Los Angeles Metropolitan Area
|Los Angeles–Long Beach–Anaheim|
|Largest city||Los Angeles|
|Other cities|| Long Beach |
|• Total||4,850.3 sq mi (12,562 km2)|
|Highest elevation||Mount San Antonio 10,068 ft (3,069 m)|
|Lowest elevation||Wilmington −9 ft (-3 m)|
|• Rank||2nd in the U.S.|
|• Density||2,744/sq mi (1,059/km2)|
The Los Angeles metropolitan area, also known as Metropolitan Los Angeles or the Southland,is the 30th largest metropolitan area in the world and the second-largest metropolitan area in the United States. It is the 3rd largest city by GDP in the world with a $1 trillion+ economy. It is entirely in the southern portion of the U.S. state of California.
A metropolitan area is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing. A metro area usually comprises multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, townships, boroughs, cities, towns, exurbs, suburbs, counties, districts, states, and even nations like the eurodistricts. As social, economic and political institutions have changed, metropolitan areas have become key economic and political regions.
In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the federal government. Due to this shared sovereignty, Americans are citizens both of the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons restricted by certain types of court orders.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents across a total area of about 163,696 square miles (423,970 km2), California is the most populous U.S. state and the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento. The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, and the country's second-most populous, after New York City. California also has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs.
The metropolitan area is defined by the Office of Management and Budget as the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), consisting of Los Angeles and Orange counties, a metropolitan statistical area used for statistical purposes by the United States Census Bureau and other agencies. km2) and its estimated 2016 population was 13,310,447 (a 3.75 percent increase over the official 2010 US Census population of 12,828,837).Its land area is 4,850 sq. mi (12,562
The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States (EOP). OMB's most prominent function is to produce the President's Budget, but OMB also measures the quality of agency programs, policies, and procedures to see if they comply with the president's policies and coordinates inter-agency policy initiatives.
Los Angeles County, officially the County of Los Angeles, in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of the U.S. state of California, is the most populous county in the United States, with more than 10 million inhabitants as of 2018. As such, it is the largest non–state level government entity in the United States. Its population is larger than that of 41 individual U.S. states. It is the third-largest metropolitan economy in the world, with a Nominal GDP of over $700 billion—larger than the GDPs of Belgium, Norway, and Taiwan. It has 88 incorporated cities and many unincorporated areas and, at 4,083 square miles (10,570 km2), it is larger than the combined areas of Delaware and Rhode Island. The county is home to more than one-quarter of California residents and is one of the most ethnically-diverse counties in the U.S. Its county seat, Los Angeles, is also California's most populous city and the second most populous city in the U.S., with about 4 million residents.
Orange County is a county located in the Los Angeles metropolitan area in the U.S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 3,010,232, making it the third-most populous county in California, the sixth most populous in the U.S., and more populous than 21 U.S. states. Although mostly suburban, it is the second most densely populated county in the state, behind San Francisco County. The county's four most populous cities, Anaheim, Santa Ana, Irvine, and Huntington Beach, each have a population exceeding 200,000. Several cities are on the Pacific coast, including Huntington Beach, Newport Beach, Laguna Beach, Dana Point, and San Clemente.
Los Angeles and Orange counties are the first- and third-most populous counties in California respectively, and Los Angeles, with 9,819,000 people in 2010, is the most populous county in the United States. The Los Angeles metropolitan area is the most populous metropolitan area in the western United States and the largest in area in the United States. The metro area has at its core the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim corridor, an urbanized area defined by the Census Bureau with a population 12,150,996 as of the 2010 Census.
Long Beach is a city in the US state of California located within the Los Angeles metropolitan area. It is the 39th most populous city in the United States with a population of 462,257 in 2010. A charter city, Long Beach is the 7th most populous city in California.
Anaheim is a city in Orange County, California, part of the Los Angeles metropolitan area. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city had a population of 336,265, making it the most populous city in Orange County and the 10th-most populous city in California. Anaheim is the second-largest city in Orange County in terms of land area, and is known for being the home of the Disneyland Resort, the Anaheim Convention Center, and two major sports teams: the Anaheim Ducks ice hockey club and the Los Angeles Angels baseball team.
The Census Bureau also defines a wider commercial region based on commuting patterns, the Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA Combined Statistical Area (CSA), more commonly known as the Greater Los Angeles Area a megapolitan area consisting of three metropolitan areas, with an estimated population of 18,788,800 in 2017. km2).This includes the three additional counties of Ventura, Riverside, and San Bernardino. The total land area of the combined statistical area is 33,955 sq. mi (87,945
Ventura County is a county in the southern part of the U.S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 823,318. The largest city is Oxnard, and the county seat is the city of Ventura.
Riverside County is one of 58 counties in the U.S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 2,189,641, making it the fourth-most populous county in California and the 11th-most populous in the United States. The name was derived from the city of Riverside, which is the county seat.
San Bernardino is a city located in the Riverside–San Bernardino metropolitan area and that serves as the county seat of San Bernardino County, California, United States. As one of the Inland Empire's anchor cities, San Bernardino spans 81 square miles (210 km2) on the floor of the San Bernardino Valley and as of 2017 has a population of 216,995. San Bernardino is the 17th-largest city in California and the 102nd-largest city in the United States. The governments of Guatemala and Mexico have established consulates in the downtown area of the city.
The counties and county groupings comprising the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area are listed below with 2017 U.S. Bureau of the Census estimates of their populations.
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy. The Census Bureau is part of the U.S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States.
Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area (13,353,907)
Major divisions of the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area
In addition to the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, the following Metropolitan Statistical Areas are also included in the Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA Combined Statistical Area (total pop. 18,788,800):
The Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA CSA is a multicore metropolitan region containing several urban areas.
The combined statistical area is a multicore metropolitan region containing several urban areas.
|2||Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim||12,150,996|
|69||Mission Viejo-Lake Forest-San Clemente||583,681|
The following is a list of communities with populations over 50,000 in the Los Angeles metropolitan area with 2018 United States Census Bureau estimates of their population.Communities in italics are unincorporated and their populations are from the 2010 Census, while those in bold are considered principal cities of the metropolitan area by the Census Bureau, which represent significant employment centers.
This section needs to be updated.June 2015)(
The economy of the Los Angeles metropolitan area is famously and heavily based on the entertainment industry, with a particular focus on television, motion pictures, interactive games, and recorded music – the Hollywood district of Los Angeles and its surrounding areas are known as the "movie capital of the United States" due to the region's extreme commercial and historical importance to the American motion picture industry. Other significant sectors include shipping/international trade – particularly at the adjacent Port of Los Angeles and Port of Long Beach, together comprising the United States' busiest seaport – as well as aerospace, technology, petroleum, fashion and apparel, and tourism.
The City of Los Angeles is home to five Fortune 500 companies: energy company Occidental Petroleum (until 2014 when it moved its headquarters to Houston), healthcare provider Health Net, metals distributor Reliance Steel & Aluminum, engineering firm AECOM, and real estate group CB Richard Ellis. Other companies headquartered in Los Angeles include American Apparel, City National Bank, 20th Century Fox, Latham & Watkins, Univision, Metro Interactive, LLC, Premier America, Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher, DeviantArt,Guess?, O’Melveny & Myers; Paul, Hastings, Janofsky & Walker, Tokyopop, The Jim Henson Company, Paramount Pictures, Sunkist Growers, Incorporated, Tutor Perini, Fox Sports Net, Capital Group, and The Coffee Bean & Tea Leaf. Korean Air's US passenger and cargo operations headquarters are in two separate offices in Los Angeles. Entertainment and media giant The Walt Disney Company is headquartered in nearby Burbank.
The Los Angeles-Orange County metro area alone has an economy of roughly $1.044 trillion (estimated for 2017), or the total economic output or income of Indonesia's 250 million people; important are coastal California land values and the rents they command, which contribute heavily to GDP earnings, though there are worries that these high land values contribute to the long-term problem of housing affordability and are thus a possible risk to future GDP increase. This is evident when comparing the coast with the Inland Empire, a large component of the five-county combined statistical area (CSA) that nevertheless contributes a far smaller portion to regional gross metropolitan product but still dominates in industry. The Southland CSA is the third-largest economic center in the world, after the Greater Tokyo Area and the New York-Newark-Bridgeport CSA.
The Port of Los Angeles and Port of Long Beach together comprise the fifth-busiest port in the world, being the center of imports and exports for trade on the west Pacific Coast as well as being one of the most significant ports of the western hemisphere. The Port of Los Angeles occupies 7,500 acres (3,035 hectares) of land and water along 43 miles (69 kilometres) of waterfront and is the busiest container port in the United States. The Port is the busiest port in the United States by container volume, the 8th busiest container port in the world. The top trading partners in 2004 were: China ($68.8 billion), Japan ($24.1 billion), Taiwan ($10.8 billion), Thailand ($6.7 billion), & South Korea ($5.6 billion)
The Port of Long Beach is the second-busiest container port in the United States. It adjoins the separate Port of Los Angeles. Acting as a major gateway for U.S.-Asian trade, the port occupies 3,200 acres (1,295 hectares) of land with 25 miles (40 kilometres) of waterfront in the city of Long Beach, California. The seaport has approximately $100 billion in trade and provides more than 316,000 jobs in Southern California. The Port of Long Beach imports and exports more than $100 billion worth of goods every year. The seaport provides the country with jobs, generates tax revenue, and supports retail and manufacturing businesses.[ citation needed ]
The Long Beach–Los Angeles–Anaheim metropolitan statistical area is in the southern part of California. In 2014, the metro area's population reached 13,262,220 and ranked second in the United States – a 1 percent increase from 2013.In 2014, Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim had a per capita personal income (PCPI) of $50,751 and ranked 29th in the country.
In 2014, Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim placed third among the largest exporters in the United States (shipment totaling to $75.5 billion). The metro accounted for 40.8 percent of California's merchandise exports, mainly exporting computer and electronic products ($18.6 billion); transportation equipment ($15.3 billion) and chemicals ($5.6 billion). Nonetheless, the greater Los Angeles metro has immensely benefited from the free trade agreements: greater Los Angeles exported $25.1 billion to the NAFTA region and $776 million in goods to the CAFTA region.
Overall, in 2014 the average wages and salaries reached $57,519 (in 2010, the average wages and salaries reached $54,729).Meanwhile, the median household income in 2014 was $56,935, a 1.4 percent increase from 2013 (average median household income was $56,164).
Note: Dollar items are in current dollars (not adjusted for inflation). Per capita items in dollars; other dollar items in thousands of dollars.
Table 2 (refer below) is a chart of the four highest sectors in the metro area, with health care and social assistance reaching 15.54%.
|Industry||Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA MSA|
|NAICS 62 Health care and social assistance||15.54%|
|NAICS 44–45 Retail trade||11.27%|
|NAICS 72 Accommodation and food services||10.79%|
|NAICS 31–33 Manufacturing||10.47%|
Table 3 (refer below) displays the location quotient for employment in the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim MSA. Top three sectors include information; art, entertainment, and recreation; and real estate and rental and leasing. (Data obtained from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2014. Data measures Location Quotient for sectors in the MSA area. U.S. Total is the base areas.)
|Industry||Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA MSA|
|NAICS 99 Unclassified||2.46|
|NAICS 51 Information||1.88|
|NAICS 71 Arts, entertainment, and recreation||1.36|
|NAICS 53 Real estate and rental and leasing||1.29|
|NAICS 42 Wholesale trade||1.21|
|NAICS 61 Educational services||1.13|
|NAICS 54 Professional and technical services||1.11|
|NAICS 56 Administrative and waste services||1.06|
|NAICS 81 Other services, except public administration||1.04|
|NAICS 31–33 Manufacturing||1|
|NAICS 62 Health care and social assistance||1|
|NAICS 72 Accommodation and food services||1|
|NAICS 55 Management of companies and enterprises||0.95|
|NAICS 48–49 Transportation and warehousing||0.88|
|NAICS 52 Finance and insurance||0.86|
|NAICS 44–45 Retail trade||0.85|
|NAICS 23 Construction||0.76|
|NAICS 22 Utilities||0.65|
|NAICS 11 Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting||0.15|
|NAICS 21 Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction||0.15|
There are nine electric utility power companies in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Southern California Edison serves a large majority of the Los Angeles metropolitan area except for Los Angeles city limits, Burbank, Glendale, Pasadena, Azusa, Vernon, Anaheim, and southern Orange County. Southern Orange County is part of the Los Angeles metropolitan area and it is served by San Diego Gas & Electric. There are three natural gas providers in the metropolitan area. Southern California Gas Company serves a large majority of the Los Angeles metropolitan area except for Long Beach and southern Orange County.
The Los Angeles metropolitan area is served by the following utility companies.
The only nuclear power plant that serves the Los Angeles metropolitan area is Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station in the US state of Arizona 46 miles west of Phoenix. LADWP and Southern California Edison get their electricity from it.
|State Census data|
According to the 2009 American Community Survey, the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area had a population of 12,874,797, of which 6,402,498 (49.7% of the population) were male and 6,472,299 (50.3% of the population) were female.
The age composition was the following:
Median age: 34.6 years
According to the survey, the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area was 54.6% White (32.2% non-Hispanic White alone), 7.0% Black or African American, 0.5% American Indian and Alaska Native, 13.9% Asian, 0.3% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 20.6% from Some other race, and 3.2% from Two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race made up 44.8% of the population.
Whites are the racial majority; whites of both Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin make up 54.6% of the population. Non-Hispanic whites make up under one-third (32.2%) of the population. Approximately 7,028,533 residents are white, of which 4,150,426 are non-Hispanic whites.
The top five European ancestries are the following:
Blacks are a sizable minority; blacks of both Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin make up 7.0% of the population. Non-Hispanic blacks make up 6.7% of the population. Approximately 895,931 residents are black, of which 864,737 are non-Hispanic blacks. In the survey, 136,024 people identified their ancestry as "Sub-Saharan African", equal to 1.1% of the population.
American Indians are a small minority; American Indians of both Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin make up 0.5% of the population. American Indians of non-Hispanic origin make up 0.2% of the populace. Approximately 68,822 residents are American Indian, of which 26,134 are American Indians of non-Hispanic origin. Approximately 3,872 Cherokee, 1,679 Navajo, 1,000 Chippewa, and 965 Sioux reside in the area.
Asians are a large minority; Asians of both Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin make up 13.9% of the population. Asians of non-Hispanic origin make up 13.7% of the population. Approximately 1,790,140 residents are Asian, of which 1,770,225 are Asians of non-Hispanic origin.
The six Asian ancestries mentioned are the following:
"Other Asian" is an additional category that includes people who did not identify themselves as any of the groups above. This group includes people of Cambodian, Laotian, Pakistani, Burmese, Taiwanese, and Thai descent, among others. Approximately 166,665 people are in this category, and they make up 1.3% of the population.
Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders are a very small minority; Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders make up 0.3% of the population. Approximately 37,719 residents are Native Hawaiian or of other Pacific Islander ancestries, of which 33,982 are of non-Hispanic origin.
The three Pacific Islander ancestries mentioned are the following:
"Other Pacific Islander" is an additional category that includes people who did not identify themselves as any of the groups above. This group includes people of Fijian and Tongan descent, among others. Approximately 12,764 people are in this category, and they make up 0.1% of the population.
Multiracial individuals are a sizable minority; multiracial people of both Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin make up 3.2% of the population, of which 1.8% were of non-Hispanic origin. Approximately 405,568 people are multiracial, of which 228,238 are of non-Hispanic origin.
The four multiracial ancestries mentioned are the following:
Hispanic or Latinos, are, by far, the largest minority group; Hispanics or Latinos make up 44.8% of the population. They outnumber every other racial group. Approximately 5,763,181 residents are Hispanic or Latino.
The three Hispanic or Latino ancestries mentioned are the following:
"Other Hispanic or Latino" is an additional category that includes people who did not identify themselves as any of the groups above. This group include people of Costa Rican, Salvadoran, and Colombian descent, among others. Approximately 1,096,569 people are in this category, and they make up 8.5% of the population.
|County||2017 Estimate||2010 Census||Change||Area||Density|
|Los Angeles County||10,163,507||9,818,605||+3.51%||4,057.88 sq mi (10,509.9 km2)||2,498/sq mi (965/km2)|
|Orange County||3,190,400||3,010,232||+5.99%||790.57 sq mi (2,047.6 km2)||4,013/sq mi (1,549/km2)|
|Total||13,353,907||12,828,837||+4.09%||4,848.45 sq mi (12,557.4 km2)||2,745/sq mi (1,060/km2)|
Los Angeles and Orange counties have separate medical service department but both work jointly. Government and Private hospitals open normally Monday through Friday, excluding City Holidays but some super specialists hospitals open 24X7.
The main healthcare providers in the Los Angeles metropolitan area are Kaiser Permanente, Dignity Healthcare, and Providence Healthcare. LA Care and Care1st are also the main providers for those in the metropolitan area that have Medi-Cal.
The Los Angeles metropolitan area boasts a large number of conventions and cultural events catering to the young people (teens and young adults) in the metropolitan area that are interested into many forms of popular culture entertainment including Japanese anime, video games, comics, sci-fi, Disney, and more. It also relates to the large and popular worldwide entertainment industry in the Los Angeles area.
The following are major Los Angeles metropolitan area events:
Due to L.A.'s position as The Entertainment Capital of the World, there are many tourist attractions in the area. Consequently, the metropolitan L.A. is one of the most visited areas in the world. Here is a breakdown of some of its major attractions:
See also, Los Angeles City Museums
|Airport||IATA code||County||Enplanements (2013)|
|Los Angeles International Airport||LAX||Los Angeles||32,425,892|
|John Wayne Airport||SNA||Orange||4,540,628|
|Ontario International Airport||ONT||San Bernardino||1,970,538|
|Bob Hope Airport||BUR||Los Angeles||1,918,011|
|Long Beach Airport||LGB||Los Angeles||1,438,756|
The primary airport serving the LA metro area is Los Angeles International Airport (LAX), one of the busiest airports in the United States. LAX is in southwestern Los Angeles, 16 miles (26 km) from Downtown Los Angeles. LAX is the only airport to serve as a hub for all three U.S. legacy airlines —American, Delta and United.
In addition to LAX, other airports, including Bob Hope Airport, John Wayne Airport, Long Beach Airport, and LA/Ontario International Airport, also serve the region.
The Los Angeles metropolitan area has only one suspension bridge: Vincent Thomas Bridge in San Pedro, and one cable-stayed bridge: Gerald Desmond Bridge in Long Beach.
The Metro Rail is the mass transit rail system of Los Angeles County. It is run by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority and its system runs six rail lines throughout Los Angeles County. Metro Rail currently operates four light rail lines and two rapid transit subway lines, altogether totaling 87.7 miles (141.1 km) of rail, 101 stations, and over 360,000 daily weekday boardings as of December 2012 [update] .
The systems light rail system is the second busiest LRT system in the United States, after Boston, by number of riders, with 200,300 average weekday boardings during the third quarter of 2012.
Since the region of the city is in close proximity to a major fault area the tunnels were built to resist earthquakes of up to magnitude 7.5. Both subway lines use an electrified third rail to provide power to the trains, rendering these lines unusable on the other three. The Blue and Gold Lines run mostly at grade, with some street-running, elevated, and underground stretches in the more densely populated areas of Los Angeles. The Green Line is entirely grade separated, running in the median of I-105 and then turning southward along an elevated route.
The rail lines run regularly on a 5 am and midnight schedule, seven days a week. Limited service on particular segments is provided after midnight and before 5 am There is no rail service between 2 and 3:30 am Exact times vary from route to route; see individual route articles for more information.
There are two providers of heavy rail transportation in the region, Amtrak and Metrolink. Amtrak provides service to San Diego, Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, and points in between on the Pacific Surfliner. It also provides long-distance routes, including the Coast Starlight which goes to the San Francisco Bay Area, Portland, Oregon, and Seattle, Washington; the Southwest Chief which goes to Flagstaff, Arizona, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Kansas City, Missouri and Chicago; and the Sunset Limited which provides limited service (three days a week) to Tucson, El Paso, Houston, and New Orleans.
Metrolink provides service to numerous places within Southern California, including all counties in the region. Metrolink operates to 55 stations on seven lines within Southern California which mostly (except for the Inland Empire-Orange County Line) radiate from Los Angeles Union Station.
The following is the list of ZIP codes for select areas within the metropolitan area.
As a whole, the Los Angeles area has more national championships, all sports combined (college and professional), than any other city in the United States, with over four times as many championships as the entire state of Texas, and just over twice that of New York City.It is the only American city to host the Olympic games twice: once in 1932, and more recently in 1984. Los Angeles will also be the host of the 2028 Summer Olympics, becoming the third city to host three Olympic Games, after London and Paris.
Listing of the professional sports teams in the Los Angeles metropolitan area
Note # symbol means venue has held an Olympic event.
The Los Angeles metropolitan area is home to the headquarters of several well-known media companies including: the Los Angeles Times, Fox Broadcasting Company, Universal Studios, and The Walt Disney Company. Local television channels broadcasting to the Los Angeles market include KCBS-TV 2 (CBS), KNBC 4 (NBC), KTLA 5 (CW), KABC 7 (ABC), KCAL-TV 9 (Independent/CBS), KTTV 11 (FOX), KCOP 13 (myNetworkTV), KPXN-TV 38/30 (Ion), and KLCS 41/58 (PBS). Radio stations serving the area include: KKJZ, KIIS, KNX (AM), and KSUR.
The Los Angeles Unified School District serves the city of L.A., and other school districts serve the surrounding areas. A number of private schools are also located in the region.
The Los Angeles metropolitan area is home to a number of colleges and universities. The University of Southern California and University of California, Los Angeles are among the largest, and the Claremont Colleges and California Institute of Technology are among the most academically renowned. Below is a list of colleges and universities within the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area.
Much of the west coast of North America was part of a large convergent plate boundary between the Farallon Plate and North American Plate from 165 to 55 million years ago. Here, the Farallon Plate subducted under the North American Plate creating volcanoes about 100 miles east of this boundary which can still be seen as the Sierra Nevada which it has its southern border about 30 miles east of Grapevine, California in the Tejon Pass. The Farallon Plate was subjected to high temperatures and pressures as it subducted under the North American Plate. This led to the formation of molten plutons which rose because they were less dense than the surrounding magma. When they rose, they cooled and some formed enormous granite monoliths. Only less than 1% of these plutons ever made it to the surface out of a volcano or fissure vent. The 1% that did make it all the way to the surface erupted in andesitic lava which would pile on top of each previous flow. This would create steep volcanoes with extremely high elevations. Most of the ejecta that came out of a volcano is gas. About 60% is just carbon (C) and water vapor (H2O). About 30% is sulfur (S). The sulfur mixes with the water vapor to form sulfuric acid which is notorious for eating away at almost anything from plants to rocks.
For the 99% percent of plutons that didn't make it to the surface they cooled to form granite monoliths under these volcanoes. When subduction activities ceased about 55 million years ago, these volcanoes were subject to erosion due to their steep slopes. Because granite is classified as a hard igneous rock, it is the only remnant of the volcanic chain from this subduction zone. These enormous granite monoliths can still be seen in Yosemite National Park as Half Dome and El Capitan about 300 miles from Los Angeles. Please refer to the Geologic History of Yosemite page to learn more specifically of the area's local geology.
When the subduction zone ceased about 55 million years ago, the Farallon Plate was split into two distinctive plates which can still be observed today as the Juan de Fuca Plate and the Cocos Plate. Both were part of the same plate, but were discovered independently before this connection was made. At the time of this break off, the Pacific Plate had a general north west movement while the North American Plate had a general south east movement. This created a new fault zone when a weak point gave way between these two plates. This is the beginnings of the infamous San Andreas Fault. The San Andreas Fault is a right-lateral strike strip transverse fault. When this fault was just created, a volcano from the ancient subduction zone was situated about 3/4th on the Pacific Plate and 1/4th on the North American plate somewhere in what is today Central California. Nearly 55 million years later, this volcano was offset by about 250 miles. It is the largest known offset of the San Andreas Fault and it help geologist determine important information such as average slip movement and the age of the fault. The northern part of this offset is now called Pinnacles National Park near Soledad, California. The other half of Pinnacles is in Three Points, California in Los Angeles County.
The Pacific Plate is the largest known plate on Earth. It is considered an oceanic plate because it is much more dense than a continental plate. That is the reason why oceanic plates always subduct under another plate. There are only a few places where the Pacific Plate is actually above the ocean. Most of the coastline of the state, below Eureka, California is part of the Pacific plate. The thickest part on land in California can be observed as far inland as the Salton Sea. To the south of the Salon Sea, there is a gap between plate boundaries. This gap acts like a divergent plate boundary where the land is being pulled apart. Mud volcanoes can be observed just at the southern edge of the sea as well as hot springs. Geothermal energy plants are abundant in the area, which power much of the local rural communities.
When the San Andreas Fault originally formed, tension on the North American Plate grew. The plate buckled and began uplifting similar to swelling in nearly all portions of the west. Numerous faults were created as a result; geologic blocks that rose and fell over and over again in patterns and in sequences. The extension of surface led to cracks which formed many independent faults. This is the creation of the Basin and Range Province. Sometimes these faults created a pathway, which molten rock could flow up to the surface creating cinder cone volcanoes. The Los Angeles Area has a few volcanoes that formed. Along Route 66 in Amboy, California, is the extinct volcano Amboy Crater which is estimated to be aged at 80,000 years. It is relatively new in geologic terms, but heavily eroded by wind. While driving along Interstate 40, lava fields can stretch for miles. Within Death Valley National Park is another, much larger cinder cone volcano called Ubehebe Crater. It is extremely young, although many geologists dispute the numbers with some estimates as old as 10,000 years with recent ages such as 800 years. One thing is for sure: this volcano is still very active and can erupt.[ citation needed ] Because of its location, it will likely not affect many people. Within Orange County, lava flows and dikes can be seen in El Modena although no actual crater can be seen, likely because either it has been totally eroded or it was formed in a small fissure, which would explain why it's so localized.[ citation needed ]
The land on which the Los Angeles metropolitan area sits is among the newest rocks in the continental United States. It is estimated[ by whom? ] to be about 20 million years old. Most of the rocks in this area are part of the larger Monterey Formation which covers most of the California coastal ranges. The Monterey Formation consists of shale rocks, which were created from the accumulation calcium-rich shells of dead marine life of millions of years. Before then, it was submerged and was part a shallow ocean floor. It has since been uplifted due to pressures between the many different fault zones at an average rate of 2 millimeters per year.[ citation needed ]
The Los Angeles area is known to be geologically active. The San Andreas Fault is about 40 miles north east of Downtown Los Angeles. The closest towns and cities to Los Angeles which contain the San Andreas Fault are Gorman and Palmdale, California. Historically, major earthquakes have occurred along the fault, large enough to cause fatalities and millions of dollars in damages. A major earthquake hasn't happened in the southern section of the San Andreas Fault in over 150 years and geologist have determined a 50% probability of a 7.0 earthquake, registered on the moment magnitude scale within the years 2010 to 2040.[ citation needed ] Some geologists say this probably is over speculated. There is no way to accurately predict an earthquake anywhere on any specific fault. On the contrary, major efforts have been made to fund a practical earthquake warning system, similar to what Japan used in Tokyo during the 2011 Japan earthquake, in Southern California. Today, the area gets hits with many earthquakes per day, most reregistering below a 2.5 on the moment magnitude scale, too insignificant to feel any shaking on the surface.
Note: Plate boundary faults are indicated with a (#) symbol.
Note: Earthquakes with epicenters in the Los Angeles Metro Area are marked with the (#) symbol. Other earthquakes mentioned means shaking was felt.
Southern California is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises California's southernmost counties, and is the second most populous urban agglomeration in the United States. The region contains ten counties: Imperial, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, Ventura, and Kern counties.
Santa Ana is a city in and the county seat of Orange County, California in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. The city is the second most populous in the county. The United States Census Bureau estimated its 2011 population at 329,427, making Santa Ana the 57th most-populous city in the United States.
Greater Los Angeles is the second-largest urban region in the United States, encompassing five counties in southern California, extending from Ventura County in the west to San Bernardino County and Riverside County on the east, with Los Angeles County in the center and Orange County to the southeast. It consists of three metropolitan areas in Southern California: the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the Inland Empire, and the Ventura/Oxnard metropolitan area.
Buena Park is a city in northwestern Orange County, California, in the Los Angeles metropolitan area about 12 miles (20 km) northwest of downtown Santa Ana, the county seat. As of Census 2010 its population was 80,530. It is the location of several tourist attractions, including Knott's Berry Farm. It is located about 24 miles southeast of Downtown Los Angeles and is within the Los Angeles metropolitan area.
The Orange County Transportation Authority (OCTA) is the public sector transportation planning body and mass transit service provider for Orange County, California in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. The agency is the second-largest public transportation provider in the metropolitan area after Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority Its ancestor agencies include not only the prior Orange County Transit District but also such diverse entities as the Pacific Electric Railway and the South Coast Transit Corporation. In 2005, OCTA was judged America's Best Public Transportation System by the American Public Transportation Association, for its record gains in bus and Metrolink commuter trains ridership that it operates or funds. OCTA also operates the 91 Express Lanes.
The San Fernando Valley is an urbanized valley in Los Angeles County, California, in the Los Angeles metropolitan area, defined by the mountains of the Transverse Ranges circling it. Home to 1.77 million people, it is north of the larger, more populous Los Angeles Basin.
State Route 91 (SR 91) is a major east–west state highway in the U.S. state of California that serves several regions of the Greater Los Angeles urban area. A freeway throughout its entire length, it officially runs from Vermont Avenue in Gardena, just west of the junction with the Harbor Freeway, east to Riverside at the junction with the Pomona and Moreno Valley freeways.
State Route 57 (SR 57), also known as the Orange Freeway for most of its length, is a north–south state highway in the Greater Los Angeles Area of California. It connects the interchange of Interstate 5 (I-5) and SR 22 near downtown Orange, locally known as the Orange Crush, to the Glendora Curve interchange with I-210 and SR 210 in Glendora. The highway provides a route across several spurs of the Peninsular Ranges, linking the Los Angeles Basin with the Pomona Valley and San Gabriel Valley.
The Santa Ana Freeway is one of the principal freeways in Southern California, connecting Los Angeles and its southeastern suburbs including the freeway's namesake, the city of Santa Ana. The freeway begins at its junction with the San Diego Freeway, called the El Toro Y, in Irvine, signed as I-5. From there, it generally goes southeast to northwest to the East Los Angeles Interchange, where it takes the designation of U.S. Route 101 (US 101). It then proceeds 2.95 miles (4.75 km) northwest to the Four Level Interchange in downtown Los Angeles. Formerly, the entirety of the route was marked as US 101 until the 1964 highway renumbering, which truncated US 101 to the East Los Angeles Interchange and designated the rest of the freeway as I-5.
The Gateway Cities Region, or Southeast Los Angeles County is a largely urbanized region located in southeastern Los Angeles County, Southern California between the City of Los Angeles, Orange County, and the Pacific Ocean. The cluster of cities acquired the name because they are situated literally as the "gateway" between the two counties, with the central city of Cerritos located equidistant from downtown LA, Long Beach, and the center of Orange County. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), and has a population of approximately two million.
The Southern California freeways are a vast network of interconnected freeways in the megaregion of Southern California, serving a population of 23 million people. The Master Plan of Metropolitan Los Angeles Freeways was adopted by the Regional Planning Commission in 1947 and construction began in the early 1950s. The plan hit opposition and funding limitations in the 1970s, and by 2004, only some 61% of the original planned network had been completed.
State Route 47 is a state highway in the U.S. state of California, connecting Terminal Island to the mainland in the Los Angeles area. From its south end at I-110 in San Pedro, it heads east across the Vincent Thomas Bridge to the island and the end of state maintenance. The state highway begins again at the junction with I-710 on Terminal Island, crossing the Schuyler Heim Bridge north to the mainland and the second terminus, where SR 103 begins. Signage continues along a locally maintained route, mainly Alameda Street, to the Gardena Freeway in Compton, and an unconstructed alignment follows the same corridor to the Santa Monica Freeway (I-10) near downtown Los Angeles.
California's transportation system is complex and dynamic. Although known for its car culture and extensive network of freeways and roads, the state also has a vast array of rail, sea, and air transport. Several subway, light rail, and commuter rail networks are found in many of the state's largest population centers. In addition, with the state's location on the West Coast of the United States, several important ports in California handle freight shipments from the Pacific Rim and beyond. A number of airports are also spread out across the state, ranging from small general aviation airports to large international hubs like Los Angeles International Airport and San Francisco International Airport.
Interstate 5 (I-5) is a major north–south route of the Interstate Highway System in the United States, stretching from the Mexican border at the San Ysidro crossing to the Canadian border near Blaine, Washington. From San Ysidro, the segment of I-5 in California runs north across the length of the state, and crosses into Oregon south of the Medford-Ashland metropolitan area. It is the more important and most-used of the two major north–south routes on the Pacific Coast, the other being U.S. Route 101 (US 101), which is primarily coastal.
Greater Los Angeles has a complex multimodal transportation infrastructure, which serves as a regional, national and international hub for passenger and freight traffic. The transportation system of Greater Los Angeles includes the United States' largest port complex, seven commuter rail lines, Amtrak service, a subway system within the city of Los Angeles, and numerous highways. Los Angeles is integrated into the Interstate Highway System by Interstate 5, Interstate 10, and Interstate 15, along with numerous auxiliary highways and state routes. Bus service is also included locally within the area by numerous local government agencies. Subways and light commuter rail lines are present within Los Angeles proper, allowing mass transportation within the city. Commuter railroads are run by Metrolink. Amtrak has numerous railroad lines that connect Los Angeles to the rest of the country.
Sports in Orange County, California includes a number of sports teams and sports competitions. Within Orange County, the city of Anaheim currently hosts two major league sports teams — MLB's Los Angeles Angels and the NHL's Anaheim Ducks — and used to host two others.
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