North Korean calendar

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A Juche calendar for Juche 99 (2010) North Korea (5015886634).jpg
A Juche calendar for Juche 99 (2010)

The Democratic People's Republic of Korea calendar, DPRK calendar, or Juche calendar (Korean pronunciation:  [tɕutɕʰe] ), named after the Juche ideology, is the system of year-numbering used in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

<i>Juche</i> Political thesis formed by Kim Il-sung

Juche is the official state ideology of North Korea, described by the government as "Kim Il-sung's original, brilliant and revolutionary contribution to national and international thought". It postulates that "man is the master of his destiny", that the Korean masses are to act as the "masters of the revolution and construction" and that by becoming self-reliant and strong a nation can achieve true socialism.

Contents

History

The calendar borrows elements from two historical calendars used in Korea, the traditional system of Korean era names and the Gregorian calendar in which years are tied to the alleged birth of Jesus. In contrast to these two, the Juche calendar begins with the birth of the founder of the Democratic People's Republic, Kim Il-sung. [1]

Korea Region in East Asia

Korea is a region in East Asia. Since 1948, it has been divided between two distinct sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea. Korea consists of the Korean Peninsula, Jeju Island, and several minor islands near the peninsula. Korea is bordered by China to the northwest, Russia to the northeast, and neighbours Japan to the east by the Korea Strait and the Sea of Japan.

The Gregorian calendar is the calendar used in most of the world. It is named after Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in October 1582. The calendar spaces leap years to make the average year 365.2425 days long, approximating the 365.2422-day tropical year that is determined by the Earth's revolution around the Sun. The rule for leap years is:

Every year that is exactly divisible by four is a leap year, except for years that are exactly divisible by 100, but these centurial years are leap years if they are exactly divisible by 400. For example, the years 1700, 1800, and 1900 are not leap years, but the year 2000 is.

Jesus Central figure of Christianity

Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader. He is the central figure of Christianity, and is widely described as the most influential person in history. Most Christians believe he is the incarnation of God the Son and the awaited Messiah (Christ) prophesied in the Old Testament.

The decree on the Juche calendar was adopted on 8 July 1997, on the third anniversary of the death of Kim Il-sung. The same decree also designated the birth anniversary of Kim Il-sung as the Day of the Sun. The birth year of Kim Il-sung, 1912 in the Gregorian calendar, became "Juche 1" in the North Korean calendar. [2] Thus, the year 2011 is "Juche 100", and so on. [3] This was done as a means of advancing Kim Il-sung's cult of personality.

Day of the Sun National day of North Korea commemorates the birthday of Kim Il-Sung on April 15

The Day of the Sun is an annual public holiday in North Korea on 15 April, the birth anniversary of Kim Il-sung, founder and Eternal President of North Korea. It is the most important national holiday in the country, and is considered to be the North Korean equivalent of Christmas. Kim's birthday, which had been an official holiday since 1968, was renamed Day of the Sun in 1997, three years after his death. The name takes its significance from his name; Il-sung is Korean for "become the Sun".

The calendar began to be implemented on 9 September 1997, the Day of the Foundation of the Republic. [2] On that date, newspapers, news agencies, radio stations, public transport, and birth certificates began to use Juche years. [4]

Day of the Foundation of the Republic (North Korea) annual observance in North Korea, held on 9 September, marking the foundation of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea on 9th September 1948

Day of the Foundation of the Republic is the Republic Day and National day of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, held on 9 September.

Usage

The year 1912 is "Juche 1" in the North Korean calendar. There are no "before Juche 1" years, and years before 1912 are given numbers based on the Christian calendar only. Ranges of years that begin before 1912 and end after it are also given in Christian calendar numbers only. [5]

Any other years after 1912 will be given in either Juche years only, or in Juche years and the corresponding year in the Christian calendar in parentheses. In material pertaining to relations with foreign countries, "the Juche Era and the Christian era may be used on the principles of independence, equality and reciprocity." [5]

Examples

Juche yearGregorian year Dangun year Event
119124245 Kim Il-sung's birth
3119424275 Kim Jong-il's birth
3719484281North Korea founded
7119824315Construction of the Juche Tower completed to commemorate Kim Il-sung's 70 years of life, Kim Jong-un's birth
7219834316 Kim Jong-un's birth
8319944327Kim Il-Sung's death
8619974330Juche calendar introduced
10020114344Kim Jong-il's death
10120124345100 years after Kim Il-sung's birth
10820194352Current year

See also

Related Research Articles

An epoch, for the purposes of chronology and periodization, is an instant in time chosen as the origin of a particular calendar era. The "epoch" serves as a reference point from which time is measured.

The traditional Korean calendar is a lunisolar calendar. Like most traditional calendars of other East Asian countries, the Korean Calendar is mainly derived from the Chinese calendar. Dates are calculated from Korea's meridian, and observances and festivals are based in Korean culture.

Korean era names were used during the period of Silla, Goguryeo, Balhae, Taebong, Goryeo, Joseon, and the Korean Empire. Dangun-giwon, the era name originating from the foundation of Gojoseon is also widely used in Korea as an indication of long civilisation of Korea.

Korean Central News Agency news agency

The Korean Central News Agency (KCNA) is the state news agency of North Korea. The agency portrays the views of the North Korean government for both domestic and foreign consumption. It was established on December 5, 1946.

A regnal year is a year of the reign of a sovereign, from the Latin regnum meaning kingdom, rule. The oldest dating systems were in regnal years, and considered the date as an ordinal, not a cardinal number. For example, a monarch could have a first year of rule, a second year of rule, a third year of rule, and so on, but not a zeroth year of rule.

Eternal leaders of North Korea

Eternal leaders of North Korea refers to the practice of granting posthumous titles to deceased leaders of North Korea. The phrase "Eternal Leaders of Juche Korea" was established by a line in the preamble to the Constitution, as amended on 30 June 2016, and in subsequent revisions.

The Y1C Problem or the Year 100 problem was a potential problem involving computers and computer systems in Taiwan in the night of 31 December 2010 and 1 January 2011.

Republic of China calendar calendar era used by the Republic of China, starting from 1912 CE (= year 1 of Minguo era)

The Republic of China calendar is the official calendar of the Republic of China. It is used to number the years for official purposes only in the Taiwan area after 1949. It was used in the Chinese mainland from 1912 until the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949.

Workers Party of Korea North Korea’s ruling political party

The Workers' Party of Korea (WPK) is the founding and ruling political party of North Korea. It is the largest party represented in the Supreme People's Assembly and coexists de jure with two other legal parties making up the Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland. However, these minor parties are completely subservient to the WPK, and must accept the WPK's "leading role" as a condition of their existence.

The award system of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was initially created less than one month after the foundation of the Republic. During the years of Japanese Occupation of North Korea, many of the future leaders fled to the Soviet Union. During World War II many if not close to all party leaders and KPA commanders served in the Soviet Army and as such adopted many of the Soviet Awards criteria for their own. During the late 1940s and until the Sino-Soviet Split in late 1958, orders and titles were made in the Soviet Money Mints in Moscow or Leningrad. Soviet made awards were modeled after Soviet orders and made of sterling silver. Initially the Orders were attached to clothing with a screw-plate, but after Soviet production stopped, production was moved to North Korea. The screwback was replaced with a pin and the silver content was replaced with cheap tin. With the exception of a few examples of modern orders, Soviet and Czech KPA awards are the most sought after in current militaria markets.

Kim Il-sung bibliography

Kim Il-sung was the leader of North Korea for 46 years, from its establishment in 1948 until his death in 1994.

Adoption of the Gregorian calendar

The adoption of the Gregorian Calendar was an event in the modern history of most nations and societies, marking a change from their traditional dating system to the modern dating system that is widely used around the world today. Some countries adopted the new calendar from 1582, some did not do so before the early twentieth century, and others did so at various dates between; however a number continue to use a different civil calendar. For many the new style calendar is only used for civil purposes and the old style calendar remains used in religious contexts. Today, the Gregorian calendar is the world's most widely used civil calendar. During – and for some time after – the change between systems, it has been common to use the terms Old Style and New Style when giving dates, to indicate which calendar was used to reckon them.

<i>On the Juche Idea</i> book by Kim Jong-il

On the Juche Idea: Treatise Sent to the National Seminar on the Juche Idea Held to Mark the 70th Birthday of the Great Leader Comrade Kim Il Sung, 31 March 1982 is a treatise attributed to North Korean leader Kim Jong-il on the North Korean Juche ideology. It is considered the most authoritative work on Juche.

National symbols of North Korea

Upon its liberation in 1945 and subsequent foundation in 1948, North Korea adopted national symbols distinct from the national symbols of South Korea. The traditional flag of Korea, the Taegukgi, and the symbol Taeguk, were swapped for communist symbols.

The International Kim Il-sung Prize is an award conferred for contributions in the study and proliferation of the Juche idea. It is named in honor of Kim Il-sung, the first supreme leader of the North Korea, credited with creation of the Juche idea.

Day of <i>Songun</i> annual observance in North Korea (25 August)

The Day of Songun is a public holiday in North Korea celebrated on 25 August annually to commemorate the beginning of Kim Jong-il's Songun (military-first) leadership in 1960.

Kim Jong-un bibliography

Kim Jong-un has been the leader of North Korea since the death of Kim Jong-il, the previous leader and his father.

References

  1. Andrew Logie (17 September 2012). The Answers: North Korea: How do you solve a problem like North Korea?. Marshall Cavendish International Asia Pte Ltd. p. 57. ISBN   978-981-4398-90-9.
  2. 1 2 Hy-Sang Lee (2001). North Korea: A Strange Socialist Fortress. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 220. ISBN   978-0-275-96917-2.
  3. Martin K. Dimitrov (31 July 2013). Why Communism Did Not Collapse: Understanding Authoritarian Regime Resilience in Asia and Europe. Cambridge University Press. p. 104. ISBN   978-1-107-03553-9.
  4. "Juche era available in Korea". KCNA. 10 September 1997. Archived from the original on 3 June 2015. Retrieved 2016-08-15.
  5. 1 2 "Rules on use of Juche Era adopted". KCNA. 25 August 1997. Archived from the original on 5 May 2015. Retrieved 31 August 2016.