Patrick Baxter

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Patrick Francis Baxter (1 October 1891 – 3 April 1959) was an Irish politician from County Cavan. He was a Teachta Dála (TD) in the 1920s, and later a Senator for over 25 years, serving as Cathaoirleach of Seanad Éireann from 1954 to 1957. [1]

Irish people Ethnic group with Celtic and other roots, native to the island of Ireland, with shared history and culture

The Irish are a Celtic nation and ethnic group native to the island of Ireland, who share a common Irish ancestry, identity and culture. Ireland has been inhabited for about 12,500 years according to archaeological studies. For most of Ireland's recorded history, the Irish have been primarily a Gaelic people. From the 9th century, small numbers of Vikings settled in Ireland, becoming the Norse-Gaels. Anglo-Normans conquered parts of Ireland in the 12th century, while England's 16th/17th-century (re)conquest and colonisation of Ireland brought many English and Lowland Scots people to parts of the island, especially the north. Today, Ireland is made up of the Republic of Ireland and the smaller Northern Ireland. The people of Northern Ireland hold various national identities including British, Irish, Northern Irish or some combination thereof.

County Cavan County in the Republic of Ireland

County Cavan is a county in Ireland. It is in the province of Ulster and is part of the Border Region. It is named after the town of Cavan and is based on the historic Gaelic territory of East Breffny (Bréifne). Cavan County Council is the local authority for the county, which had a population of 76,176 at the 2016 census.

A TD is a member of Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Oireachtas. It is the equivalent of terms such as 'Member of Parliament' (MP) or 'Member of Congress' used in other countries. The official translation of the term is 'Deputy to the Dáil', although a more literal translation is "Assembly Delegate".

Baxter was first elected to Dáil Éireann at the 1923 general election, when he won a seat as Farmers' Party TD for Cavan in the 4th Dáil. [2] He had stood unsuccessfully in the 1922 general election, but after topping the poll in 1923 he was re-elected at the June 1927 general election with his vote halved. He lost his seat at the September 1927 general election.

Dáil Éireann Lower house of the Oireachtas (Irish parliament)

Dáil Éireann is the lower house, and principal chamber, of the Oireachtas, which also includes the President of Ireland and Seanad Éireann. It currently consists of 158 members, known as Teachta Dála. TDs represent 40 constituencies, and are directly elected at least once every five years under the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote (STV). Its powers are similar to those of lower houses under many other bicameral parliamentary systems and it is by far the dominant branch of the Oireachtas. Subject to the limits imposed by the Constitution of Ireland, it has power to pass any law it wishes, and to nominate and remove the Taoiseach. Since 1922, it has met in Leinster House in Dublin.

1923 Irish general election

The 1923 Irish general election was held on 27 August 1923 and was the first general election in the Irish Free State established the previous December. The newly elected members of the 4th Dáil assembled at Leinster House on 19 September when the new President of the Executive Council and Executive Council of the Irish Free State were appointed. The election was held just after the end of the Irish Civil War. Many of the Republican TDs, who represented the losing anti-Treaty side, were still imprisoned during and after the election and had committed to not participating in the Dáil even if elected. Cumann na nGaedheal, who represented the winning side in the war, also won the election and formed the government.

The Farmers' Party or Farmers' Union was an agrarian political party in the Irish Free State between 1922 and 1932. It was concerned almost exclusively with the interests of the agricultural community, and never sought to widen its scope beyond the countryside.

After the collapse of the Farmers' Party in the late 1920s, he made three further unsuccessful attempts to return to the Dáil: at the 1932 general election as a Cumann na nGaedheal candidate in Cavan, at the 1933 general election as a National Centre Party candidate in Clare, and as a Fine Gael candidate in Cavan at the 1943 general election. [3]

1932 Irish general election

The 1932 Irish general election was held on 16 February 1932, just over two weeks after the dissolution of the Dáil on 29 January. It was the first election held since the Statute of Westminster granted full independence to the Irish Free State a year earlier.

Cumann na nGaedheal, sometimes spelt Cumann na nGaedhael, was a political party in the Irish Free State, which formed the government from 1923 to 1932. In 1933 it merged with smaller groups to form the Fine Gael party.

1933 Irish general election

The 1933 Irish general election was held on 24 January 1933. The newly elected members of the 8th Dáil assembled at Leinster House on 8 February when the new President of the Executive Council and Executive Council of the Irish Free State were appointed. Fianna Fáil retained power, though fell one seat short of an overall majority.

He was elected in 1934 as a senator for Fine Gael, for a nine-year term, but the Free State Seanad was abolished in 1936. When the house was re-established, he was re-elected in 1938 to the 2nd Seanad on the Agricultural Panel, [4] and held the seat until his death in 1959. He was a Clann na Talmhan senator from 1938 onwards.

Seanad Éireann (Irish Free State) upper house of the parliament of the Irish Free State (1922 to 1936)

Seanad Éireann was the upper house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of the Irish Free State from 1922 to 1936. It has also been known simply as the Senate, First Seanad, Free State Senate or Free State Seanad. The Senate was established under the 1922 Constitution of the Irish Free State but a number of constitutional amendments were subsequently made to change the manner of its election and its powers. It was eventually abolished in 1936 when it attempted to obstruct constitutional reforms favoured by the government. It sat, like its modern successor, in Leinster House.

The Agricultural Panel is one of five vocational panels which together elect 43 of the 60 members of Seanad Éireann, the upper house of the Oireachtas. The Agricultural Panel elects eleven senators, at least four of whom must come from the Oireachtas members' nominees and at least another three must come from the nominating bodies' nominees.

Clann na Talmhan was an Irish agrarian political party active between 1939 and 1965.

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References

  1. "Mr. Patrick F. Baxter". Oireachtas Members Database. Retrieved 30 January 2008.
  2. "Death of Leas-Chathaoirleach: Expression of Sympathy". Houses of the Oireachtas. 29 April 1959.
  3. "Patrick Baxter". ElectionsIreland.org. Retrieved 6 February 2008.
  4. The 2nd Seanad Éireann was actually the first Seanad elected under the 1937 constitution. This is because the Free State Seanad was considered to be in continuous session, since its members were elected for a period of nine years (reduced in 1928 from the original 12 years), with elections every three years for a those senators whose terms had expired. The Free State Seanad is therefore collectively known as the First Seanad.
Oireachtas
Preceded by
Liam Ó Buachalla
Cathaoirleach of Seanad Éireann
1954–1957
Succeeded by
Liam Ó Buachalla