List of shōguns

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This article is a list of shōguns that ruled Japan intermittently, as hereditary military commanders, [1] from the establishment of the Asuka period in 709 until the end of the Tokugawa shogunate in 1868.

<i>Shōgun</i> de facto military dictator of feudal Japan (1185-1868)

The Shōgun was the military dictator of Japan during the period from 1185 to 1868. In most of this period, the shōguns were the de facto rulers of the country, although nominally they were appointed by the Emperor as a ceremonial formality. The shōguns held almost absolute power over territories through military means.

Japan Country in East Asia

Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south.

Asuka period historical period of Japan, from 538 to 710 (or 592 to 645), its beginning is said to overlap with the preceding Kofun period. The Yamato polity evolved greatly during this period, named after the Asuka region, ~25 km south of modern city of Nara.

The Asuka period was a period in the history of Japan lasting from 538 to 710, although its beginning could be said to overlap with the preceding Kofun period. The Yamato polity evolved greatly during the Asuka period, which is named after the Asuka region, about 25 km south of the modern city of Nara.

Contents

Asuka period / Heian period (709–1184)

No.PortraitName
(birth–death)
Shōgun fromShōgun until
1 Kose no Maro.jpg Kose no Maro
709709
2 Imperial Seal of Japan.svg Tajinohi no Agatamori
720721
3 Sanjurokkasen-gaku - 5 - Kano Tan'yu - Chunagon Yakamochi.jpg Ōtomo no Yakamochi
(c. 718–785)
784785
4 Imperial Seal of Japan.svg Ki no Kosami
788789
5 Imperial Seal of Japan.svg Ōtomo no Otomaro
(731–809)
793794
6 Sakanoue Tamuramaro.jpg Sakanoue no Tamuramaro
(758–811)
797808
7 Fun'ya no Watamaro.jpg Funya no Watamaro
(765–823)
811816
8 Teng Yuan Zhong Wen .jpg Fujiwara no Tadabumi
(873–947)
940940
9 Minamoto no Yoshinaka.jpg Minamoto no Yoshinaka
(1154–1184)
11841184

Kamakura shogunate (1192–1333)

No.PortraitName
(birth–death)
Shōgun fromShōgun until
1 Minamoto no Yoritomo.jpg Minamoto no Yoritomo
(1147–1199)
11921199
2 Minamoto no Yoriie.jpg Minamoto no Yoriie
(1182–1204)
12021203
3 Minamoto no Sanetomo.jpg Minamoto no Sanetomo
(1192–1219)
12031219
4 Kujo Yoritsune.jpg Kujō Yoritsune
(1218–1256)
12261244
5 Sasa Rindo.svg Kujō Yoritsugu
(1239–1256)
12441252
6 Sasa Rindo.svg Prince Munetaka
(1242–1274)
12521266
7 Sasa Rindo.svg Prince Koreyasu
(1264–1326)
12661289
8 Sasa Rindo.svg Prince Hisaaki
(1276–1328)
12891308
9 Sasa Rindo.svg Prince Morikuni
(1301–1333)
13081333

Kenmu Restoration (1333–1336)

No.PortraitName
(birth–death)
Shōgun fromShōgun until
1 Kamakura-gu Treasure.jpg Prince Moriyoshi
(1308–1335)
13331333
2 Imperial Seal of Japan.svg Prince Narinaga
(1326 – c. 1337–44)
13351336

Ashikaga shogunate (1336–1573)

No.PortraitName
(birth–death)
Shōgun fromShōgun until
1 Ashikaga Takauji.JPG Ashikaga Takauji
(1305–1358)
13381358
2 Ashikaga Yoshiakira.jpg Ashikaga Yoshiakira
(1330–1367)
13581367
3 Yoshimitsu Ashikaga cropped.jpg Ashikaga Yoshimitsu
(1358–1408)
13681394
4 Ashikaga Yoshimochi.jpg Ashikaga Yoshimochi
(1386–1428)
13941423
5 Ashikaga mon.svg Ashikaga Yoshikazu
(1407–1425)
14231425
6 Ashikaga Yoshinori.jpg Ashikaga Yoshinori
(1394–1441)
14291441
7 Ashikaga Yoshikatsu statue.jpg Ashikaga Yoshikatsu
(1434–1443)
14421443
8 Ashikaga Yoshimasa detail.jpg Ashikaga Yoshimasa
(1436–1490)
14491473
9 Ashikaga Yoshihisa.jpg Ashikaga Yoshihisa
(1465–1489)
14731489
10 Ashikaga Yoshitane statue.jpg Ashikaga Yoshitane
(1466–1523)
14901493
11 Ashikaga Yoshizumi statue.jpg Ashikaga Yoshizumi
(1481–1511)
14941508
12 Ashikaga Yoshitane statue.jpg Ashikaga Yoshitane
(1466–1523)
15081521
13 Zu Li Yi Qing .jpg Ashikaga Yoshiharu
(1511–1550)
15211546
14 Ashikaga Yoshiteru.jpg Ashikaga Yoshiteru
(1536–1565)
15461565
15 Ashikaga mon.svg Ashikaga Yoshihide
(1538–1568)
15681568
16 Yoshiaki.jpg Ashikaga Yoshiaki
(1537–1597)
1568deposed
1573
abdicated
1587

Azuchi–Momoyama period (1568–1600)

The following were military dictators of Japan, de factoshōguns[ citation needed ] from 1568 to 1598. They unified the country, which at the start were a chaotic patchwork of warring clans.

No.PortraitName
(birth–death)
de facto
shōgun from
de facto
shōgun until
1 Odanobunaga.jpg Oda Nobunaga
(1535–1582)
15731582
2 Toyotomi hideyoshi.jpg Toyotomi Hideyoshi
(1537–1598)
15851598

From 1598 to 1600, the de facto shogunate was delegated to the Council of Five Elders.

Council of Five Elders form of government in feudal Japan

The Council of Five Elders, was a group of five powerful feudal lords formed in 1598 by the Regent Toyotomi Hideyoshi, shortly before his death in the same year. While Hideyoshi was on his deathbed, his son, Toyotomi Hideyori, was still only 5 years old and as such Hideyoshi needed to create the council in order to ensure his heir would be able to succeed him after coming of age. They also acted as advisers for the Five Commissioners, which had also been established by Hideyoshi to govern Kyoto and the surrounding areas.

Tokugawa shogunate (1600–1868)

No.PortraitName
(birth–death)
Shōgun fromShōgun until
1 Tokugawa Ieyasu2.JPG Tokugawa Ieyasu
(1543–1616)
de facto
1600

de jure
1603
de jure
1605
de facto
1616
2 Hidetada2.jpg Tokugawa Hidetada
(1579–1632)
1605de jure
1623
de facto
1632
3 Iemitu.jpg Tokugawa Iemitsu
(1604–1651)
16231651
4 Tokugawa Ietsuna.jpg Tokugawa Ietsuna
(1641–1680)
16511680
5 Tsunyaoshi.jpg Tokugawa Tsunayoshi
(1646–1709)
16801709
6 Tokugawa Ienobu.jpg Tokugawa Ienobu
(1662–1712)
17091712
7 Tokugawa ietsugu.jpg Tokugawa Ietsugu
(1709–1716)
17131716
8 Tokugawa Yoshimune.jpg Tokugawa Yoshimune
(1684–1751)
1716de jure
1745
de facto
1751
9 Tokugawa Ieshige.jpg Tokugawa Ieshige
(1712–1761)
17451760
10 Tokugawa Ieharu.jpg Tokugawa Ieharu
(1737–1786)
17601786
11 Tokugawa Ienari.jpg Tokugawa Ienari
(1773–1841)
17871837
12 Tokugawa Ieyoshi.JPG Tokugawa Ieyoshi
(1793–1853)
18371853
13 Tokugawa Iesada.jpg Tokugawa Iesada
(1824–1858)
18531858
14 Toku14-2.jpg Tokugawa Iemochi
(1846–1866)
18581866
15 Tokugawa yoshinobu.jpg Tokugawa Yoshinobu
(1837–1913)
18661867

Post-bakufu heads of the Tokugawa clan (1868–present)

In 1882, the head of the Tokugawa clan was given the title of Prince (kōshaku) under the kazoku peerage system and permitted to sit in the House of Peers of the Imperial Diet. Two of them served as President of that body.

Tokugawa clan noble family

The Tokugawa clan was a powerful daimyō family of Japan. They nominally descended from Emperor Seiwa (850–880) and were a branch of the Minamoto clan by the Nitta clan. The early history of this clan remains a mystery. Members of the clan ruled Japan as shōguns from 1603 to 1867.

<i>Kazoku</i> Japanese system of nobility, 1869 to 1947

The Kazoku was the hereditary peerage of the Empire of Japan, which existed between 1869 and 1947.

House of Peers (Japan) upper house of the Imperial Diet of Japan

The House of Peers was the upper house of the Imperial Diet as mandated under the Constitution of the Empire of Japan.

No.PortraitName
(birth–death)
Head fromHead until
1 Portrait of Prince Tokugawa Iesato as President of the House of Peers.jpg Tokugawa Iesato
(1863–1940) [lower-alpha 1]
18681940
2 Tokugawa Iemasa.JPG Tokugawa Iemasa
(1884–1963) [lower-alpha 2]
19401963
3 Tokugawa family crest.svg Tokugawa Tsunenari
(born 1940)
1963Incumbent

Supreme Commanders for the Allied Powers

The Supreme Commanders were informally known as Gaijin Shōgun(外人将軍) during their tenure. [2]

Supreme Commander for the Allied PowersTook officeLeft officeTime in officeDefence branch President of the United States
1
MacArthur Manila.jpg
MacArthur, Douglas General
Douglas MacArthur
(1880–1964)
August 15, 1945 [lower-alpha 3] April 11, 1951 [lower-alpha 4] 5 years, 239 days Military service mark of the United States Army.png
US Army
Harry S. Truman
2
Matthew B. Ridgway.jpg
Ridgway, MatthewGeneral
Matthew Ridgway
(1895–1993)
April 11, 1951May 12, 1952 [lower-alpha 5] 1 year, 31 days Military service mark of the United States Army.png
US Army
Harry S. Truman

Notes

  1. Served as President of the House of Peers from 1903 to 1933.
  2. Served as President of the House of Peers from 1946 to 1947.
  3. Assumed command following the surrender of Japan.
  4. Relieved of command by President Truman.
  5. Served until the Treaty of San Francisco came into effect.

See also

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The shikken was a titular post held by a member of Hōjō clan, officially a regent of the shogunate, from 1199 to 1333, or during the Kamakura period, therefore it was head of the bakufu (shogunate). It was part of the era referred to as Regent Rule.

<i>Fudai daimyō</i> in Edo-period Japan, a class of daimyōs who were hereditary vassals of the Tokugawa, many of whom were families serving the Tokugawa clan since before its rise to shogunhood; primarily occupied the ranks of the Tokugawa administration

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References

  1. Britannica – Shogunate
  2. Valley, David J. (April 15, 2000). Gaijin Shogun : Gen. Douglas MacArthur Stepfather of Postwar Japan. Title: Sektor Company. ISBN   978-0967817521 . Retrieved 2 June 2017.