Chandler of the 44th Mississippi Infantry Regiment, Co. F., and Silas Chandler, family slave, with Bowie knives, revolvers, pepper-box, shotgun, and canteen.jpg
Silas Chandler (right) and his master, Sergeant A.M. Chandler of the 44th Mississippi Infantry Regiment
The Death of Spartacus by Hermann Vogel (1882) Tod des Spartacus by Hermann Vogel.jpg
The Death of Spartacus by Hermann Vogel (1882)

T

Taras Shevchenko Taras Shevchenko selfportrait oil 1840-2.jpg
Taras Shevchenko
Tatyana Shlykova T.V.Shlykova-Granatova by N.Argunov (1789, Kuskovo).jpg
Tatyana Shlykova
Alleged portrait of Terence, from Codex Vaticanus Latinus 3868. Possibly copied from 3rd-century original. Portrait of Terence from Vaticana, Vat. lat.jpg
Alleged portrait of Terence, from Codex Vaticanus Latinus 3868. Possibly copied from 3rd-century original.

U

V

Vasily Tropinin Tropinin-self.jpg
Vasily Tropinin
Vincent de Paul Vincent de Paul.PNG
Vincent de Paul

W

Photograph of Wes Brady, ex-slave, taken in Marshall, Texas, in 1937 as part of the Federal Writers' Project Slave Narrative Collection Wes Brady, ex-slave, Marshall edited.jpg
Photograph of Wes Brady, ex-slave, taken in Marshall, Texas, in 1937 as part of the Federal Writers' Project Slave Narrative Collection

X

Y

Z

Zofia Potocka Zofia Clavone.jpg
Zofia Potocka

See also

Related Research Articles

The slave narrative is a type of literary genre involving the (written) autobiographical accounts of enslaved Africans, particularly in the Americas. Over six thousand such narratives are estimated to exist; about 150 narratives were published as separate books or pamphlets. In the United States during the Great Depression (1930s), more than 2,300 additional oral histories on life during slavery were collected by writers sponsored and published by the Works Progress Administration, a New Deal program. Most of the 26 audio-recorded interviews are held by the Library of Congress.

Underground Railroad Network for fugitive slaves in 19th-century U.S.

The Underground Railroad was a network of secret routes and safe houses established in the United States during the early to mid-19th century. It was used by enslaved African Americans primarily to escape into free states and Canada. The network was assisted by abolitionists and others sympathetic to the cause of the escapees. The enslaved who risked escape and those who aided them are also collectively referred to as the "Underground Railroad". Various other routes led to Mexico, where slavery had been abolished, and to islands in the Caribbean that were not part of the slave trade. An earlier escape route running south toward Florida, then a Spanish possession, existed from the late 17th century until approximately 1790. However, the network now generally known as the Underground Railroad was formed in the late 18th century. It ran north and grew steadily until the Emancipation Proclamation was signed by President Abraham Lincoln. One estimate suggests that, by 1850, 100,000 enslaved people had escaped via the network.

Manumission Act of a slave owner freeing their slaves

Manumission, or enfranchisement, is the act of freeing slaves by their owners. Different approaches to manumission were developed, each specific to the time and place of a particular society. Jamaican historian Verene Shepherd states that the most widely used term is gratuitous manumission, "the conferment of freedom on the enslaved by enslavers before the end of the slave system".

Slavery in the colonial history of the United States Slavery in the European colonies that became the United States

Slavery in the colonial history of the United States, from 1526 to 1776, developed from complex factors, and researchers have proposed several theories to explain the development of the institution of slavery and of the slave trade. Slavery strongly correlated with the European colonies' demand for labor, especially for the labor-intensive plantation economies of the sugar colonies in the Caribbean and South America, operated by Great Britain, France, Spain, Portugal and the Dutch Republic.

Slavery in the United States

Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel slavery, comprising the enslavement primarily of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America from its founding in 1776 until the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment in 1865. Slavery was established throughout European colonization in the Americas. From early colonial days, it was practiced in Britain's colonies, including the Thirteen Colonies which formed the United States. Under the law, an enslaved person was treated as property and could be bought, sold, or given away. Slavery lasted in about half of U.S. states until 1865. As an economic system, slavery was largely replaced by sharecropping and convict leasing.

Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 Act of the United States Congress

The Fugitive Slave Act or Fugitive Slave Law was passed by the United States Congress on September 18, 1850, as part of the Compromise of 1850 between Southern interests in slavery and Northern Free-Soilers.

Fugitive slaves in the United States

In the United States, fugitive slaves or runaway slaves were terms used in the 18th and 19th century to describe enslaved people who fled slavery. The term also refers to the federal Fugitive Slave Acts of 1793 and 1850. Such people are also called freedom seekers to avoid implying that the enslaved person had committed a crime and that the slaveholder was the injured party.

<i>Clotel</i> Novel by William Wells Brown

Clotel; or, The President's Daughter: A Narrative of Slave Life in the United States is an 1853 novel by United States author and playwright William Wells Brown about Clotel and her sister, fictional slave daughters of Thomas Jefferson. Brown, who escaped from slavery in 1834 at the age of 20, published the book in London. He was staying after a lecture tour to evade possible recapture due to the 1850 Fugitive Slave Act. Set in the early nineteenth century, it is considered the first novel published by an African American and is set in the United States. Three additional versions were published through 1867.

Ellen and William Craft American fugitive slaves and abolitionists

Ellen Craft (1826–1891) and William Craft were American fugitives who were born and enslaved in Macon, Georgia. They escaped to the North in December 1848 by traveling by train and steamboat, arriving in Philadelphia on Christmas Day. Ellen crossed the boundaries of race, class, gender, and physical ability by passing as a white male planter with William posing as her personal servant. Their daring escape was widely publicized, making them among the most famous of fugitives from slavery. Abolitionists featured them in public lectures to gain support in the struggle to end the institution.

<i>Partus sequitur ventrem</i> Former legal doctrine of slavery by birth

Partus sequitur ventrem was a legal doctrine passed in colonial Virginia in 1662 and other English crown colonies in the Americas which defined the legal status of children born there; the doctrine mandated that all children would inherit the legal status of their mothers. As such, children of enslaved women would be born into slavery. The legal doctrine of partus sequitur ventrem was derived from Roman civil law, specifically the portions concerning slavery and personal property (chattels).

Oney Judge Fugitive slave, enslaved by Martha Washington

Ona "Oney" Judge Staines was a woman of mixed races who was enslaved to the Washington family, first at the family's plantation at Mount Vernon and later, after George Washington became president, at the President's House in Philadelphia, then the nation's capital city. In her early twenties, she absconded, becoming a fugitive slave, after learning that Martha Washington had intended to transfer ownership of her to her granddaughter, known to have a horrible temper, and fled to New Hampshire, where she married, had children, and converted to Christianity. Though she was never freed, the Washington family did not want to risk public backlash in forcing her to return to Virginia and after so many years of failing to persuade her to return quietly, the family let her be.

Solomon Bayley was an African American freed slave who is best known for his 1825 autobiography entitled A Narrative of Some Remarkable Incidents in the Life of Solomon Bayley, Formerly a Slave in the State of Delaware, North America. Published in London, it is among the early slave narratives written by slaves who gained freedom before the American Civil War and emancipation. Bayley was born into slavery in Delaware. After escaping and being recaptured, he later bought his freedom, and that of his wife and children. He worked as a farmer and at a sawmill. In their later years, he and his wife emigrated in 1827 to the new colony of Liberia, where he worked as a missionary and farmer. His short book about the colony was published in Delaware in 1833.

Female slavery in the United States Overview of female slavery in the United States of America

The institution of slavery in North America existed from the earliest years of the colonial history of the United States until 1865 when the Thirteenth Amendment permanently abolished slavery throughout the entire United States. It was also abolished among the sovereign Indian tribes in Indian Territory by new peace treaties which the US required after the war.

Slavery in the Ottoman Empire

Slavery in the Ottoman Empire was a legal and significant part of the Ottoman Empire's economy and traditional society. The main sources of slaves were wars and politically organized enslavement expeditions in North and East Africa, Eastern Europe, the Balkans, and the Caucasus. It has been reported that the selling price of slaves decreased after large military operations. In Constantinople, the administrative and political center of the Ottoman Empire, about a fifth of the 16th- and 17th-century population consisted of slaves. Customs statistics of these centuries suggest that Istanbul's additional slave imports from the Black Sea may have totaled around 2.5 million from 1453 to 1700.

African Americans in the Revolutionary War

In the American Revolution, gaining freedom was the strongest motive for Black enslaved people who joined the Patriot or British armies. It is estimated that 20,000 African Americans joined the British cause, which promised freedom to enslaved people, as Black Loyalists. Around 9,000 African Americans became Black Patriots.

History of slavery in Virginia Aspect of history

Slavery in Virginia began with the capture and enslavement of Native Americans during the early days of the English Colony of Virginia and through the late eighteenth century. They primarily worked in tobacco fields. Africans were first brought to colonial Virginia in 1619, when 20 Africans from present-day Angola arrived in Virginia aboard the ship The White Lion.

Freedom suit lawsuits in the Thirteen Colonies and the United States filed by enslaved people against slaveholders to assert their freedom

Freedom suits were lawsuits in the Thirteen Colonies and the United States filed by enslaved people against slaveholders to assert claims to freedom, often based on descent from a free maternal ancestor, or time held as a resident in a free state or territory.

Treatment of the enslaved in the United States

The treatment of enslaved people in the United States varied by time and place, but was generally brutal, especially on plantations. Whipping and rape were routine, but usually not in front of white outsiders, or even the plantation owner's family. An enslaved person could not be a witness against a white; enslaved people were sometimes required to whip other enslaved people, even family members. There were also businesses to which a slave owner could turn over the whipping. Families were often split up by the sale of one or more members, usually never to see or hear of each other again. There were some relatively enlightened slave owners—Nat Turner said his master was kind—but not on large plantations. Only a small minority of enslaved people received anything resembling decent treatment; one contemporary estimate was 10%, not without noting that the ones well treated desired freedom just as much as those poorly treated. Good treatment could vanish upon the death of an owner. As put by William T. Allan, a slaveowner's abolitionist son who could not safely return to Alabama, "cruelty was the rule, and kindness the exception".

Slavery was legally practiced in the Province of North Carolina and the state of North Carolina until January 1, 1863 when President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation. Prior to statehood, there were 41,000 enslaved African-Americans in the Province of North Carolina in 1767. By 1860, the number of slaves in the state of North Carolina was 331,059, about one third of the total population of the state. In 1860, there were nineteen counties in North Carolina where the number of slaves was larger than the free white population. During the antebellum period the state of North Carolina passed several laws to protect the rights of slave owners while disenfranchising the rights of slaves. There was a constant fear amongst white slave owners in North Carolina of slave revolts from the time of the American Revolution. Despite their circumstances, some North Carolina slaves and freed slaves distinguished themselves as artisans, soldiers during the Revolution, religious leaders, and writers.

History of slavery in Colorado

History of slavery in Colorado began centuries before Colorado achieved statehood when Spanish colonists of Santa Fe de Nuevo México (1598–1848) enslaved Native Americans, called Genízaros. Southern Colorado was part of the Spanish territory until 1848. Comanche and Utes raided villages of other indigenous people and enslaved them.

References

  1. 1 2 Christina Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country: The Changing Face of Captivity in Early America, p. 141, ISBN   978-0-674-04890-4
  2. Christine Fell, Women in Anglo-Saxon England: and the Impact of 1066, p. 49, ISBN   0-7141-8057-2
  3. Charter S 1539 at the Electronic Sawyer
  4. Elaine Fantham, Helene Peet Foley, Natalie Boymel Kampen, Sarah B. Pomeroy, H. A. Shapiro, Women in the Classical World p. 370, ISBN   0-19-509862-5
  5. 1 2 3 4 Fell, Women in Anglo-Saxon England, p. 97
  6. Rypka, J. (November 11, 2013). History of Iranian Literature. ISBN   9789401034791.
  7. "St. Agathoclia", Catholic Saints
  8. Gross (2008), What Blood Won't Tell, p. 1
  9. "A Durable Memento:" Portraits by Augustus Washington, African American Daguerreotypist, exhibit, National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
  10. Letter to James Edward Calhoun, August 27, 1831, Correspondence of John C. Calhoun, Historical Manuscripts Commission (1899), p. 301.
  11. Letter to Armistead Burt of September 1, 1831, Correspondence of John C. Calhoun, Historical Manuscripts Commission (1899), pp. 301–02.
  12. Calhoun 1837, p. 34.
  13. Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country, p. 39
  14. Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country, pp. 201–202
  15. Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country, pp. 140–1
  16. Timothy Hugh Barrett (1989). Singular listlessness: a short history of Chinese books and British scholars. Wellsweep. p. 33. ISBN   0-948454-04-0 . Retrieved November 4, 2011. This man, who as far as we know was the first interpreter to try to impart a knowledge of Chinese to Englishman, was one of a number of black slaves from Macao who managed to escape into Chinese territory2. Presumably Antonio and Mundy(the University of Michigan)
  17. Ariela J. Gross (2008), What Blood Won't Tell: A History of Race on Trial in America, p. 31, ISBN   978-0-674-03130-2
  18. "Who was Aqualtune?
  19. Maria Aparecida Schumaher, Erico teixeira Vital Brazil, Dicionário Mulheres do Brasil: de 1500 até a atualidade, ISBN   9788571105737
  20. ""Augustine Tolton: From slavery to being the first black priest", Catholic Church
  21. Fantham, et al.,Women in the Classical World pp. 319–20
  22. PD-icon.svg This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Fournet, Pierre August (1907). "St. Bathilde". In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia . 2. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  23. Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country, p. 185
  24. Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country, p 168
  25. Fantham et al., Women in the Classical World, p. 268
  26. PD-icon.svg This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Kirsch, Johan Peter (1907). "St. Blandina". In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia . 2. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  27. British Library Add MS 9381.
  28. Jones, Heather Rose (2001). "Cornish (and Other) Personal Names from the 10th Century Bodmin Manumissions" . Retrieved May 18, 2017.
  29. "Gospel-book with added Cornish records of manumissions ('The Bodmin Gospels' or 'St Petroc Gospels')". The British Library. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
  30. Joyce, P. W., The Wonders of Ireland, 1911
  31. "Story of St. Brigid". St. Brigid's GNS, Glasnevin.
  32. "Following Brigid's Way – The Irish Catholic".
  33. "Bethu Brigte".
  34. Wallace, Martin. A Little Book of Celtic Saints. Belfast. Appletree Press, 1995, ISBN   0-86281-456-1, p.13
  35. "St Brigit of Ireland – Monastic Matrix".
  36. Williams, Emily Allen (2004). The Critical Response to Kamau Brathwaite. Praeger Publishers. p. 235. ISBN   0-275-97957-1.
  37. PD-icon.svg This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chapman, Henry Palmer (1908). "Pope Callistus I". In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia . 3. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  38. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Yvon Garlan, Slavery in Ancient Greece, p. 67, ISBN   0-8014-9504-0
  39. Karen Halttunen, Murder Most Foul, p. 175, ISBN   0-674-58855-X
  40. 1 2 3 4 Tenzer, Lawrence R. (October 2001). "White Slaves". The Multiracial Activist. Archived from the original on November 9, 2011.
  41. 1 2 Elaine Fantham, Helene Peet Foley, Natalie Boymel Kampen, Sarah B. Pomeroy, H. A. Shapiro, Women in the Classical World pp. 320–1, ISBN   0-19-509862-5
  42. Grieve, Alexander James; Robinson, Joseph Armitage (1911). "Clement I"  . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica . 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 482–483.
  43. Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country, p. 196
  44. David Granger (1992). "Guyana coins". El Dorado (2): 20–22. Archived from the original on June 26, 2008. Retrieved July 6, 2008.
  45. Elaine Fantham, Helene Peet Foley, Natalie Boymel Kampen, Sarah B. Pomeroy, H. A. Shapiro, Women in the Classical World p. 268, ISBN   0-19-509862-5
  46. Christina Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country: The Changing Face of Captivity in Early America, p. 133, ISBN   978-0-674-04890-4
  47. "Exhibit: Slavery in New York". New York Historical Society. October 7, 2006 – March 26, 2006. Retrieved February 11, 2008.
  48. 1 2 http://library.uncg.edu/slavery/
  49. Kaufmann, Miranda. "The Untold Story of How an Escaped Slave Helped Sir Francis Drake Circumnavigate the Globe". History. Retrieved May 12, 2020.
  50. see
  51. .
  52. 1 2 3 4 5 Christine Fell, Women in Anglo-Saxon England: and the Impact of 1066, p. 97, ISBN   0-7141-8057-2
  53. 1 2 Christina Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country: The Changing Face of Captivity in Early America, p. 197, ISBN   978-0-674-04890-4
  54. Christine Fell, Women in Anglo-Saxon England: and the impact of 1066, p. 86, ISBN   0-7141-8057-2
  55. The Fiddler on Pantico Run: An African Warrior, His White Descendants, A Search for Family, ISBN   978-1-4516-2748-0
  56. "Slave’s 400-year-old grave in Dutch Jewish cemetery now a Black pilgrimage site" by Cnaan Lipshiz, Times of Israel, 6 Febr uary 2021
  57. 1 2 Christina Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country: The Changing Face of Captivity in Early America, p. 130, ISBN   978-0-674-04890-4
  58. Daniel K. Richter, Facing East from Indian Country, p. 243, ISBN   0-674-00638-0
  59. Elaine Fantham, Helene Peet Foley, Natalie Boymel Kampen, Sarah B. Pomeroy, H. A. Shapiro, Women in the Classical World p. 270, ISBN   0-19-509862-5
  60. Catholic Online
  61. E. Togo Salmon Conference, E. Togo Salmon Conference 1993 Mcmaster University: Roman Theater and Society: E. Togo Salmon Papers I
  62. PD-icon.svg This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Kirsch, Johan Peter (1909). "Sts. Felicitas and Perpetua". In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia . 6. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  63. Afnan, Abul-Qasim (1999), Black Pearls: Servants in the Household of the Bab and Baha'u'llah, Kalimat Press, p. 21, ISBN   1-890688-03-7
  64. Afnan, Abul-Qasim (1999), Black Pearls: Servants in the Household of the Bab and Baha'u'llah, Kalimat Press, p. 26, ISBN   1-890688-03-7
  65. Christina Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country: The Changing Face of Captivity in Early America, pp. 147–8, ISBN   978-0-674-04890-4
  66. Daniel Odgen, Magic, Witchcraft, and Ghosts In The Greek and Roman Worlds, p. 277, ISBN   978-0-19-538520-5
  67. Goodyear III, Frank H. "Photography changes the way we record and respond to social issues". Smithsonian Institution
  68. 1 2 3 Daniel Odgen, Magic, Witchcraft, and Ghosts In The Greek and Roman Worlds, p. 119, ISBN   978-0-19-538520-5
  69. See also Ariela J. Gross, What Blood Won't Tell: A History of Race on Trial in America, pp. 23–4, ISBN   978-0-674-03130-2
  70. See also Robert M. Cover, Justice Accused: Antislavery and the Judicial Process, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1975, pp. 51–55
  71. Bosman, Julie (September 18, 2013). "Professor Says He Has Solved a Mystery Over a Slave's Novel". The New York Times .
  72. Black Loyalist.
  73. BlackPast.org.
  74. Lowson, Stephen (May 29, 2009). "Day of history to unfold in Muthill museum". Strathearn Herald . Retrieved June 23, 2009.
  75. Christina Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country: The Changing Face of Captivity in Early America, pp. 38–9, ISBN   978-0-674-04890-4
  76. "Cornelius Tacitus, The History, BOOK I, chapter 13". www.perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved August 11, 2021.
  77. Chris Wickham, The Inheritance of Rome, p. 195, ISBN   978-0-14-311742-1
  78. Laurence Vidal, Los Amantes de Granada, Ed. EDHASA, 2006, 359 pages, ( ISBN   978-8-43501742-8)
  79. Afnan, Abul-Qasim (1999), Black Pearls: Servants in the Household of the Bab and Baha'u'llah, Kalimat Press, p. 27, ISBN   1-890688-03-7
  80. Afnan, Abul-Qasim (1999), Black Pearls: Servants in the Household of the Bab and Baha'u'llah, Kalimat Press, p. 30, ISBN   1-890688-03-7
  81. 'Abdu'l-Baha (1982). Promulgation of Universal Peace: Talks Delivered by Abdu'l Baha during His Visit to the United States and Canada in 1912. Bahai Publishing Trust, 2nd Edition. p. 426. ISBN   978-0877431725.
  82. Ariela J. Gross, What Blood Won't Tell: A History of Race on Trial in America, pp. 24–5, ISBN   978-0-674-03130-2/
  83. "An Old Actor's Memories; What Mt. Edmon S. Conner Recalls About His Career" (PDF). The New York Times. June 5, 1881. p. 10. Retrieved March 10, 2010.
  84. Hutton, Michael (June–December 1889). "The Negro on the Stage". Harper's Magazine. Harper's Magazine Co. 79: 131–145. Retrieved March 10, 2010.
  85. Mary Deborah Petite, "1836 Facts about the Alamo and the Texas War for Independence", ISBN   978-1-882810-35-2, Savas Publishing Company, Mason City, IA, 1999, p. 128
  86. Karen Halttunen, Murder Most Foul, p. 44, ISBN   0-674-58855-X.
  87. 1 2 John Donoghue (2010). "'Out of the Land of Bondage': The English Revolution and the Atlantic Origins of Abolition". The American Historical Review . 115 (4). Archived from the original on September 1, 2016.
  88. Paul Finkelman (1985). Slavery in the Courtroom: An Annotated Bibliography of American Cases. Library of Congress. ISBN   9781886363489.
  89. Coates, Rodney D. (2003). "Law and the Cultural Production of Race and Racialized Systems of Oppression" (PDF). American Behavioral Scientist . 47 (3): 329–351. doi:10.1177/0002764203256190. S2CID   146357699.
  90. Tom Costa (2011). "Runaway Slaves and Servants in Colonial Virginia". Encyclopedia Virginia .
  91. Paul Finkelman (1985). Slavery in the Courtroom: An Annotated Bibliography of American Cases (Library of Congress), p. 3.
  92. "Soldier of Furtune: John Smith before Jamestown". Archived from the original on January 17, 2009. Retrieved February 4, 2009.
  93. Smith 2001, pp. 94–95; White 2016, p. 130.
  94. Brands 2012, pp. 86–87.
  95. Smith 2001, pp. 94–95; McFeely 1981, p. 69; White 2016, p. 130.
  96. Christina Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country: The Changing Face of Captivity in Early America, p. 200, ISBN   978-0-674-04890-4.
  97. "YSTUMLLYN, JOHN ('Jack Black') (d. 1786), gardener and land steward | Dictionary of Welsh Biography". biography.wales. Retrieved September 18, 2021.
  98. Green, Andrew (October 10, 2019), "Ystumllyn, John (d. 1786), gardener", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/odnb/9780198614128.013.112797 , retrieved September 18, 2021
  99. Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country, pp. 184–85.
  100. Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country, pp. 35–36.
  101. Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country, p. 201.
  102. Haley, Alex (August 17, 1976). Roots: The Saga of an American Family. Doubleday. p. 704. ISBN   0-385-03787-2. OCLC   2188350.
  103. Wright, Donald R. (1981). "Uprooting Kunta Kinte: On the Perils of Relying on Encyclopedic Informants". History in Africa. 8: 205–217. doi:10.2307/3171516. JSTOR   3171516.
  104. Andrews, William L.; Foster, Frances Smith; Harris, Truder (February 15, 2001). "Kinta, Kunta". In Berger, Roger A. (ed.). The Concise Oxford Companion to African American Literature. Oxford University Press. p. 250. ISBN   9780198031758.
  105. Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country, p. 67
  106. David Nicolle, Graham Turner: Poitiers AD 732: Charles Martel Turns the Islamic Tide. Osprey Publishing 2008, ISBN   978-1-84603-230-1
  107. Fell, Women in Anglo-Saxon England, p. 47
  108. Fell, Women in Anglo-Saxon England, p. 86
  109. 1 2 Patricia Seed, To Love, Honor, and Obey in Colonial Mexico: Conflicts over Marriage Choice, 1574–1821, p. 82, ISBN   0-8047-2159-9
  110. Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country, p. 149
  111. Mark C. Elliott, The Manchu Way p. 330, ISBN   0-8047-4684-2
  112. "Louis Hughes". American Literature. Retrieved July 3, 2020.
  113. Daniel Odgen, Magic, Witchcraft, and Ghosts In The Greek and Roman Worlds, p. 166, ISBN   978-0-19-538520-5
  114. Fantham, et al., Women in the Classical World, pp. 319–20
  115. Daniel Ogden "Binding Spells" p. 70 Witchcraft and Magic in Europe: Ancient Greece and Rome, edited by Bengt Ankarloo and Stuart Clark ISBN   0-8122-1705-5
  116. Chris Wickham, The Inheritance of Rome, pp. 203–4, ISBN   978-0-14-311742-1
  117. Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country, p. 182
  118. Sarah B. Pomeroy, Goddesses, Whores, Wives, and Slaves, p. 198, ISBN   0-8052-1030-X
  119. Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country, pp. 174–5
  120. Military Manpower, Armies and Warfare in South Asia. Routledge. October 6, 2015. ISBN   9781317321279.
  121. Slavery & South Asian history. Chatterjee, Indrani., Eaton, Richard Maxwell. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 2006. ISBN   978-0-253-11671-0. OCLC   191950586.CS1 maint: others (link)
  122. Tourism Potential in Aurangabad: With Ajanta, Ellora, Daulatabad Fort. Bharatiya Kala Prakashan. 1999. p. 6. ISBN   9788186050446.
  123. Michell, George & Mark Zebrowski. Architecture and Art of the Deccan Sultanates ( The New Cambridge History of India Vol. I:7), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999, ISBN   0-521-56321-6, p. 11–12
  124. "Slave revolts in Puerto Rico: conspiracies and uprisings, 1795–1873"; by: Guillermo A. Baralt; Publisher Markus Wiener Publishers; ISBN   1-55876-463-1, ISBN   978-1-55876-463-7
  125. ""My Master Has Sold Albert to a Trader": Maria Perkins Writes to Her Husband, 1852". History Matters. George Mason University . Retrieved April 21, 2017.
  126. http://clandestine-life.com
  127. 1 2 http://www.celebrateboston.com/crime/puritan-mark-and-phillis-executions.htm
  128. http://www.masshist.org/database/viewer.php?item_id=99&mode=transcript&img_step=2#page2
  129. Dale, Penny (July 7, 2017). "A quilt fit for a queen" via www.bbc.com.
  130. Afnan, Abul-Qasim (1999), Black Pearls: Servants in the Household of the Bab and Baha'u'llah, Kalimat Press, p. 35, ISBN   1-890688-03-7
  131. 1 2 John, Storms Brewed, p. 699
  132. Barr, Peace Came in the Form, p. 189
  133. 1 2 Christina Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country: The Changing Face of Captivity in Early America, pp. 133–4, ISBN   978-0-674-04890-4
  134. "Re: Nancy Titsworth-1800-Livin - Genealogy.com". genealogy.com. Retrieved May 13, 2019.
  135. Afnan, Abul-Qasim (1999), Black Pearls: Servants in the Household of the Bab and Baha'u'llah, Kalimat Press, p. 5, ISBN   1-890688-03-7
  136. 1 2 Association of Muslim Social Scientists & International Institute of Islamic Thought 2008 , p. 56
  137. Ariela J. Gross, What Blood Won't Tell: A History of Race on Trial in America, p. 120, ISBN   978-0-674-03130-2
  138. Elaine Fantham, Helene Peet Foley, Natalie Boymel Kampen, Sarah B. Pomeroy, H. A. Shapiro, Women in the Classical World pp. 114–5, ISBN   0-19-509862-5
  139. 1 2 Yvon Garlan, Slavery in Ancient Greece, p. 83, ISBN   0-8014-9504-0
  140. PD-icon.svg This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Moran, Patrick Francis (1911). "St. Patrick". In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia . 11. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  141. Swarns, Rachel L. (August 15, 2009), "Madison and the White House, Through the Memoir of a Slave", The New York Times , retrieved August 24, 2009
  142. Christina Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country: The Changing Face of Captivity in Early America, p. 189, ISBN   978-0-674-04890-4
  143. "Re: Nancy Titsworth-1800-Livin - Genealogy.com". genealogy.com. Retrieved May 13, 2019.
  144. Pettitt, George A. Berkeley: The Town and Gown of It. P. 34, 37.
  145. Wollenberg, Charles (2002). "Berkeley, A City in History". berkeleypubliclibrary.org. Archived from the original on September 11, 2015. Retrieved November 6, 2015. Berkeley's black heritage goes back to the arrival of Pete and Hannah Byrne in 1859, but the African American population remained small for the rest of the nineteenth century.
  146. Sarah B. Pomeroy, Goddesses, Whores, Wives, and Slaves, p. 197, ISBN   0-8052-1030-X
  147. Diogenes Laërtius, ii. 105
  148. Ariela J. Gross, What Blood Won't Tell: A History of Race on Trial in America, pp. 25–6, ISBN   978-0-674-03130-2
  149. Daniel Ogden "Binding Spells" pp 67–8 Witchcraft and Magic in Europe: Ancient Greece and Rome, edited by Bengt Ankarloo and Stuart Clark ISBN   0-8122-1705-5
  150. "Black Slaves, Indian Masters: Slavery, Emancipation, and Citizenship in the Native American South, by Barbara Krauthamer (2013) – Not Even Past". notevenpast.org. March 26, 2014. Retrieved May 6, 2019.
  151. Jeltz, Wyatt F. (1948). "The Relations of Negroes and Choctaw and Chickasaw Indians". The Journal of Negro History. 33 (1): 24–37. doi:10.2307/2714985. ISSN   0022-2992. JSTOR   2714985. S2CID   149472463.
  152. Hallvard Den Hellige – utdypning (Store norske leksikon)
  153. "Timeline of Missouri's African American History", Missouri State Archives, Missouri Digital History, accessed 18 February 2011
  154. Ariela J. Gross, What Blood Won't Tell: A History of Race on Trial in America, p. 59, ISBN   978-0-674-03130-2
  155. Christina Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country: The Changing Face of Captivity in Early America, p. 129, ISBN   978-0-674-04890-4
  156. Chris Wickham, The Inheritance of Rome, p. 204, ISBN   978-0-14-311742-1
  157. Coddington, Ronald S. (September 24, 2013). "A Slave's Service in the Confederate Army". The New York Times Opinionator Blog.
  158. Chisholm, Hugh (1911). "Solomon Northup". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  159. Nelson, Emmanuel Sampath (2002). "Solomon Northup (1808–1863?)". In Marsden, Elizabeth (ed.). African American Autobiographers: A Sourcebook. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 290. ISBN   9780313314094.
  160. Richard Miles, Carthage Must Be Destroyed: The Rise and Fall of an Ancient Civilization, p. 203, ISBN   9780143121299
  161. Christina Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country: The Changing Face of Captivity in Early America, p. 153, ISBN   978-0-674-04890-4
  162. Christina Snyder, Slavery in Indian Country: The Changing Face of Captivity in Early America, p. 154, ISBN   978-0-674-04890-4
  163. Elaine Fantham, Helene Peet Foley, Natalie Boymel Kampen, Sarah B. Pomeroy, H. A. Shapiro, Women in the Classical World pp. 369–70, ISBN   0-19-509862-5
  164. Breslaw, E.G. (1996). Tituba, Reluctant Witch of Salem Devilish Indians and Puritan Fantasies. New York New York University Press. ISBN   0814713076.
  165. PD-icon.svg This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Dégert, Antoine (1912). "St. Vincent de Paul". In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia . 15. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  166. Elaine Fantham, Helene Peet Foley, Natalie Boymel Kampen, Sarah B. Pomeroy, H. A. Shapiro, Women in the Classical World p. 380, ISBN   0-19-509862-5
  167. Sarah B. Pomeroy, Goddesses, Whores, Wives, and Slaves, pp. 198–9, ISBN   0-8052-1030-X
  168. Daniel Odgen, Magic, Witchcraft, and Ghosts In The Greek and Roman Worlds, p. 11, ISBN   978-0-19-538520-5