The Democratic People's Republic of Korea calendar, DPRK calendar, or Juche calendar (Korean pronunciation: [tɕutɕʰe] ), named after the Juche ideology, is the system of year-numbering used in North Korea.
The calendar borrows elements from two historical calendars used in Korea, the traditional system of Korean era names and the Gregorian calendar in which years are tied to the traditional birth of Jesus. In contrast to these two, the Juche calendar begins with the birth of the founder of the Democratic People's Republic, Kim Il-sung.
The decree on the Juche calendar was adopted on 8 July 1997, on the third anniversary of the death of Kim Il-sung. The same decree also designated the birth anniversary of Kim Il-sung as the Day of the Sun. The birth year of Kim Il-sung, 1912 in the Gregorian calendar, became "Juche 1" in the North Korean calendar. 2020, is "Juche 109", the next year, 2021, will be "Juche 110", and so on.Thus, the current year,
The calendar began to be implemented on 9 September 1997, the Day of the Foundation of the Republic.On that date, newspapers, news agencies, radio stations, public transport, and birth certificates began to use Juche years.
The year 1912 is "Juche 1" in the North Korean calendar. There are no "before Juche 1" years, and years before 1912 are given numbers based on the Christian calendar only. Ranges of years that begin before 1912 and end after it are also given in Christian calendar numbers only.
Any other years after 1912 will be given in either Juche years only, or in Juche years and the corresponding year in the Christian calendar in parentheses. In material pertaining to relations with foreign countries, "the Juche Era and the Christian era may be used on the principles of independence, equality and reciprocity."
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|Juche year||Gregorian year||Dangun year||Event|
|1||1912||4245||Kim Il-sung's birth|
|30||1941||4274||Kim Jong-Il's birth (Soviet Union Records)|
|31||1942||4275||Kim Jong-Il's birth (North Korean Propaganda Records)|
|37||1948||4281||North Korea founded|
|71||1982||4315||Construction of the Juche Tower completed to commemorate Kim Il-sung's 70 years of life, Kim Jong-un's birth (North Korean records)|
|72||1983||4316||Kim Jong-un's birth (South Korean records)|
|73||1984||4317||Kim Jong-un's birth (American records)|
|83||1994||4327||Kim Il-Sung's death|
|86||1997||4330||Juche calendar introduced|
|100||2011||4344||Kim Jong-il's death|
|101||2012||4345||100 years after Kim Il-sung's birth|
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Juche is the official ideology of North Korea, described by the government as "Kim Il-sung's original, brilliant and revolutionary contribution to national and international thought". It postulates that "man is the master of his destiny", that the Korean masses are to act as the "masters of the revolution and construction" and that by becoming self-reliant and strong, a nation can achieve true socialism.
The traditional Korean calendar or Dangun calendar is a lunisolar calendar. Like most traditional calendars of other East Asian countries, the Korean Calendar is mainly derived from the Chinese calendar. Dates are calculated from Korea's meridian, and observances and festivals are based in Korean culture.
Korean era names were titles adopted in historical Korea for the purpose of year identification and numbering. Era names were used during the period of Silla, Goguryeo, Balhae, Taebong, Goryeo, Joseon, and the Korean Empire. Dangun-giwon, the era name originating from the foundation of Gojoseon is also widely used in Korea as an indication of the long civilization of Korea.
The Korean Central News Agency (KCNA) is the state news agency of North Korea. The agency portrays the views of the North Korean government for both domestic and foreign consumption. It was established on December 5, 1946 and now features internet coverage.
A regnal year is a year of the reign of a sovereign, from the Latin regnum meaning kingdom, rule. Regnal years considered the date as an ordinal, not a cardinal number. For example, a monarch could have a first year of rule, a second year of rule, a third year of rule, and so on, but not a zeroth year of rule.
Eternal leaders of Juche (North) Korea refers to the practice of granting posthumous titles to deceased leaders of North Korea. The phrase "Eternal leaders of Juche Korea" was established by a line in the preamble to the Constitution, as amended on 30 June 2016, and in subsequent revisions.
The Republic of China calendar or Minguo calendar is one of the calendars used in the Greater China area. The calendar uses 1912, the year of the establishment of the Republic of China (ROC), as the first year. The term "minguo" simply means "republic". The ROC calendar follows the tradition of using the sovereign's era name and year of reign, as did previous Chinese dynasties. Months and days are numbered according to the Gregorian calendar. The ROC calendar has been in wide use in the ROC since 1912, including in early official documents.
The Chollima Movement (Korean: 천리마운동) was a state-sponsored Stakhanovite movement in North Korea intended to promote rapid economic development. Launched in 1956 or 1958, the movement emphasized "ideological incentives to work harder" and the personal guidance of Kim Il-sung rather than rational modes of economic management.
The award system of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was initially created less than one month after the foundation of the Republic. During the years of Japanese Occupation of North Korea, many of the future leaders fled to the Soviet Union. During World War II many if not close to all party leaders and KPA commanders served in the Soviet Army and as such adopted many of the Soviet Awards criteria for their own. During the late 1940s and until the Sino-Soviet Split in late 1958, orders and titles were made in the Soviet Money Mints in Moscow or Leningrad. Soviet made awards were modeled after Soviet orders and made of sterling silver. Initially the Orders were attached to clothing with a screw-plate, but after Soviet production stopped, production was moved to North Korea. The screwback was replaced with a pin and the silver content was replaced with cheap tin. With the exception of a few examples of modern orders, Soviet and Czech KPA awards are the most sought after in current militaria markets.
The North Korean cult of personality surrounding its ruling family, the Kim family, has existed in North Korea for decades and can be found in many examples of North Korean culture. Although not acknowledged by the North Korean government, many defectors and Western visitors state there are often stiff penalties for those who criticize or do not show "proper" respect for the regime. The personality cult began soon after Kim Il-sung took power in 1948, and was greatly expanded after his death in 1994.
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The adoption of the Gregorian Calendar was an event in the modern history of most cultures and societies, marking a change from their traditional dating system to the modern dating system that is widely used around the world today. Some states adopted the new calendar from 1582, some did not do so before the early twentieth century, and others did so at various dates between; however a number continue to use a different civil calendar. For many the new style calendar is only used for civil purposes and the old style calendar remains used in religious contexts. Today, the Gregorian calendar is the world's most widely used civil calendar. During – and for some time after – the change between systems, it has been common to use the terms Old Style and New Style when giving dates, to indicate which calendar was used to reckon them.
The Day of the Sun is an annual public holiday in North Korea on 15 April, the birth anniversary of Kim Il-sung, founder and Eternal President of North Korea. It is the most important national holiday in the country, and is considered to be the North Korean equivalent of Christmas. Kim's birthday, which had been an official holiday since 1968, was renamed Day of the Sun in 1997, three years after his death. The name takes its significance from his name; Il-sung is Korean for "become the Sun".
The Kim Il-sung Prize is an award given by the Government of North Korea to persons in various fields who demonstrate exemplary service to the values of Juche idea. Past winners include the Korean composer Kim Won-gyun, judoka Kye Sun-hui, and the Arirang Festival.
The Day of the Shining Star is a public holiday in North Korea falling on 16 February, the birth anniversary of the country's second leader, Kim Jong-il. Along with the Day of the Sun, the birthday of his father Kim Il-sung, it is the most important public holiday in the country.
The International Kim Il-sung Prize is an award conferred for contributions in the study and proliferation of the Juche idea. It is named in honor of Kim Il-sung, the first supreme leader of the North Korea, credited with creation of the Juche idea.
The Day of Songun is a public holiday in North Korea celebrated on 25 August annually to commemorate the beginning of Kim Jong-il's Songun (military-first) leadership in 1960.
Kim Jong-un has been the supreme leader of North Korea since the death of Kim Jong-il, the previous leader and his father.
Dermot Hudson is a British political activist with close relations with North Korea. He is the Chairman of the British Group for the Study of the Juche Idea, Chairman of United Kingdom Korean Friendship Association, and President of the Association for the Study of Songun Politics.