This is a list of wettest tropical cyclones by country, using all known available sources. Data is most complete for Australia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Japan, Hong Kong, Mexico, Taiwan, Micronesia's Yap and Chuuk, and the United States, with fragmentary data available for other countries. The French region of Réunion holds several world records for tropical cyclone and worldwide rainfall, due to the rough topography and its location in the Indian Ocean.
Réunion is an overseas department and region of France and an island in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar and 175 km (109 mi) southwest of Mauritius. As of January 2019, it had a population of 866,506.
Below are the records for each country above.
|1||465.3||18.32||Lenny 1999||V. C. Bird International Airport|
|2||252.5||9.94||Luis 1995||V. C. Bird International Airport|
|3||245.8||9.68||Frederic 1979||V. C. Bird International Airport|
|4||232.6||9.16||Omar 2008||V. C. Bird International Airport|
|5||198.3||7.81||Earl 2010||V. C. Bird International Airport|
|6||194.1||7.64||Jose 1999||V. C. Bird International Airport|
|7||188.9||7.44||Hugo 1989||V. C. Bird International Airport|
|8||163.6||6.44||Daisy 1962||V. C. Bird International Airport|
|9||159.2||6.27||Iris 1995||V. C. Bird International Airport|
|10||146.9||5.78||Rafael 2012||V. C. Bird International Airport|
|1||1,947||76.65||Peter 1979||Mount Bellenden Ker|
|2||1,870||73.62||Rona–Frank 1999||Mount Bellenden Ker|
|3||1,318||51.89||Wanda 1974||Mount Glorious|
|5||1,082||42.60||Aivu 1989||Dalrymple Heights|
|7||1,000||39.37||Justin 1997||Willis Island|
|8||986||38.82||Debbie 2017||Clarke Range|
Christmas Island is an Australian territory located in the Indian Ocean located at the summit of a submarine mountain, which rises steeply to a central plateau that is dominated by stands of rainforest. 220 km (135 mi) of the territory between 1972 and 2005.After rainfall and wind observations started on the island during 1972, only 13 tropical cyclones passed within
The Territory of Christmas Island is an Australian external territory comprising the island of the same name. Christmas Island is located in the Indian Ocean, around 350 kilometres (220 mi) south of Java and Sumatra and around 1,550 kilometres (960 mi) north-west of the closest point on the Australian mainland. It has an area of 135 square kilometres (52 sq mi).
|1||368.2||14.5||Dahlia 2017||Christmas Island Airport|
|2||181.0||7.13||Gillian 2014||Christmas Island Airport|
|3||102.4||4.03||Jacob 2007||Christmas Island Airport|
|5||52.8||2.08||Rosie 2008||Christmas Island Airport|
The Cocos (Keeling) Islands are an Australian territory of 27 coral islands that are formed into two large coral atolls and cover an area of around 36 km2 (14 sq mi) of the Indian Ocean to the northwest of Perth, Australia. Rainfall observations started on the islands during 1907, while temperature, wind and other records started in 1952. Between 1952 and 2005 27 tropical cyclones caused storm force wind gusts of over 90 km/h (55 mph) on the islands, while only four caused hurricane-force gusts of over 125 km/h (80 mph).
The Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands is an Australian external territory in the Indian Ocean, comprising a small archipelago approximately midway between Australia and Sri Lanka and closer to the Indonesian island of Sumatra. It is part of Southeast Asia and is in the Southern Hemisphere. The territory's dual name reflects that the islands have historically been known as either the Cocos Islands or the Keeling Islands.
|1||844.6||33.25||11U 2013||Cocos Island Airport|
|6||115.0||4.53||Bruce 2013||Cocos Island Airport|
|7||107.6||4.24||Kate 2014||Cocos Island Airport|
|10||56.0||2.20||Anggrek 2010||Cocos Island Airport|
|1||747.5||29.43||Noel 2007||Long Island|
|2||500.3||19.70||Matthew 2016||Matthew Town, Inagua|
|3||436.6||17.19||Flora 1963||Duncan Town|
|4||390.1||15.36||Inez 1966||Nassau Airport|
|5||337.1||13.27||Fox 1952||New Providence|
|7||309.4||12.18||Erin 1995||Church Grove|
|9||236.7||9.32||Floyd 1999||Little Harbor Abacos|
|10||216.4||8.52||Cleo 1964||West End|
Bangladesh has been the scene of the greatest tropical cyclone casualties in recent times. The country is quite flat and generally lies near sea level.
|3||280||11.02||Monsoon Depression — Sep. 2004||Barisal|
|5||227.2||8.94||Trop. Depression — Oct. 2004||Rangpur|
|6||220.0||8.66||Bhola 1970||Maya Bandar|
This country has terrain mainly across its southern sections, with elevations up to about 3,700 feet (1,100 m). The highest reported rainfall in what was formerly British Honduras occurred during Hurricane Keith in 2000 when 32.67 inches (830 mm) of rain fell in a 24‑hour period at Phillip Goodson International Airport in Belize City. It should be noted that equally heavy rains could have fallen during Hurricane Hattie of 1961 and Hurricane Fifi of 1974.
Hurricane Keith was an Atlantic hurricane in October 2000 that caused extensive damage in Central America, especially in Mexico and Belize. It was the fifteenth tropical cyclone, eleventh named storm, and seventh hurricane of the 2000 Atlantic hurricane season. Keith developed as a tropical depression from a tropical wave in the western Caribbean Sea on September 28. The depression gradually strengthened, and became Tropical Storm Keith on the following day. As the storm tracked westward, it continued to intensify and was upgraded to a hurricane on September 30. Shortly thereafter, Keith began to rapidly deepen, and peaked as a Category 4 hurricane less than 24 hours later. Keith then began to meander erratically offshore of Belize, which significantly weakened the storm due to land interaction. By late on October 2, Keith made landfall in Ambergris Caye, Belize as a minimal hurricane. It quickly weakened to a tropical storm, before another landfall occurred near Belize City early on the following day. While moving inland over the Yucatán Peninsula, Keith weakened further, and was downgraded to a tropical depression before emerging into the Gulf of Mexico on October 4. Once in the Gulf of Mexico, Keith began to re-strengthen and was upgraded to a tropical storm later that day, and a hurricane on the following day. By late on October 5, Keith made its third and final landfall near Tampico, Tamaulipas, Mexico as a moderately strong Category 1 hurricane. The storm quickly weakened inland and dissipated as a tropical cyclone by 24 hours after landfall.
Belize City is the largest city in Belize and was once the capital of the former British Honduras. According to the 2010 census, Belize City has a population of 57,169 people in 16,162 households. It is at the mouth of the Haulover Creek, which is a tributary of the Belize River. The Belize River empties into the Caribbean Sea five miles from Belize City on the Philip Goldson Highway on the coast of the Caribbean. The city is the country's principal port and its financial and industrial hub. Cruise ships drop anchor outside the port and are tendered by local citizens. The city was almost entirely destroyed in 1961 when Hurricane Hattie swept ashore on October 31. It was the capital of British Honduras until the government was moved to the new capital of Belmopan in 1970.
Hurricane Hattie was the strongest and deadliest tropical cyclone of the 1961 Atlantic hurricane season, reaching a peak intensity equivalent to that of a Category 5 hurricane. The ninth tropical storm and seventh hurricane and major hurricane of the season, Hattie originated from an area of low pressure that strengthened into a tropical storm over the southwestern Caribbean Sea on October 27. Moving generally northward, the storm quickly became a hurricane and later major hurricane the following day. Hattie then turned westward west of Jamaica and strengthened into a Category 5 hurricane, with maximum sustained winds of 160 mph (260 km/h). It weakened to Category 4 before making landfall south of Belize City on October 31. The storm turned southwestward and weakened rapidly over the mountainous terrain of Central America, dissipating on November 1.
|1||829.8||32.67||Keith 2000||Philip Goldson Airport|
|2||546.6||21.52||Sixteen 2008||Baldy Beacon|
|4||246.0||9.69||Mitch 1998||Central Farm Meteorological Station|
|5||241.0||9.49||Gert 1993||Hunting Caye|
|6||179.0||7.05||Greta 1978||Central Farm Meteorological Station|
|7||152.4||6.00||Fifi 1974||La Placencia|
|8||131.0||5.16||Hermine 1980||Central Farm Meteorological Station|
|10||68.0||2.68||Opal 1995||Central Farm Meteorological Station|
|3||30.5||1.20||Faith 1998||Kompong Cham|
Tropical cyclones are usually in transition to extratropical cyclones by the time they reach Atlantic Canada, though occasionally they retain their tropical status. No tropical cyclone has ever hit Canada's Pacific coast.
Extratropical cyclones, sometimes called mid-latitude cyclones or wave cyclones, are low-pressure areas which, along with the anticyclones of high-pressure areas, drive the weather over much of the Earth. Extratropical cyclones are capable of producing anything from cloudiness and mild showers to heavy gales, thunderstorms, blizzards, and tornadoes. These types of cyclones are defined as large scale (synoptic) low pressure weather systems that occur in the middle latitudes of the Earth. In contrast with tropical cyclones, extratropical cyclones produce rapid changes in temperature and dew point along broad lines, called weather fronts, about the center of the cyclone.
Atlantic Canada, also called the Atlantic provinces, is the region of Canada comprising the four provinces located on the Atlantic coast, excluding Quebec: the three Maritime provinces – New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island – and the easternmost province of Newfoundland and Labrador. The population of the four Atlantic provinces in 2016 was about 2,300,000 on half a million km2. The provinces combined had an approximate GDP of $121.888 billion in 2011.
|3||238.0||9.37||Igor 2010||St. Lawrence|
|7||191.0||7.52||Bertha 1990||Hunters Mountain|
|9||175.0||6.90||Gabrielle 2001||St. John's|
|10||165.0||6.50||Cristobal 2008||Baccaro Point|
China is a mountainous country, which leads to rapid dissipation of cyclones that move inland as well as significant amounts of rain from those dissipating cyclones. Typhoon Nina (1975) caused the collapse of two huge reservoirs and ten smaller dams when 1,062 millimetres (41.8 in) fell in Henan during a 24‑hour period, which is the record for Mainland China. Typhoon Sam of the 1999 Pacific typhoon season became the wettest known tropical cyclone to impact Hong Kong since records began in 1884, breaking a 73‑year‑old record. Precipitation associated with tropical cyclones and their remains can bring snow to Tibet. An early October 2004 tropical depression brought daily precipitation of 6 centimetres (2.4 in) of liquid equivalent precipitation to Che-Ku county in the form of heavy snow, which was a new October daily precipitation record for both rain and snow. This led to a loss of 340,000 kg of food, 230,000 kg of forage grass, and 263 livestock in the snowstorm.
Typhoon Nina, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Bebeng, was the fourth-deadliest tropical cyclone on record. At least 229,000 people died after the Banqiao Dam collapsed and devastated areas downstream. The collapse of the dam due to heavy floods also caused a string of smaller dams to collapse, adding more damage caused by the typhoon.
Henan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. Henan is often referred to as Zhongyuan or Zhongzhou (中州) which literally means "central plain" or "midland", although the name is also applied to the entirety of China proper. Henan is the birthplace of Chinese civilization with over 3,000 years of recorded history, and remained China's cultural, economical, and political center until approximately 1,000 years ago.
The 1999 Pacific typhoon season was the last Pacific typhoon season to use English names as storm names. It had no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1999, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between May and November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.
|7||>600.0||>24.00||Haikui 2012||Annui Province|
|1||616.5||24.27||Sam 1999||Hong Kong Observatory|
|2||597.0||23.50||July 1926 Typhoon||Royal Observatory, Hong Kong|
|3||562.0||22.13||June 1916 Typhoon||Royal Observatory, Hong Kong|
|4||530.7||20.89||Agnes 1965||Royal Observatory, Hong Kong|
|5||519.0||20.43||Agnes 1978||Royal Observatory, Hong Kong|
|6||516.1||20.32||Ellen 1976||Royal Observatory, Hong Kong|
|7||497.5||19.59||Dot 1993||Royal Observatory, Hong Kong|
|8||491.7||19.36||Dot 1982||Royal Observatory, Hong Kong|
|9||480.9||18.93||Helen 1995||Royal Observatory, Hong Kong|
|10||473.2||18.63||August 1904 Typhoon||Royal Observatory, Hong Kong|
|1||920.0||36.22||Cesar 1996||Alto de Tinamaste|
|6||308.0||12.11||Otto 2016||Miravalles Volcano|
Hurricane Flora of October 1963 drifted across Cuba for four days, leading to extreme rainfall across the mountainous island country. During the heaviest 24‑hour period of rainfall, 735 millimetres (28.9 in) of rain fell at Santiago de Cuba. Total amounts of 2,033 millimetres (80.0 in) over 4 days and 2,550 millimetres (100 in) over 5 days produced staggering loss of life in Cuba, where over 2000 perished.
|3||1,025||40.35||T.D. #1 1988|
|6||849||33.43||T.D. #1 1992|
The islands of the eastern Caribbean are constantly threatened by tropical storms and hurricanes, mainly between August and October. Dominica is a rugged island, with spots of elevation as high as nearly 4,750 feet (1,450 m). As Hurricane Jeanne moved through the region, 422.3 millimetres (16.63 in) of rain fell during the 24‑hour period ending on the morning of September 15, 2004.
|1||800–850||31–33||Erika 2015||Morne Diablotins|
The Dominican Republic, has some of the highest terrain surrounding the Caribbean Sea, with Pico Duarte peaking at 10,700 feet (3,300 m) above sea level. Most of the tropical cyclone rainfall totals on the list below are 24‑hour maxima, which likely underrepresent the storm total.
|1||1001.5||39.43||Flora 1963||Polo Barahona|
|5||505.2||19.89||Jeanne 2004||Isla Saona|
|7||445.5||17.54||Hurricane Four 1944||Hondo Valle|
|8||391.4||15.41||Hurricane Five 1935||Barahona|
|10||350.0||13.78||T.S. One 1948||Bayaguana|
|1||1513||59.57||Twelve E (2011)||Huizucar, La Libertad|
|2||1,040||40.94||Kina (1992-93)||Monasavu dam|
|3||913||35.94||04F (2016)||Monasavu dam|
|5||615||24.21||Gavin (1997)||Monasavu dam|
|7||529||20.83||Evan (2012)||Monasavu dam|
|9||495||19.49||Mick (2009)||Monasavu dam|
Orography from the volcanic islands of Fiji has led to significant rainfall during tropical cyclone passages, which occur roughly once a year.
Hurricane Marilyn moved directly across the island in mid-September 1995,bringing the highest known rainfall totals to the island from a tropical cyclone.
|1||582||22.91||Luis 1995||Dent de l'est (Soufrière)|
|5||318||12.52||Hortense 1996||Maison du Volcan|
|9||165.3||6.51||Earl 2010||Sainte-Rose (Viard)|
|10||53.6||2.11||Edith 1963||Basse Terre|
Martinique is a mountainous island at the fringe of the eastern Caribbean Sea.
|2||567.0||22.32||Klaus 1990||Le Morne-Rouge|
|3||475.0||18.07||Beulah 1967||Les Anses-d'Arlets|
|7||305.0||12.01||Cindy 1993||Le Prêcheur|
|10||230.1||9.059||Marilyn 1995||Le Morne-Rouge|
|1||813||32.01||Gyan 1981||La Ouinné|
|7||450||17.72||Vania 2011||Goro (Station Vale NC)|
|8||414||16.30||Frank 1999||Tango (Chaîne)|
|9||411||16.18||Cliff 1981||La Ouinné|
The mountainous island of Réunion has experienced several of the highest rainfall totals on record from tropical cyclones and holds the rainfall world records for 12, 24, 48, 72 hours, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine and ten days as a result. The 12 and 24 hourly rainfall records were set at Foc-Foc by Cyclone Denise in 1966, while an Unnamed Tropical Cyclone between April 8–10, 1958 set the record for 48 hours at Aurere. Tropical Cyclone Gamede between February 24–28, 2007 came close to beating the records for 12, 24 and 48 hours before setting the records for three, four, five, six, seven, eight and nine days that were held by Tropical Cyclone Hyacinthe 1980. Hyacinthe 1980 currently holds the world records for ten and fifteen days with rainfall totals of 5,678 millimetres (223.5 in) and 6,083 millimetres (239.5 in) respectively recorded at Commerson Crater.
|2||349.3||13.75||Jose 1999||Point Blanche|
|3||328.7||12.94||Otto 2010||Charlotte Amalie|
|4||98.0||3.86||Earl 2010||Grand Case|
|1||674.9||26.57||Raja 1986||Maopoopo, Futuna Island|
|2||556.7||21.92||Fran 1992||Hihifo, Wallis Island|
|3||291.2||11.46||Val 1975||Hihifo, Wallis Island|
|4||220.6||8.69||Hina 1997||Maopoopo, Futuna Island|
|5||186.0||7.32||Evan 2012||Futuna Island|
|6||180.0||7.09||Val 1980||Maopoopo, Futuna Island|
|7||171.6||6.76||Keli 1997||Hihifo, Wallis Island|
|8||160.8||6.33||Unnamed 1966||Malaetoli, Wallis Island|
|9||160.0||6.30||Amos 2016||Hihifo, Wallis Island|
|10||119.0||4.69||Waka 2001||Hihifo, Wallis Island|
Tropical Storm Agatha in May 2010 became the second-wettest tropical cyclone in the nation's history when it slowly developed while remaining nearly stationary to the southwest of Guatemala, before turning northeast and dissipating across inland Central America.
|1||600||23.62||Mitch 1998||Central Sierra de las Minas|
Haiti that makes up three-eighths of Hispaniola, feet/2680 meters above sea level.is a mountainous country that has experienced some of the most powerful hurricanes on record, including Hurricane David. Its three mountain ranges have peaks as high as 8793
|2||654.8||25.78||Noel 2007||Camp Perrin|
|4||410.0||16.14||Lili 2002||Camp Perrin|
|5||323.0||12.72||Hanna 2008||Camp Perrin|
|6||273.0||10.75||Gustav 2008||Camp Perrin|
|2||760||29.92||Alma 1966||San Rafael|
|5||360||14.19||T.D. #16 2008||Roatán|
|6||244||9.62||Felix 2007||Omoa Cortez|
|9||96||3.77||Ida 2009||Rio Cuero en la Masica|
India can be struck by cyclones that form in the Bay of Bengal or the Arabian Sea.
|1||2,300||90.55||1968 Severe Cyclonic Storm||Pedong, West Bengal|
|2||1,840||72.44||Severe Cyclonic Storm ARB 01 (2004)||Aminidivi, Lakshadweep|
|3||1,340||52.76||Depression Six (1961)||Cherrapunji, Meghalaya|
|4||1280||50.39||Nisha (2008)||Orathanadu, Tamil Nadu|
|5||1171||46.10||Phyan (2009)||Kethi, Tamil Nadu|
|6||1030||40.55||Ogni (2006)||Avanigadda, Andhra Pradesh|
|7||953||37.52||1943 Severe Cyclonic Storm||Cuddalore, Tamil Nadu|
|8||910||35.83||Deep Depression Four (1963)||Cherrapunji, Meghalaya|
|9||810||31.89||Cyclone 12 (1959)||Bano|
|10||800||31.50||Cyclone 5 (1968)||Harnai|
The precursor tropical disturbance of Tropical Cyclone Inigo in April 2003 dropped heavy rainfall in eastern Indonesia. The rainfall caused flash flooding and mudslides, primarily in Flores but also on West Timor 5 metres (16 ft). The Oessao River in West Timor exceeded its banks, which flooded seven villages. In Kupang in West Timor, the system destroyed hundreds of homes and large fields of corn, bean, and rice crop. Heavy damage was reported near Ende, where flooding and mudslides destroyed 20 houses and destroyed the roads connecting to East Flores. The city airport was flooded with one meter (3 ft) of water, preventing aerial transportation and which left the city temporarily isolated. In East Flores Regency in eastern Flores Island, the system left 75 destroyed houses, along with 77 severely damaged and a further 56 receiving light damage.and Sumba. In some locations, the depth of the floodwaters reached
|1||223||8.78||Inigo 2003||Larantuka, Flores|
|1||74 mm||2.91 inches||Gonu 2007||Chabahar|
This mountainous island country of Jamaica can get lashed with rainfall by slow-moving tropical cyclones in the western Caribbean Sea. Its interior, the Blue Mountains, reach a height of 7,400 feet (2,300 m) above sea level.
|1||3429.0||135.00||Nov. 1909 Hurricane||Silver Hill Plantation|
|2||1524.0||60.00||Flora 1963||Silver Hill|
|5||938.3||36.94||Gilda 1973||Top Mountain|
|6||863.6||34.00||June 1979 T.D.||Western Jamaica|
|7||823.0||32.40||Gilbert 1988||Interior mountains|
|9||713.5||28.09||Sandy 2012||Mill Bank|
|10||690.9||27.20||Isidore 2002||Cotton Tree Gully|
The mountainous island archipelago is constantly struck by typhoons recurving out of the tropics, which are normally in extratropical transition as they pass through Japan. Typhoon Namtheun of the 2004 Pacific typhoon season holds the national 24-hour precipitation record with 1,317 millimetres (51.9 in) observed in Kisawa village, surpassing the previous record of 1,140 mm (45 in) set during Typhoon Fran in 1976.
|2||1059.0||41.70||Emma 1956||Kadena Air Force Base|
|4||575.6||22.66||Charlotte 1959||Naha Air Force Base|
|6||473.7||18.65||Cora 1969||Kadena Air Force Base|
|8||407.2||16.03||Grace 1961||Kadena Air Force Base|
Typhoon Rusa caused 409 millimetres (16.1 in) of rain to fall at Naze on August 29–30, 2002. Typhoon Aere dropped 314.5 millimetres (12.38 in) of rain in the 65‑hour period ending at 1400 UTC on August 25, 2004 at Ishigakihima. Typhoon Agnes in August 1957 dropped 586.2 millimetres (23.08 in) of rainfall on Marcus Island. In 1972, Typhoon Rita dumped 31.87 in (809 mm) on Okinoerabu Shima.
Tropical cyclones occasionally threaten this central Pacific island. Hurricane Celeste of 1972 brought 6.21 inches (158 mm) to the isle around August 19.
The Korean Peninsula experiences typhoons regularly. Tropical cyclones which impact southern China also lead to, on average, five heavy rainfall events per year across the Korean peninsula.
Very heavy rains fell across Tongchon and Kosong counties during Typhoon Rusa in 2002, where up to 510 millimetres (20 in) of precipitation fell in a 5- to 10-hour period.
|1||>1,500||>59.05||Nakri 2014||Mount Halla, Jeju Island|
|2||1250.5||49.23||Chan-hom 2015||Mount Halla, Jeju Island|
The north end of the island, known as the Tsaratanana Massif region, contains terrain with elevations up to 9417 feet/2880 meters.
|1||220||8.66||Jelawat/Domeng 2006||Kampung Bundu|
|1||271||10.65||Bavi 2015||Kwajalein Atoll|
Hurricane Wilma of 2005 drifted over the northeast portion of the Yucatán peninsula for a couple of days, dropping significant rains. A report of 1,576 millimetres (62.0 in) was reported by the Servicio Meteorológico Nacional in Mexico, which is the wettest known 24-hour rainfall amount ever measured in Mexico. Second on the list is from Tropical Storm Frances in 1998, which accumulated up to 1,019 millimetres (40.1 in) of rain at Independencia in southern Chiapas. Below is a list of the highest known storm total rainfall amounts from individual tropical cyclones across Mexico. Most of the rainfall information was provided by the Mexico's National Weather Service, Servicio Meteorológico Nacional, which is a part of the National Water Commission, Comisión Nacional del Agua .
|1||1576||62.05||Wilma 2005||Quintana Roo|
|3||1098||43.23||TD 11 (1999)||Jalacingo|
|9||791||31.15||Hermine 1980||San Pedro Tapanatepec|
Elevations of the islands surrounding Chuuk lagoon reach a height of about 1,450 feet (440 m). Typhoon Chataan led to excessive rainfall on this island from June 23 – July 3, 2002, when a total of 939 mm (37.0 in) fell. During the time frame when Chataan was declared a tropical cyclone from July 1–3, 622 mm (24.5 in) fell, with 506 mm (19.9 in) falling on the 2nd alone at the international airport.
|1||939.0||36.96||Chataan 2002||Chuuk Int'l Airport|
|2||447.0||17.60||Dale 1996||Chuuk WSO AP|
|3||427.5||16.83||Sudal 2004||Chuuk WSO AP|
|4||405.1||15.95||Andy 1989||Truk WSO Airport|
|5||381.1||15.03||Jean 1968||Truk WSO Airport|
|6||371.9||14.64||Karen 1962||Truk WSO Airport|
|7||370.6||14.59||Pamela 1976||Truk WSO Airport|
|8||344.7||13.57||Harriet 1959||Truk WSO Airport|
|9||234.2||9.22||Kulap 2005||Chuuk WSO AP|
|10||214.1||8.43||Pongsona 2002||Chuuk WSO AP|
The state is mountainous island lies in the tropical northwest Pacific Ocean. Pohnpei State
The wettest known tropical cyclone for the state was Ruby in 1982, which drifted in the island's vicinity for several days during its initial development phase.
|1||594.4||23.40||Ruby 1982||Yap Island WSO Airport|
|2||390.9||15.39||Imbudo 2003||Yap Island WSO Airport|
|3||318.5||12.54||Winnie 1969||Yap Island WSO Airport|
|4||313.9||12.36||Fern 1996||Yap Island WSO Airport|
|5||301.8||11.88||Wilda 1967||Yap Island WSO Airport|
|6||289.1||11.38||Ophelia 1958||Yap Island WSO Airport|
|7||288.5||11.36||Hope 1985||Yap Island WSO Airport|
|8||250.2||9.85||Georgia 1962||Yap Island WSO Airport|
|9||236.5||9.31||Fran 1976||Yap Island WSO Airport|
|10||231.9||9.13||Faye 1963||Yap Island WSO Airport|
The elevation of the country increases to the west, with mountains on its highest plateau reaching nearly 8,000 feet (2,400 m).
|2||343.9||13.54||T.D. No. 2 2007|
Some of the highest elevations on the planet lie in Nepal. Eight out of fourteen highest peaks in the world lie in the Nepalese Himalaya including the highest peak of the World, Mt. Everest (8848 m). 51.3 millimetres (2.02 in) of rain fell at Kathmandu airport in the 24‑hour period ending at 1200 UTC on October 7.During a tropical depression that affected the Indian Subcontinent in 2004,
|1||286.3 mm||11.27 inches||Alice (1954)|
|1||203.2 mm||8.00 inches||Alice (1954)|
This hilly island is partially owned by France and partially claimed by the Netherlands.
|1||700.0||27.56||Lenny 1999||Meteorological Office, Phillpsburg|
|2||280.2||11.03||Jose 1999||Princess Juliana International Airport|
|4||111.7||4.40||Otto 2010||Princess Juliana International Airport|
|5||92.3||3.63||Rafael 2012||Princess Juliana International Airport|
|6||7.9||0.31||Ernesto 2012||Princess Juliana International Airport|
|7||7.0||0.28||Chantal 2013||Princess Juliana International Airport|
|8||6.6||0.26||Dorian 2013||Princess Juliana International Airport|
Most tropical cyclones which pass near New Zealand are in extratropical transition (ET) or have become extratropical, which can enhance their heavy rainfall threat.
|1||970||38.19||Hilda 1990||North Egmont Visitor Centre|
|2||917||36.10||Bola 1988||Glenross station|
|3||762||30.00||Rewa 1994||Collier Creek|
|4||425||16.73||Fergus 1996||The Pinnacles|
|7||311||12.24||Beti 1996||The Pinnacles|
|9||290||11.42||Ivy 2004||The Pinnacles|
|6||298||11.72||Alma 2008||Punto Sandino|
|8||231||9.10||Ida 2009||Puerto Cabezas|
|9||181||7.11||Felix 2007||Puerto Cabezas|
|10||162||6.39||Beta 2005||Puerto Cabezas|
During the passage of Tropical Cyclone Heta in January 2004, the Niue Meteorological Station reported a record 24-hour rainfall of 999.2 millimetres (39.34 in).
|1||999.2 mm||39.34 in||Heta 2004||Niue Meteorological Station|
|4||482.4||18.99||Masirah Cyclone 1977||Salalah|
|5||300.2||11.82||T.S. 02A (1996)||Dhofar|
|6||285.5||11.24||Muscat Cyclone 1890||Muscat|
|7||251.0||9.88||Oman Cyclone 2002||Qairoon|
|8||250.0||9.84||Ashobaa 2015||Masirah Island|
|9||230.0||9.06||Salalah Cyclone 1963||Salalah|
|10||82.0||3.23||Salalah Cyclone 1959||Salalah|
Tropical cyclones for the Arabian Sea usually affect Pakistan. Tropical cyclones from the Bay of Bengal can affect Pakistan, though they usually weaken by the time they reach the Pakistani coastline.
|2||285||11.22||Cyclone (1999)||Keti Bandar|
|3||245||9.64||BOB 03 (2009)||Karachi|
|4||191||7.51||BOB 06 (2007)||Karachi|
|7||43||1.69||BOB 04 (2007)||Karachi|
|8||18||0.70||BOB 03 (2009)||Karachi|
Palau consists of a string of islands that is rugged and surrounds a lagoon. Elevations up to 2,060 feet (630 m) exist within the island group.
|2||293.1||11.54||Nathan 1993||Nekken Forestry|
Inflow to the south of Hurricane Mitch brought impressive rainfalls to the Panama. Veledero de Tole recorded 695 millimetres (27.4 in) of rainfall between October 22 and 31, 1998.
This Philippines island archipelago is fairly mountainous, with the highest terrain found in Luzon.
|1||2210.0||87.01||July 1911 cyclone||Baguio|
|2||1854.3||73.00||Parma (Pepeng) 2009||Baguio|
|3||1216.0||47.86||Carla (Trining) 1967||Baguio|
|4||1116.0||43.94||Zeb (Iliang) 1998||La Trinidad, Benguet|
|5||1085.8||42.74||Utor (Feria) 2001||Baguio|
|6||1077.8||42.43||Koppu (Lando) 2015||Baguio|
|7||1012.7||39.87||Mindulle (Igme) 2004|
|8||902.0||35.51||Kujira (Dante) 2009|
|9||879.9||34.64||September 1929 typhoon||Virac, Catanduanes|
|10||869.6||34.24||Dinah (Openg) 1977||Western Luzon|
|3||404.0||15.91||Evan, 2012||Alaoa, Upolu|
Typhoon Vamei of December 20, 2001 was the only known storm to ever hit the island state. It dropped 165.1 millimetres (6.50 in) of rainfall.
|1||>2100||>82.68||Namu 1986||Mount Popomanaseu, Guadalcanal|
|2||>1000||>39.37||Ita 2014||Gold Ridge mine|
|3||495||19.49||Pam 2015||Lata, Santa Cruz Island|
|5||282||11.10||Raquel 2015||Munda, Western Province|
Tropical Cyclone Eline in February 2000 dropped significant rains on portions of South Africa. The highest amount noted was 480 mm (19 in) at Thohoyandou.
The only tropical cyclone to reach mainland Europe was 2005's Hurricane Vince. It dropped 3.3 inches (84 mm) of rain on the plain near Cordoba.
A tropical depression in early October 2004 led to heavy rains across Sri Lanka. The maximum was measured at Galle where 117.2 mm (4.61 in) fell in the 24‑hour period ending at 0600 UTC on the 2nd.
Tropical Cyclone Darius of New Year's Eve/Day of 2003/2004 passed about 45 miles (72 km) west-northwest of the island. Rainfall over the 24‑hour period of closest approach was 135 mm (5.3 in).
The mountainous island of Taiwan experiences an average of 1.8 tropical cyclone landfalls each year. Due to its rugged topography, Taiwan sees extreme rains from tropical cyclones, particularly in its central mountain range.
|1||3,060||120.47||Morakot 2009||Alishan, Chiayi|
|2||2,319||91.30||Nari 2001||Wulai, New Taipei|
|3||2,162||85.12||Flossie 1969||Beitou, Taipei|
|4||1,987||78.23||Herb 1996||Alishan, Chiayi|
|5||1,774||69.84||Saola 2012||Yilan City|
|7||1,672||65.83||Clara 1967||Dongshan, Yilan|
|8||1,611||63.43||Sinlaku 2008||Heping, Taichung|
|9||1,561||61.46||Haitang 2005||Sandimen, Pingtung|
|10||1,546||60.87||Aere 2004||Miaoli County|
Tropical cyclones occasionally cross the Malay Peninsula from the northwest Pacific into the Bay of Bengal.
|1||493.8||19.44||Zeke 1991||Khlong Yai|
|2||470.0||18.50||Tilda 1962||At Somat|
|4||328.7||12.94||Ira 1990||Lop Buri|
|5||322.6||12.70||Ed 1990||Takua Pa|
|6||279.5||11.00||18W (2013)||Muang district|
|7||273.6||10.77||Fred 1991||Khon Kaen|
|8||257.3||10.13||Brian 1989||Takua Pa|
|9||251.5||9.902||Muifa 2004||Prachaup Khirikhan|
|10||239.5||9.429||Nell 1990||Ko Samui|
Bermuda has not historically received overwhelming rains out of tropical cyclones. This could be because of the rapid pace storms usually pass the island and the lack of mountains on the island.
|1||186.7||7.35||October 1939 Hurricane|
|6||134.1||5.28||T.D. #23A 1967|
|10||123.2||4.85||September 1948 hurricane|
|1||794.8||31.29||Pinar del Río, 1944||Grand Cayman Island|
|2||577||22.72||Alberto, 2006||Owen Roberts International Airport|
|3||552.2||21.74||Isidore, 2002||Cayman Brac|
|4||451.4||17.77||Paloma, 2008||Cayman Brac|
|5||308.4||12.14||Ivan, 2004||Grand Cayman Island|
|6||292.1||11.50||Hattie, 1961||Grand Cayman Island|
|7||229.1||9.02||Nicole, 2010||Owen Roberts International Airport|
|8||165.6||6.52||Michelle, 2001||Grand Cayman Island|
|1||1538.7||60.58||Harvey 2017||Nederland, Texas|
|2||1321||52.02||Lane 2018||Mountainview, Hawaii|
|3||1321||52.00||Hiki 1950||Kanalohuluhulu Ranger Station, Hawaii|
|4||1219||48.00||Amelia 1978||Medina, Texas|
|5||1148||45.20||Easy 1950||Yankeetown, Florida|
|6||1143||45.00||Claudette 1979||Alvin, Texas|
|7||1058.7||41.68||T. D. #15 1970||Jayuya, Puerto Rico|
|8||1033||40.68||Allison 2001||Northwest Jefferson County, Texas|
|9||985||38.76||Paul 2000||Kapapala Ranch 36, Hawaii|
|10||977||38.46||Georges 1998||Munson, Florida|
|2||545.0||21.46||Dani 1999||Bauerfield Airport|
|4||270.0||10.63||Eric 1985||Surukavian, Pentecost|
|5||266.6||10.50||Sarah 1994||Santo-Pekoa International Airport|
|6||254.4||10.02||Ivy 2004||Bauerfield Airport|
|7||247.6||9.748||Anne 1988||Santo-Pekoa International Airport|
|8||246.6||9.709||Nigel 1985||Santo-Pekoa International Airport|
|9||223.7||8.807||Zuman 1998||Santo-Pekoa International Airport|
|10||219.3||8.634||Esau 1992||Santo-Pekoa International Airport|
A few tropical cyclones have skimmed the northern coast of South America over recent decades. Tropical Storm Bret (1993) dropped 339 millimetres (13.3 in) of rain in ten hours at Guanare, Portuguesa, Venezuela.
|1||1,773||69.8||Peipah 2007||Nam Đông|
|2||1,369||53.9||Tropical Depression 06W 2007||Hương Khê|
|3||1,239||48.8||September 2009 Vietnam tropical depression||Da Nang|
|4||914||36.0||Ketsana 2009||Quảng Nam|
|6||747||29.4||Aere 2016||Đồng Hới, Quảng Bình|
|8||666||26.2||Mirinae 2009||Vân Canh|
|10||497||19.6||Tropical Depression 2009||Quảng Ngãi Province|
Tropical cyclone warnings and watches are two levels of alert issued by national weather forecasting bodies to coastal areas threatened by the imminent approach of a tropical cyclone of tropical storm or hurricane intensity. They are notices to the local population and civil authorities to make appropriate preparation for the cyclone, including evacuation of vulnerable areas where necessary. It is important that interests throughout the area of an alert make preparations to protect life and property, and do not disregard it on the strength of the detailed forecast track. Tropical cyclones are not points, and forecasting their track remains an uncertain science.
Traditionally, areas of tropical cyclone formation are divided into seven basins. These include the north Atlantic Ocean, the eastern and western parts of the northern Pacific Ocean, the southwestern Pacific, the southwestern and southeastern Indian Oceans, and the northern Indian Ocean. The western Pacific is the most active and the north Indian the least active. An average of 86 tropical cyclones of tropical storm intensity form annually worldwide, with 47 reaching hurricane/typhoon strength, and 20 becoming intense tropical cyclones, super typhoons, or major hurricanes.
The 2007–08 South Pacific cyclone season was one of the least active South Pacific tropical cyclone season's on record, with only four tropical cyclones occurring within the South Pacific basin to the east of 160°E. The season officially ran from November 1, 2007 until April 30, 2008, although the first cyclone, Tropical Depression 01F, developed on October 17. The most intense tropical cyclone of the season was Severe Tropical Cyclone Daman, which reached a minimum pressure of 925 hPa (27.32 inHg) as it affected Fiji. After the season had ended, the names Daman, Funa, and Gene were retired from the tropical cyclone naming lists.
The 2005–06 South Pacific cyclone season was an event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. It began on November 1, 2005 and ended on April 30, 2006. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the southern Pacific Ocean east of 160°E. Additionally, the regional tropical cyclone operational plan defines a tropical cyclone year separately from a tropical cyclone season, and the "tropical cyclone year" runs from July 1, 2005 to June 30, 2006.
The 2003–04 South Pacific cyclone season was a below-average season with only three tropical cyclones occurring within the South Pacific to the east of 160°E. The season officially ran from November 1, 2003 to April 30, 2004 with the first disturbance of the season forming on December 4 and the last disturbance dissipating on April 23. This is the period of the year when most tropical cyclones form within the South Pacific Ocean.
Cyclone Akash was the first named tropical cyclone of the 2007 North Indian Ocean cyclone season. Warned by both India Meteorological Department (IMD) and Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC), it formed from an area of disturbed weather on the Bay of Bengal on May 12, and gradually organized as it drifted northward. An eye began to develop as it approached land, and after reaching peak 3-min sustained winds of 85 km/h (50 mph) it struck about 115 km (70 mi) south of Chittagong in Bangladesh. Akash rapidly weakened over land, and advisories were discontinued on May 15.
In the south-west Indian Ocean, tropical cyclones form south of the equator and west of 90° E to the coast of Africa.
The practice of using names to identify tropical cyclones goes back several centuries, with storms named after places, saints or things they hit before the formal start of naming in each basin. Examples of such names are the 1928 Okeechobee hurricane and the 1938 New England hurricane. The system currently in place provides identification of tropical cyclones in a brief form that is easily understood and recognized by the public. The credit for the first usage of personal names for weather systems is given to the Queensland Government Meteorologist Clement Wragge, who named tropical cyclones and anticyclones between 1887 and 1907. This system of naming fell into disuse for several years after Wragge retired, until it was revived in the latter part of World War II for the Western Pacific. Over the following decades formal naming schemes were introduced for several tropical cyclone basins, including the North and South Atlantic, Eastern, Central, Western and Southern Pacific basins as well as the Australian region and Indian Ocean.
Severe Tropical Cyclone Yali was one of seven severe tropical cyclones to develop during the 1997–98 South Pacific cyclone season. The system that was to become Yali was first noted as a tropical disturbance, to the northeast of Vanuatu during March 17. Over the next couple of days the system moved towards the south-west and gradually developed further, before it was named Yali during March 19, after it had developed into a tropical cyclone. After it was named Yali re-curved and started moving towards the south-southeast, as the monsoonal flow to the north of the system strengthened. While the system was active, Yali affected Vanuatu and New Caledonia, before the extra-tropical remnants impacted New Zealand where a man was killed and widespread power outages and damage were reported.