Occitanie

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Occitanie

Occitània  (Occitan)
Pont du gard v1 082005.JPG
Pont du gard
Flag of Region Occitanie Perpinya variation.svg
Flag
Blason Region Occitanie - Fond transparent.png
Coat of arms
Occitanie in France 2016.svg
CountryFlag of France.svg France
Prefecture Toulouse
Departments
Government
   President of the Regional Council Carole Delga (PS)
Area
  Total72,724 km2 (28,079 sq mi)
Area rank3rd
Population
 (2015)
  Total5,839,867
  Density80/km2 (210/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Occitans
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
ISO 3166 code FR-OCC
GDP  () Ranked
Total€ billion (US$ bn)
Per capita€ (US$)

Occitanie (French:  [ɔksitani] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); Occitan : Occitània [utsiˈtanjɔ] ; Catalan : Occitània [uksiˈtaniə] ) or Occitania [1] is the southernmost administrative region of metropolitan France excluding Corsica, created on 1 January 2016 from the former regions of Languedoc-Roussillon and Midi-Pyrénées. The Conseil d'État approved Occitanie as the new name of the region on 28 September 2016, coming into effect on 30 September 2016. [2]

Contents

The modern administrative region is named after the larger cultural and historical region of Occitania, which corresponds with the southern third of France. The region Occitanie as it is today covers a territory similar to that ruled by the Counts of Toulouse in the 12th and 13th centuries. The banner of arms of the Counts of Toulouse, known colloquially as the Occitan cross, is used by the modern region and is also a popular cultural symbol.

Geography

The County of Toulouse in 1154 (shown in blue) France 1154-en.svg
The County of Toulouse in 1154 (shown in blue)

Currently Occitanie is the second largest region in mainland France, covering an area of more than 72,724 km2 (28,079 sq mi), and has a population of 5,839,867. [3] It has a Mediterranean coast on the southeast and is neighbored by Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur on the east, Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes on the northeast, and Nouvelle-Aquitaine on the west and northwest, as well as foreign borders of Andorra (Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Ordino) and Spain (Aragon and Catalonia) on the south.

Toponymy

Enacted in 2014, the territorial reform of the French regions had been subject to debate for many years. [4] The reform law used as the new region's provisional name the hyphenated names of its predecessors: Languedoc-Roussillon and Midi-Pyrénées, in alphabetical order. As for most of the merged regions, a permanent name was then proposed by the new regional council to replace that provisional name. [5] [6] [7] On 24 June 2016, the regional council of Languedoc-Roussillon-Midi-Pyrénées adopted the name Occitanie after lengthy public consultation. [8] The provisional name of the region was withdrawn on 30 September 2016, when the new name took effect. [2]

Occitanie, the new name, derives from the historical appellation of the broader region, and refers to the historical use throughout that territory of the Occitan language and its various dialects, which are so named for the word òc, the Occitan word for oui or "yes". The circa 450,000 French Catalans living in the region (or Catalans of the North, as they mostly call themselves) expressed dismay at the regional assembly resolution, regarding the new name as ignoring their presence. [9] On 10 September 2016, some 10,000 people (7,800 according to the police) demonstrated in Perpignan, demanding that the merged region name contain the words Pays catalan (literal translation: "Catalan country"). [10]

Politics

Regional council of Occitanie Hotel de region d'Occitanie - Toulouse 02.jpg
Regional council of Occitanie

Following the creation of the region in 2016, Carole Delga, a member of the Socialist Party, was elected President of the Regional Council. The hôtel de région, where the Regional Council of Occitanie meets, is situated in Toulouse.

Departments

Code Arms 1 DepartmentPrefectureNamed afterPopulation (2013)
09 Blason dpt fr Ariege.svg Ariège Foix Ariège (river) 152,684
11 Blason dpt fr Aude.svg Aude Carcassonne Aude (river) 364,877
12 Blason Rouergue.svg Aveyron Rodez Aveyron (river) 277,740
30 Blason departement fr Gard.svg Gard Nîmes Gardon (river) 733,201
31 Blason departement fr Haute-Garonne.svg Haute-Garonne Toulouse Garonne (river) 1,298,562
32 Blason dpt fr Gers.svg Gers Auch Gers (river) 190,276
34 Blason departement fr Herault.svg Hérault Montpellier Hérault (river) 1,092,331
46 Blason departement fr Lot.svg Lot Cahors Lot (river) 173,758
48 Blason departement fr Lozere.svg Lozère Mende Mont Lozère 76,607
65 Blason dpt fr HautesPyrenees.svg Hautes-Pyrénées Tarbes Pyrenees 228,868
66 Arms of the Pyrenees-Orientales.svg Pyrénées-Orientales Perpignan Pyrenees 462,705
81 Blason dpt fr Tarn.svg Tarn Albi Tarn (river) 381,927
82 Blason departement fr Tarn-et-Garonne.svg Tarn-et-Garonne Montauban Tarn and Garonne rivers250,342

Major communities

Culture

Historical identity

Map of the new region with its thirteen departments, coloured according to the historical provinces as they existed until the aftermaths of the French Revolution (1790).
Languedoc
Guyenne and Gascony
County of Foix
Roussillon Languedoc-Roussillon-Midi-Pyrenees et provinces.svg
Map of the new region with its thirteen departments, coloured according to the historical provinces as they existed until the aftermaths of the French Revolution (1790).
The historic cultural area of Occitania (red line) and the current administrative regions of Southern France. Departements regions francais dans Occitanie historique.svg
The historic cultural area of Occitania (red line) and the current administrative regions of Southern France.

The new administrative region includes provinces and territories of diverse cultural and historical origin: Languedoc (High and Low Languedoc), Països Catalans (Roussillon, Cerdanya, Vallespir, Conflent, Capcir), the County of Foix, and the eastern parts of what was formerly Gascony (Armagnac, Comminges, Couserans, Bigorre, Condomois, Nébouzan, Rivière-Verdun), and Guiana (Carcin, Roergue). During the Ancien Régime, most of these territories lay within the jurisdiction of the Parlement of Toulouse, founded in 1443.

Occitania

Occitania [11] (Occitània [12] or Óucitanìo [13] in Occitan) is a historical region [14] [15] [16] of southwestern Europe in which Occitan was the main vernacular language. This territory was already united, in Roman times first as the Diocese of Vienne and then as the Seven Provinces ( Septem Provinciae ) [17] and in Aquitaine at the beginning of the Middle Ages [18] (Aquitanica, Visigoth kingdom of Toulouse), [19] before the Frankish conquest. Occitania is characterized by "the Occitan culture", since the Middle Ages another expression of Romance culture in France and to a lesser extent in Italy, Spain and Monaco. [20] It is presented and recognized on institutional sites of French communities, such as those of the Lot-et-Garonne County Council [21] and the city of Agen. [22]

Languedoc
The blazon of the counts of Toulouse and Languedoc: the Occitan cross gold on gules. Blason Languedoc.svg
The blazon of the counts of Toulouse and Languedoc: the Occitan cross gold on gules.

Most of the territory that came to be called Languedoc (the region where langue d'oc is spoken; in Occitan Lengadòc, pronounced  [ˌleŋɡɔˈðɔ(k)] ) became attached to the Kingdom of France in the 13th century, following the Albigensian Crusade (1208–1229). This crusade aimed to put an end to what the Church considered the Cathar heresy, and enabled the Capetian dynasty to extend its influence south of the Loire. As part of this process, the former principalities of Trencavel (the Viscounty of Albi, Carcassona, Besièrs, Agde and Nimes) were integrated into the Royal French Domain in 1224. The Counts of Toulouse followed them in 1271. The remaining feudal enclaves were absorbed progressively up to the beginning of the 16th century; the County of Gévaudan in 1258, the County of Melgueil (Mauguiò) in 1293, the Lordship of Montpellier in 1349 and the Viscounts of Narbonne in 1507.

The territory falling within the jurisdiction of the Estates of Languedoc, which convened for the first time in 1346, shrank progressively, becoming known during the Ancien Régime as the province of Languedoc.

The year 1359 marked a turning point in the history of the province. [23] The three bailiwicks (sénéchaussées) of Bèucaire, Carcassona and Tolosa had the status of bonnes villes (towns granted privileges and protection by the king of France in return for providing a contingent of men at arms). In that year, the three entered into a perpetual union, after which their contribution of royal officers was summoned jointly rather than separately for each of the three sénéchaussées. [24] [25] [26] [27]

Towards the end of the 14th century, the term "country of the three seneschalties" (pays des trois sénéchaussées), later to become known as Languedoc, designated the two bailiwicks of Bèucaire-Nimes and Carcassona, and the eastern part of Tolosa (Toulouse), retained under the Treaty of Brétigny. At that time, the County of Foix, which belonged to the seneschal of Carcassona until 1333 before passing to Toulouse, ceased to belong to Languedoc. In 1542, the province was divided into two généralités : Toulouse for Haut-Languedoc, and Montpellier for Bas-Languedoc. This lasted until the French Revolution in 1789. From the 17th century onward, there was only one intendance for the whole of Languedoc, with its seat in Montpellier.

Haute-Guyenne
Coat of arms of the duchies of Aquitaine and Guyenne, taken again by the province of Guyenne, of gules with a leopard of gold Blason de l'Aquitaine et de la Guyenne.svg
Coat of arms of the duchies of Aquitaine and Guyenne, taken again by the province of Guyenne, of gules with a leopard of gold

The former provinces of Gascony (in Gascon Gasconha, Occitan pronunciation:  [ɡasˈkuɲɔ] ), and Guyenne; in Occitan Guiana [ˈɡjanɔ] ) were historically part of the Great South-West of France (Grand Sud-Ouest français), and derived from the medieval duchys of Vasconia, Aquitaine and then Guyenne. Today, only the eastern regions of the two provinces are part of Occitania. These areas correspond essentially to the territories acquired by the kings of England, dukes of Guyenne, under the treaty of Brétigny of 1360, and which then remained under the jurisdiction of the provincial appellate court of Toulouse (Parlement of Toulouse) after the creation of the Parlement of Bordeaux in 1462. From that time, they were generally grouped under the name of Haute-Guyenne, by opposition with Basse-Guyenne, which was dependent on the Parlement of Bordeaux.

Coat of arms of the former province of Gascogne, quartered azure a lion of silver and gules a sheaf of wheat azure bound gold, was created for Louis XIV: it refers to the lion of counts of Armagnac Blason province fr Gascogne.svg
Coat of arms of the former province of Gascogne, quartered azure a lion of silver and gules a sheaf of wheat azure bound gold, was created for Louis XIV: it refers to the lion of counts of Armagnac

The territory of the former province of Guyenne (Guiana) that lies within the region corresponds with Quercy (the current department of Lot and the north of Tarn e Garona), and with Roergue (Avairon). These two counties are thus part of the Occitan linguistic area, in its Languedocien dialectal variant. They were possessions of the Counts of Toulouse from the 9th century, at various stages a minor branch or the main branch. Like the other possessions of the Counts of Toulouse, they were integrated for the first time with the French royal domain in 1271,and then yielded to the kings of England under the 1360 Treaty of Brétigny. The province of Quercy was definitely reunited with the Crown in 1472; Roergue, possession of the counts of Armagnac, did not follow until 1607. Both came within the province of Guyenne, under military rule from 1561. Together, they became the généralité of Montauban from 1635, which then became the province of Haute-Guyenne in 1779. Today, the name Guyenne no longer has administrative or political currency, although the Haut-Agenais used the term "Pais de Guiana" in a campaign which evoked its historical identity to promote the Lot-et-Garonne and part of the valley of Dròt. This reference is now superseded in the promotion of tourism by the designation Pais del Dròt. The appellations Quercy and Roergue, in contrast, retain a strong identity.

Gascony is the former province located on the territory of the current departments of Gers (Armanhac and Condomois), Hautes-Pyrénées (Bigorre), Lanas in the neighboring region, and parts of other departments of the two regions of Aquitània and Midi-Pyrénées (Comenge, Nebosan and Rivière-Verdun mainly in the south and west of Haute-Garonne, and Couserans in the western part of Ariège). Successively called Aquitania, Novempopulania, Vasconia (territory of the Vascones) and Gascony in the 13th century, the territory was geographically diverse, situated between the Atlantic Ocean, Garona and the Pyrenees. Claiming a cultural identity based on evolving occupation, from the Aquitani peoples of Proto-Basque language to a Gascon population sharing a latinized Occitan dialect, it constitutes the current Gascon linguistic area. Between the 15th and the beginning of the 16th centuries, it was progressively integrated into the Royal French domain. Comenge yielded to the kings of France in 1443, extinguishing the local dynasty. Armagnac, Bigorre and Nebosan followed, with the county of Foix, in 1607.

County of Foix (Fois)

The County of Foix [28] is an old French county created out of the County of Carcassonne in around 1050 [28] for Bernard Roger, [28] son of Roger I of Carcassonna. [28] In 1398, the county passed to House of Grailly [28] and, in 1458, King Charles VII of France raised it to the Peerage of France in favor of Gaston IV, Count of Foix. [29]

The county-peerage passed to the House of Albret in 1484, [28] and then to House of Bourbon-Vendôme in 1548. [28] In 1607, King Henry IV of France attached the county to the Royal French domain. [28]

From the time of the French Revolution, the county was fully incorporated into the department of Ariège. The Occitan dialect traditionally spoken there is Languedocien.

Roussillon
Roussillon's coat of arms refers to the Senyera (Flag of Catalonia) Escut de la Catalunya del Nord.svg
Roussillon's coat of arms refers to the Senyera (Flag of Catalonia)

The Ancien Régime province of Roussillon, which had formerly been integrated with the Catalan counties, the Kingdom of Majorca, and the crown of Aragon, was attached to the crown of France under the Treaty of the Pyrenees, signed on November 7, 1659. Prior to this treaty, the border between the kingdoms of France and Aragon lay further north, along a line of citadels (see Treaty of Corbeil).

These territories corresponded to the Catalan counties of Roussillon and Conflent, founded in the 9th century, as well as to the northern part of the County of Cerdanya, to which was added the former Vicounty of Castelnou, or Vallespir (the pagus of County of Besalú, united with the County of Roussillon in 1209). The new Province of Roussillon [30] also known simply as Roussillon, [31] brought together the medieval administrative courts, or vigueries, of Roussillon, [32] Conflent, [33] and the north of the County of Cerdanya [34] which were part of the government structure of the Crown of Aragon's counties of Roussillon and Cerdanya (governació dels comtats of Rosselló i Cerdanya in Catalan [35] ) at the time of their attachment to France. Roussillon was subject to direct taxation as a pays d'imposition (taxing country) and did not have representation through the Estates [36] (a provincial assembly, the provincial assembly of Roussillon, [37] was created on August 15, 1787). [38] It formed both a government [39] and an intendance [40] and, as a border province, reported to the Secretary of State for War. It had sovereign jurisdiction: the Sovereign Council of Roussillon, independent of the Parlement of Toulouse.

Currently, the name Roussillon is still the most widely used to designate this territory, being found in the denomination of the former region of Languedoc-Roussillon.

Today, the territory is often subdivided into five unofficial traditional and natural comarques: Roussillon proper, Vallespir, Conflent, Upper Cerdanya and Capcir. A recent addition is Fenouillèdes, the Occitan part of the department of Pyrénées-Orientales.

See also

Related Research Articles

Provinces of France Former subdivisions of France

France was organized into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the department system superseded provinces. The provinces of France were roughly equivalent to the historic counties of England. They came into their final form over the course of many hundreds of years, as many dozens of semi-independent fiefs and former independent countries came to be incorporated into the French royal domain. Because of the haphazard manner in which the provinces evolved, each had its own sets of feudal traditions, laws, taxation systems, courts, etc., and the system represented an impediment to effective administration of the entire country from Paris. During the early years of the French Revolution, in an attempt to centralize the administration of the whole country, and to remove the influence of the French nobility over the country, the entirety of the province system was abolished and replaced by the system of departments in use today.

Languedoc Place in France

Languedoc is a former province of France. Its territory is now contained in the modern-day region of Occitanie in the south of France. Its capital city was Toulouse. It had an area of approximately 42,700 square kilometers.

Languedoc-Roussillon Region of France

Languedoc-Roussillon is a former administrative region of France. On 1 January 2016, it joined with the region of Midi-Pyrénées to became Occitanie. It comprises five departments, and borders the other French regions of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, Rhône-Alpes, Auvergne, Midi-Pyrénées on the one side, and Spain, Andorra and the Mediterranean Sea on the other side. It is the southernmost region of mainland France.

Cerdanya Natural region

Cerdanya or often La Cerdanya, is a natural comarca and historical region of the eastern Pyrenees divided between France and Spain. Historically it was one of the counties of Catalonia.

Roussillon Historical province in Pyrénées-Orientales, France

Roussillon is one of the historical counties of the former Principality of Catalonia. It may also refer to Northern Catalonia or French Catalonia, the first used by Catalan-speakers and the second used by French-speakers, corresponding roughly to the present-day southern French département of Pyrénées-Orientales save Fenouillèdes. A 1998 survey found that 34% of respondents stated they speak Catalan, and a further 21% understand it.

Midi-Pyrénées Region of France

Midi-Pyrénées is a former administrative region of France. Since 1 January 2016, it has been part of the new region Occitanie. It was the largest region of Metropolitan France by area, larger than the Netherlands or Denmark.

Marca Hispanica former country

The Marca Hispanica, also known as the March of Barcelona, was a military buffer zone beyond the former province of Septimania, created by Charlemagne in 795 as a defensive barrier between the Umayyad Moors of Al-Andalus and the Frankish Carolingian Empire.

Southern France geographic region

Southern France, also known as the South of France or colloquially in French as le Midi, is a defined geographical area consisting of the regions of France that border the Atlantic Ocean south of the Marais Poitevin, Spain, the Mediterranean Sea and Italy. It includes: Nouvelle-Aquitaine in the west, Occitanie in the centre, the southern parts of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes in the northeast, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur in the southeast, as well as the island of Corsica in the southeast. Monaco and Andorra are sometimes included in definitions of Southern France although they are principalities.

Occitania Historical region and nation in southern Europe

Occitania is the historical region in southern Europe where Occitan was historically the main language spoken, and where it is sometimes still used, for the most part as a second language. This cultural area roughly encompasses the southern third of France, as well as part of Spain, Monaco, and smaller parts of Italy. Occitania has been recognized as a linguistic and cultural concept since the Middle Ages, but has never been a legal nor a political entity under this name, although the territory was united in Roman times as the Seven Provinces and in the Early Middle Ages.

Déodat de Séverac French composer

Marie-Joseph-Alexandre Déodat de Séverac was a French composer.

Northern Catalonia term coined to refer to the territory ceded to France by Spain through the signing of the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659

Northern Catalonia, French Catalonia or Roussillon refers to the Catalan-speaking and Catalan-culture territory ceded to France by Spain through the signing of the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659 in exchange of France's effective renunciation on the formal protection given to the recently founded Catalan Republic. The area corresponds exactly to the modern French département of the Pyrénées-Orientales which were historically part of Catalonia since the old County of Barcelona, and lasted during the times of the Crown of Aragon and the Principality of Catalonia until they were given to France by Spain.

County of Roussillon former country

The County of Roussillon was one of the Catalan counties in the Marca Hispanica during the Middle Ages. The rulers of the county were the counts of Roussillon, whose interests lay both north and south of the Pyrenees.

County of Cerdanya former country

The County of Cerdanya was one of the Catalan counties formed in the last decades of the 8th century by the Franks in the Marca Hispanica. The original Cerdanya consisted of the valley of the upper Segre. Today Cerdanya is a Catalan comarca.

Occitan cross heraldic cross and motif

The Occitan cross is a heraldic cross, today chiefly used as a symbol of Occitania.

France 3 Midi-Pyrénées

France 3 Midi-Pyrénées is a regional television service and part of the France 3 network. Serving the Midi-Pyrénées and Languedoc-Roussillon regions from its headquarters in Toulouse, secondary production centre in Montpellier and newsrooms in Perpignan, Rodez, Albi and Nîmes, France 3 Sud broadcasts regional news, sport, features and entertainment programming in French, Occitan and Catalan.

Pyrénées-Orientales Department of France in Occitanie

Pyrénées-Orientales, also known as Northern Catalonia, is a department of the Occitanie region of Southern France, adjacent to the northern Spanish frontier and the Mediterranean Sea. It also surrounds the tiny Spanish exclave of Llívia, and thus has two distinct borders with Spain. In 2016, it had a population of 474,369.

Gare de Latour-de-Carol-Enveitg railway station in Enveitg, France

Latour-de-Carol-Enveitg or Latour-de-Carol is a railway station in Enveitg and Latour-de-Carol, Occitanie, France. It is the current terminus of three lines.

Occitan nationalism

Occitan nationalism is a social and political movement in Occitania. Nationalists seek self-determination, greater autonomy or the creation of a sovereign state of Occitania. The basis of nationalism is linguistic and cultural although currently the Occitan varieties are minority languages within the language area.

Bastir!

"Bastir!", originally the "Manifeste Occitaniste", now "Bastir Occitanie", is a pan-Occitanist movement mainly involved in French municipal elections of 2014, in French departmental elections of 2015 and in French legislative elections of 2017.

Partit de la Nacion Occitana

The Partit Nacionalista Occitan, more simply, "PNO" is a political party of Occitania, founded in 1959 by François Fontan (1929–1979). The current name is "Partit de la Nacion Occitana".

References

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  2. 1 2 Décret n° 2016-1264 du 28 septembre 2016 portant fixation du nom et du chef-lieu de la région Occitanie (in French)
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  12. Occitània with a grave accent on à according to the classical norm  [ fr ]. The variant Occitania * - without accent - is considered incorrect. See the normative grammar of Alibert  [ fr ] (p. Viii) and the recommendations of the Conselh de la Lenga Occitana (p. 101 [ permanent dead link ]).
  13. Writing according to mistralian graph.
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  30. Roussillon, Province of (France; 1659- 1790) BNF   153258873.
  31. Roussillon (Pyrénées-Orientales) BNF   11940604q.
  32. France. Viguerie du Roussillon BNF   12494240r.
  33. France. Viguerie de Conflent et Capcir BNF   12494275d.
  34. France. Viguerie de Cerdagne BNF   12494237v.
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