This is a list of wettest tropical cyclones by country, using all known available sources. Data is most complete for Australia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Japan, Hong Kong, Mexico, Taiwan, Micronesia's Yap and Chuuk, and the United States, with fragmentary data available for other countries. The French region of Réunion holds several world records for tropical cyclone and worldwide rainfall, due to the rough topography and its location in the Indian Ocean.
Réunion is an overseas department and region of France and an island in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar and 175 km (109 mi) southwest of Mauritius. As of January 2019, it had a population of 866,506.
Christmas Island is an Australian territory located in the Indian Ocean located at the summit of a submarine mountain, which rises steeply to a central plateau that is dominated by stands of rainforest. After rainfall and wind observations started on the island during 1972, only 13 tropical cyclones passed within 220km (135mi) of the territory between 1972 and 2005.
The Territory of Christmas Island is an Australian external territory comprising the island of the same name. Christmas Island is located in the Indian Ocean, around 350 kilometres (220 mi) south of Java and Sumatra and around 1,550 kilometres (960 mi) north-west of the closest point on the Australian mainland. It has an area of 135 square kilometres (52 sq mi).
Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants on Christmas Island Highest-known totals
The Cocos (Keeling) Islands are an Australian territory of 27 coral islands that are formed into two large coral atolls and cover an area of around 36km2 (14sqmi) of the Indian Ocean to the northwest of Perth, Australia. Rainfall observations started on the islands during 1907, while temperature, wind and other records started in 1952. Between 1952 and 2005 27 tropical cyclones caused storm force wind gusts of over 90km/h (55mph) on the islands, while only four caused hurricane-force gusts of over 125km/h (80mph).
The Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands is an Australian external territory on the Indian Ocean, comprising a small archipelago approximately midway between Australia and Sri Lanka and closer to the Indonesian island of Sumatra. It is part of Southeast Asia and is in the Southern Hemisphere. The territory's dual name reflects that the islands have historically been known as either the Cocos Islands or the Keeling Islands.
Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants in the Cocos Islands Highest-known totals
This country has terrain mainly across its southern sections, with elevations up to about 3,700 feet (1,100m). The highest reported rainfall in what was formerly British Honduras occurred during Hurricane Keith in 2000 when 32.67 inches (830mm) of rain fell in a 24‑hour period at Phillip Goodson International Airport in Belize City. Equally heavy rains could have fallen during Hurricane Hattie of 1961 and Hurricane Fifi of 1974.
Hurricane Keith was an Atlantic hurricane in October 2000 that caused extensive damage in Central America, especially in Mexico and Belize. It was the fifteenth tropical cyclone, eleventh named storm, and seventh hurricane of the 2000 Atlantic hurricane season. Keith developed as a tropical depression from a tropical wave in the western Caribbean Sea on September 28. The depression gradually strengthened, and became Tropical Storm Keith on the following day. As the storm tracked westward, it continued to intensify and was upgraded to a hurricane on September 30. Shortly thereafter, Keith began to rapidly deepen, and peaked as a Category 4 hurricane less than 24 hours later. Keith then began to meander erratically offshore of Belize, which significantly weakened the storm due to land interaction. By late on October 2, Keith made landfall in Ambergris Caye, Belize as a minimal hurricane. It quickly weakened to a tropical storm, before another landfall occurred near Belize City early on the following day. While moving inland over the Yucatán Peninsula, Keith weakened further, and was downgraded to a tropical depression before emerging into the Gulf of Mexico on October 4. Once in the Gulf of Mexico, Keith began to re-strengthen and was upgraded to a tropical storm later that day, and a hurricane on the following day. By late on October 5, Keith made its third and final landfall near Tampico, Tamaulipas, Mexico as a moderately strong Category 1 hurricane. The storm quickly weakened inland and dissipated as a tropical cyclone by 24 hours after landfall.
Belize City is the largest city in Belize and was once the capital of the former British Honduras. According to the 2010 census, Belize City has a population of 57,169 people in 16,162 households. It is at the mouth of the Haulover Creek, which is a tributary of the Belize River. The Belize River empties into the Caribbean Sea five miles from Belize City on the Philip Goldson Highway on the coast of the Caribbean. The city is the country's principal port and its financial and industrial hub. Cruise ships drop anchor outside the port and are tendered by local citizens. The city was almost entirely destroyed in 1961 when Hurricane Hattie swept ashore on October 31. It was the capital of British Honduras until the government was moved to the new capital of Belmopan in 1970.
Hurricane Hattie was the strongest and deadliest tropical cyclone of the 1961 Atlantic hurricane season, reaching a peak intensity equivalent to that of a Category5 hurricane. The ninth tropical storm and seventh hurricane and major hurricane of the season, Hattie originated from an area of low pressure that strengthened into a tropical storm over the southwestern Caribbean Sea on October 27. Moving generally northward, the storm quickly became a hurricane and later major hurricane the following day. Hattie then turned westward west of Jamaica and strengthened into a Category5 hurricane, with maximum sustained winds of 160 mph (260 km/h). It weakened to Category4 before making landfall south of Belize City on October 31. The storm turned southwestward and weakened rapidly over the mountainous terrain of Central America, dissipating on November1.
Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants in Belize Highest-known totals
Tropical cyclones are usually in transition to extratropical cyclones by the time they reach Atlantic Canada, though occasionally they retain their tropical status. No tropical cyclone has ever hit Canada's Pacific coast.
Extratropical cyclones, sometimes called mid-latitude cyclones or wave cyclones, are low-pressure areas which, along with the anticyclones of high-pressure areas, drive the weather over much of the Earth. Extratropical cyclones are capable of producing anything from cloudiness and mild showers to heavy gales, thunderstorms, blizzards, and tornadoes. These types of cyclones are defined as large scale (synoptic) low pressure weather systems that occur in the middle latitudes of the Earth. In contrast with tropical cyclones, extratropical cyclones produce rapid changes in temperature and dew point along broad lines, called weather fronts, about the center of the cyclone.
Atlantic Canada, also called the Atlantic provinces, is the region of Canada comprising the four provinces located on the Atlantic coast, excluding Quebec: the three Maritime provinces – New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island – and the easternmost province of Newfoundland and Labrador. The population of the four Atlantic provinces in 2016 was about 2,300,000 on half a million km2. The provinces combined had an approximate GDP of $121.888 billion in 2011.
Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants in Canada Highest-known totals
China is a mountainous country, which leads to rapid dissipation of cyclones that move inland as well as significant amounts of rain from those dissipating cyclones. Typhoon Nina (1975) caused the collapse of two huge reservoirs and ten smaller dams when 1,062 millimetres (41.8in) fell in Henan during a 24‑hour period, which is the record for Mainland China. Typhoon Sam of the 1999 Pacific typhoon season became the wettest known tropical cyclone to impact Hong Kong since records began in 1884, breaking a 73‑year‑old record. Precipitation associated with tropical cyclones and their remains can bring snow to Tibet. An early October 2004 tropical depression brought daily precipitation of 6 centimetres (2.4in) of liquid equivalent precipitation to Che-Ku county in the form of heavy snow, which was a new October daily precipitation record for both rain and snow. This led to a loss of 340,000kg of food, 230,000kg of forage grass, and 263 livestock in the snowstorm.
Typhoon Nina, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Bebeng, was the fourth-deadliest tropical cyclone on record. At least 229,000 people died after the Banqiao Dam collapsed and devastated areas downstream. The collapse of the dam due to heavy floods also caused a string of smaller dams to collapse, adding more damage caused by the typhoon.
Henan is a landlocked province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. Henan is often referred to as Zhongyuan or Zhongzhou (中州), which literally means "central plain" or "midland", although the name is also applied to the entirety of China proper. Henan is the birthplace of Chinese civilization, with over 3,000 years of recorded history, and remained China's cultural, economical and political center until approximately 1,000 years ago.
The 1999 Pacific typhoon season was the last Pacific typhoon season to use English names as storm names. It had no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1999, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between May and November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.
Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants Mainland China Highest-known totals
Hurricane Flora of October 1963 drifted across Cuba for four days, leading to extreme rainfall across the mountainous island country. During the heaviest 24‑hour period of rainfall, 735 millimetres (28.9in) of rain fell at Santiago de Cuba. Total amounts of 2,033 millimetres (80.0in) over 4days and 2,550 millimetres (100in) over 5days produced staggering loss of life in Cuba, where over 2000 perished.
Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants in Cuba Highest-known totals
The islands of the eastern Caribbean are constantly threatened by tropical storms and hurricanes, mainly between August and October. Dominica is a rugged island, with spots of elevation as high as nearly 4,750 feet (1,450m). As Hurricane Jeanne moved through the region, 422.3 millimetres (16.63in) of rain fell during the 24‑hour period ending on the morning of September 15, 2004.
Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants in Dominica Highest-known totals
The Dominican Republic, has some of the highest terrain surrounding the Caribbean Sea, with Pico Duarte peaking at 10,700 feet (3,300m) above sea level. Most of the tropical cyclone rainfall totals on the list below are 24‑hour maxima, which likely underrepresent the storm total.
Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants the Dominican Republic Highest-known totals
The mountainous island of Réunion has experienced several of the highest rainfall totals on record from tropical cyclones and holds the rainfall world records for 12, 24, 48, 72hours, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine and ten days as a result. The 12 and 24 hourly rainfall records were set at Foc-Foc by Cyclone Denise in 1966, while an Unnamed Tropical Cyclone between April 8–10, 1958 set the record for 48 hours at Aurere. Tropical Cyclone Gamede between February 24–28, 2007 came close to beating the records for 12, 24 and 48 hours before setting the records for three, four, five, six, seven, eight and ninedays that were held by Tropical Cyclone Hyacinthe 1980. Hyacinthe 1980 currently holds the world records for ten and fifteen days with rainfall totals of 5,678 millimetres (223.5in) and 6,083 millimetres (239.5in) respectively recorded at Commerson Crater.
Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants on Reunion island Highest-known totals
Tropical Storm Agatha in May 2010 became the second-wettest tropical cyclone in the nation's history when it slowly developed while remaining nearly stationary to the southwest of Guatemala, before turning northeast and dissipating across inland Central America.
Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants Guatemala Highest-known totals
Haiti that makes up three-eighths of Hispaniola, is a mountainous country that has experienced some of the most powerful hurricanes on record, including Hurricane David. Its three mountain ranges have peaks as high as 8793feet/2680meters above sea level.
Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants in Haiti Highest-known totals
The precursor tropical disturbance of Tropical Cyclone Inigo in April 2003 dropped heavy rainfall in eastern Indonesia. The rainfall caused flash flooding and mudslides, primarily in Flores but also on West Timor and Sumba. In some locations, the depth of the floodwaters reached 5 metres (16ft). The Oessao River in West Timor exceeded its banks, which flooded seven villages. In Kupang in West Timor, the system destroyed hundreds of homes and large fields of corn, bean, and rice crop. Heavy damage was reported near Ende, where flooding and mudslides destroyed 20houses and destroyed the roads connecting to East Flores. The city airport was flooded with one meter (3ft) of water, preventing aerial transportation and which left the city temporarily isolated. In East Flores Regency in eastern Flores Island, the system left 75destroyed houses, along with 77 severely damaged and a further 56 receiving light damage.
Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants in Indonesia Highest-known totals
This mountainous island country of Jamaica can get lashed with rainfall by slow-moving tropical cyclones in the western Caribbean Sea. Its interior, the Blue Mountains, reach a height of 7,400 feet (2,300m) above sea level.
Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants in Jamaica Highest-known totals
The mountainous island archipelago is constantly struck by typhoons recurving out of the tropics, which are normally in extratropical transition as they pass through Japan. Typhoon Namtheun of the 2004 Pacific typhoon season holds the national 24-hour precipitation record with 1,317 millimetres (51.9in) observed in Kisawa village, surpassing the previous record of 1,140mm (45in) set during Typhoon Fran in 1976.
Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants in Japan Highest-known totals
Hurricane Wilma of 2005 drifted over the northeast portion of the Yucatán peninsula for a couple of days, dropping significant rains. A report of 1,576 millimetres (62.0in) was reported by the Servicio Meteorológico Nacional in Mexico, which is the wettest known 24-hour rainfall amount ever measured in Mexico. Second on the list is from Tropical Storm Frances in 1998, which accumulated up to 1,019 millimetres (40.1in) of rain at Independencia in southern Chiapas. Below is a list of the highest known storm total rainfall amounts from individual tropical cyclones across Mexico. Most of the rainfall information was provided by the Mexico's National Weather Service, Servicio Meteorológico Nacional, which is a part of the National Water Commission, Comisión Nacional del Agua.
Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants Mexico (Overall) Highest-known totals
Elevations of the islands surrounding Chuuk lagoon reach a height of about 1,450 feet (440m).Typhoon Chataan led to excessive rainfall on this island from June 23– July 3, 2002, when a total of 939mm (37.0in) fell. During the time frame when Chataan was declared a tropical cyclone from July 1–3, 622mm (24.5in) fell, with 506mm (19.9in) falling on the 2nd alone at the international airport.
Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants on Chuuk Highest-known totals
Some of the highest elevations on the planet lie in Nepal. Eight out of fourteen highest peaks in the world lie in the Nepalese Himalaya including the highest peak of the World, Mt. Everest (8848 m). During a tropical depression that affected the Indian Subcontinent in 2004, 51.3 millimetres (2.02in) of rain fell at Kathmandu airport in the 24‑hour period ending at 1200 UTC on October 7.
Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants on Saba Highest-known totals
Tropical cyclones for the Arabian Sea usually affect Pakistan. Tropical cyclones from the Bay of Bengal can affect Pakistan, though they usually weaken by the time they reach the Pakistani coastline.
Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants in Pakistan Highest-known totals
The mountainous island of Taiwan experiences an average of 1.8tropical cyclone landfalls each year. Due to its rugged topography, Taiwan sees extreme rains from tropical cyclones, particularly in its central mountain range.
Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants in Taiwan Highest-known totals
Tropical cyclone warnings and watches are two levels of alert issued by national weather forecasting bodies to coastal areas threatened by the imminent approach of a tropical cyclone of tropical storm or hurricane intensity. They are notices to the local population and civil authorities to make appropriate preparation for the cyclone, including evacuation of vulnerable areas where necessary. It is important that interests throughout the area of an alert make preparations to protect life and property, and do not disregard it on the strength of the detailed forecast track. Tropical cyclones are not points, and forecasting their track remains an uncertain science.
Traditionally, areas of tropical cyclone formation are divided into seven basins. These include the north Atlantic Ocean, the eastern and western parts of the northern Pacific Ocean, the southwestern Pacific, the southwestern and southeastern Indian Oceans, and the northern Indian Ocean. The western Pacific is the most active and the north Indian the least active. An average of 86 tropical cyclones of tropical storm intensity form annually worldwide, with 47 reaching hurricane/typhoon strength, and 20 becoming intense tropical cyclones, super typhoons, or major hurricanes.
The 2007–08 South Pacific cyclone season was one of the least active South Pacific tropical cyclone season's on record, with only four tropical cyclones occurring within the South Pacific basin to the east of 160°E. The season officially ran from November 1, 2007 until April 30, 2008, although the first cyclone, Tropical Depression 01F, developed on October 17. The most intense tropical cyclone of the season was Severe Tropical Cyclone Daman, which reached a minimum pressure of 925 hPa (27.32 inHg) as it affected Fiji. After the season had ended, the names Daman, Funa, and Gene were retired from the tropical cyclone naming lists.
The 2005–06 South Pacific cyclone season was an event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. It began on November 1, 2005 and ended on April 30, 2006. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the southern Pacific Ocean east of 160°E. Additionally, the regional tropical cyclone operational plan defines a tropical cyclone year separately from a tropical cyclone season, and the "tropical cyclone year" runs from July 1, 2005 to June 30, 2006.
The 2003–04 South Pacific cyclone season was a below-average season with only three tropical cyclones occurring within the South Pacific to the east of 160°E. The season officially ran from November 1, 2003 to April 30, 2004 with the first disturbance of the season forming on December 4 and the last disturbance dissipating on April 23. This is the period of the year when most tropical cyclones form within the South Pacific Ocean.
Cyclone Akash was the first named tropical cyclone of the 2007 North Indian Ocean cyclone season. Warned by both India Meteorological Department (IMD) and Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC), it formed from an area of disturbed weather on the Bay of Bengal on May 12, and gradually organized as it drifted northward. An eye began to develop as it approached land, and after reaching peak 3-min sustained winds of 85 km/h (50 mph) it struck about 115 km (70 mi) south of Chittagong in Bangladesh. Akash rapidly weakened over land, and advisories were discontinued on May 15.
In the south-west Indian Ocean, tropical cyclones form south of the equator and west of 90° E to the coast of Africa.
The practice of using names to identify tropical cyclones goes back several centuries, with storms named after places, saints or things they hit before the formal start of naming in each basin. Examples of such names are the 1928 Okeechobee hurricane and the 1938 New England hurricane. The system currently in place provides identification of tropical cyclones in a brief form that is easily understood and recognized by the public. The credit for the first usage of personal names for weather systems is given to the Queensland Government Meteorologist Clement Wragge, who named tropical cyclones and anticyclones between 1887 and 1907. This system of naming fell into disuse for several years after Wragge retired, until it was revived in the latter part of World War II for the Western Pacific. Over the following decades formal naming schemes were introduced for several tropical cyclone basins, including the North and South Atlantic, Eastern, Central, Western and Southern Pacific basins as well as the Australian region and Indian Ocean.
↑ Western Australian Regional Office (January 1, 2015). Severe Tropical Cyclone Kate (Report). Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Archived from the original on January 1, 2015. Retrieved January 1, 2015.
↑ Naciones Unidas a Centroamérica (March 16, 1999). "Costa Rica: Evaluación de los Daños Ocasionados por el Huracán Mitch, 1998: Sus implicaciones para el desarrollo económico y social y el medio ambiente". United Nations. p.10.Missing or empty |url= (help)
↑ Richard J. Pasch, Andrew B. Penny, and Robbie Berg (April 5, 2018). Hurricane Maria (AL152017)(PDF) (Report). Tropical Cyclone Report. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved April 9, 2018.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
↑ Brown, Daniel P; Kimberlain, Todd B; National Hurricane Center (March 27, 2009). Hurricane Hanna(PDF) (Tropical Cyclone Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Retrieved June 1, 2012.
↑ Avila, Lixion A; National Hurricane Center (October 23, 1996). Hurricane Hortense 3-16 September 1996 (Preliminary Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Archived from the original on July 3, 2013. Retrieved June 17, 2012.
↑ "COMMUNIQUE". February 10, 2008. Archived from the original on February 10, 2008. Retrieved October 19, 2016.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
↑ Pasch, Richard J; National Hurricane Center (November 22, 1999). Hurricane Jose: October 17 – 25, 1999 (Preliminary Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
↑ Cangialosi, John P; National Hurricane Center (November 17, 2010). Hurricane Otto October 6–10(PDF) (Tropical Cyclone Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. pp.6–7. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
↑ Rappaport, Edward N; National Hurricane Center (January 17, 1996). Hurricane Marilyn: September 12 – 22, 1995 (Preliminary Report). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Retrieved December 7, 2012.